To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Banana industry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bananas started to be traded internationally by the end of the fourteenth century. The development of railroads and technological advances in refrigerated maritime transport subsequently enable bananas to become the most traded fruit in the world.

The bananas were given a resistance gene from either a wild relative or a nematode. In 2012, the researchers planted their transgenic bananas, along with unmodified controls, at a farm about 40 kilometers southeast of Darwin, Australia, where Panama disease arrived 20 years ago.

Banana is an economically important cash crop as it fetches large revenue share in the domestic and international market. However, most of the production is consumed by the domestic population as it serves as the staple food for them. In the article Genetically modified bananas: To mitigate food security concerns,[1] bananas are vulnerable to both biotic and abiotic stress factors which limits their production. Improvement of this crop to enhance the nutrient quality and better adapt to the changing environmental conditions and to produce new disease resistant varieties is essential.

    Genetically modified organisms produced using scientific methods include recombinant DNA technology and reproductive cloning. The article Genetically Modified Organism[2] explains the importance in GMOs and the safety of them. Genetically modified organisms provide certain advantages to producers and consumers. Modified plants, for example, can at least initially help protect crops by providing resistance to a specific disease or insect, ensuring greater food production. GMOs are also important sources of medicine.

A banana plantation in St. Lucia
A banana plantation in St. Lucia

The banana industry is an important part of the global industrial agrobusiness. About 15% of the global banana production goes to export and international trade for consumption in Western countries.[3] They are grown on banana plantations primarily in the Americas.[4]

Ecological impact

As is the case with all monocultures, the intensive agroindustrial methods for banana production have considerable environmental impact. Banana cultivation requires a large amount of pesticide (estimate: 35 lb/acre, 39 kg/ha) and can encourage ecosystem destruction through deforestation. Moreover, food miles and plastic packaging leave a large carbon footprint.[5][6][7]

Cash crop

In 2012 the volume of global gross banana exports reached a record high of 16.5 million metric tons (3.6×1010 lb), 1.1 million tonnes (or 7.3 percent) above 2011 level.[4] Bananas are the most popular fruit in the United States, with more consumed annually than apples and oranges combined.[8] In spite of the multitude of banana species across the world, even only taking into account the cultivated ones, industrial production is dominated by the Cavendish banana.

Spread of plant disease

Tropical Race 4 is thought to be distributed globally by soil-contaminated equipment from the multinational plantation owners.[9]


In 2013, five multinational fruit companies alone controlled 44% of the international banana trade:[10][11]

Company Country Market share in 2013 [%]
Chiquita U.S. 13
Fyffes Ireland 6
Dole Food Company U.S. 11
Fresh Del Monte Produce U.S. 12
Noboa Ecuador 2

The market share of the above players decreased from 70% in 2002 to about 44% in 2013. This decline in market power has been attributed to a couple of reasons. In the past, multinational companies owned a large number of plantations in Central and South America and other banana-producing regions. Since the 1980s they have divested a large share of their own production, replacing it with greater purchases from independent producers. For example, Chiquita has decreased the number of its plantations in Central America. Fyffes used to own plantations in Jamaica, Belize and the Windward Islands, but withdrew from production and switched to purchasing its bananas through contracts with producers. The disengagement from production was partly caused by legal and economic problems at the plantation level, but also reflects the change in market power along the banana value chain.[12]

Along the global banana supply chain major supermarket chains in the US and EU have gained market power over the big producers in the 21st century as they dominate the retail market and increasingly purchase from smaller wholesalers or directly from growers.

Production and export

2016 Production
millions of tonnes
Country Bananas Plantains Total
29.1   29.1
13.1   13.1
5.8 3.1 8.9
6.5 0.6 7.1
7.0   7.0
6.8   6.8
2.0 3.5 5.5
1.2 4.3 5.5
0.6 3.7 4.3
0.09 4.0 4.1
3.8 0.3 4.1
113.3 35.1 148.4
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[13] Note: Some countries produce statistics distinguishing between bananas and plantain production, but four of the top six producers do not, requiring comparisons using the total for bananas and plantains combined.

In 2016, world production of bananas and plantains was 148 million tonnes, led by India and China with a combined total (only for bananas) of 28% of global production (table). Other major producers were the Philippines, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Brazil, together accounting for 20% of the world total of bananas and plantains (table).

As reported for 2013, total world exports were 20 million tonnes of bananas and 859,000 tonnes of plantains.[14] Ecuador and the Philippines were the leading exporters with 5.4 and 3.3 million tonnes, respectively, and the Dominican Republic was the leading exporter of plantains with 210,350 tonnes.[14]

See also


  1. ^ Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Ganapathi, Thumballi R. (2017-01-05). "Genetically modified bananas: To mitigate food security concerns". Scientia Horticulturae. 214: 91–98. doi:10.1016/j.scienta.2016.11.023. ISSN 0304-4238.
  2. ^ "genetically modified organism | Definition, Examples, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-10-20.
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b "BANANA MARKET REVIEW and BANANA STATISTICS 2012-2013" (PDF). FAO Intergovernmental Group on Bananas and Tropical Fruits.
  5. ^ "The Human and Environmental Impact of Bananas". 2012.
  6. ^
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-06-18. Retrieved 2016-06-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About Bananas". Chiquita. 2014. Archived from the original on 2016-06-26. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
  9. ^ "Tally me banana - How the global banana industry is killing the world's favorite fruit". Quartz.
  10. ^ "The Changing Role of Multinational Companies in the Global Banana Trade" (PDF). FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 2014.
  11. ^
  12. ^ "Banana and plantain production in 2016, Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  13. ^ a b "Banana and plantain exports in 2013, Crops and livestock products/Regions/World list/Export quantity (pick lists)". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2018.

External links

This page was last edited on 21 October 2020, at 06:21
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.