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Baháʼí House of Worship

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A map of the location of continental Bahá'í Houses of Worship worldwide; green represents countries that currently have Bahá'í Houses of Worship (with a black dot for the city); red represents countries where a House of Worship existed, but no longer does; light green represents countries where Houses of Worship were planned according to the Ridván Message for 2012.
A map of the location of continental Bahá'í Houses of Worship worldwide; green represents countries that currently have Bahá'í Houses of Worship (with a black dot for the city); red represents countries where a House of Worship existed, but no longer does; light green represents countries where Houses of Worship were planned according to the Ridván Message for 2012.

A Bahá'í House of Worship or Bahá'í temple is a place of worship of the Baháʼí Faith.[1][2] It is also referred to by the name Mashriqu'l-Adhkár (مشرق اﻻذكار), an Arabic phrase meaning "Dawning-place of the remembrance of God."[3] The teachings of the religion envisage Houses of Worship being surrounded by a number of dependencies dedicated to social, humanitarian, educational, and scientific pursuits, although none has yet been built to such an extent.[4][5] The Houses of Worship are open to the public, and are exclusively reserved for worship, where sermons are prohibited and only scriptural texts may be read or chanted. According to Shoghi Effendi, a Bahá'í temple is a “silent teacher” of the Bahá'í Faith.[6] Most Bahá'í meetings occur in local Haziratu'l-Quds (commonly known as Bahá'í centres), individuals' homes, or rented facilities.[4]

Thirteen Bahá'í Houses of Worship have been completed around the world (including one in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan that has since been destroyed). Of the twelve currently standing, eight are continental temples and four are local temples. Two of the continental temples, the Lotus Temple and the Santiago Bahá'í Temple, have won numerous architectural awards. In the Ridván Message for 2012, the Universal House of Justice announced new initiatives for future Houses of Worship, calling for the first national and locally based institutions.[7] As of 2021, the groundbreaking for the first "national Mashriqu'l-Adhkárs" has occurred. Bahá'í communities own many properties where Houses of Worship remain to be constructed.[citation needed]


The Bahá'í House of Worship was first mentioned in Baháʼu'lláh's book of laws, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, as the Mas͟hriqu'l-Ad͟hkár (Arabic: مشرق اﻻذكار‎ "Dawning-place of the remembrance of God"), and the details of the institution were then elaborated by both Baháʼu'lláh and his successor, ʻAbdu'l-Bahá.[5]

Bahá'í literature directs that a House of Worship should be built in each city and town, and emphasizes that its doors must be open to all regardless of religion, or any other distinction. The Bahá'í laws emphasize that the spirit of the House of Worship must be a gathering place where people of all religions may worship God without denominational restrictions.[5] The Bahá'í laws also stipulate that only the holy scriptures of the Bahá'í Faith and other religions can be read or chanted inside in any language; while readings and prayers may be set to music by choirs, no musical instruments may be played inside.[5] Furthermore, no sermons may be delivered, and no ritualistic ceremonies practiced.[5]

All Bahá'í temples share certain architectural elements, some of which are specified by Bahá'í scripture. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá stipulated that an essential architectural character of a House of Worship be that it requires to have a nine-sided shape (nonagon).[8] While all current Bahá'í Houses of Worship have a dome, they are not regarded as an essential part of their architecture.[9] Bahá'í scripture also states that no pictures, statues or images may be displayed within the House of Worship and no pulpits or altars incorporated as an architectural feature (readers may stand behind simple portable lectern).[5] To date all the Houses of Worship built or planned have a single, undivided room under their dome. Furthermore, in all ten, the seats in the auditorium face the Shrine of Baháʼu'lláh in 'Akká, Israel. While each of the Houses of Worship is unique, the designs, through the selection of materials, landscaping and architecture, reflect the indigenous cultural, social and environmental elements of their location, to a greater or lesser degree.[5]

Bahá'í literature also stipulates that the Houses of Worship be surrounded by a complex of humanitarian, educational, and charitable institutions such as schools, hospitals, homes for the elderly, universities, hostels, and other social and humanitarian institutions to serve the areas in which they stand.[5][10] Shoghi Effendi, head of the religion in the first half the 20th century, stated that the functions of the House of Worship would be complementary to those of the Haziratu'l-Quds (a.k.a. Bahá'í centres), and that it would be desirable if both these buildings would be on the same site.[11][12] He also describes the future interaction between the Mas͟hriqu'l-Ad͟hkár (worship) and its dependencies (service) as "capable of removing the ills that have so long and so grievously afflicted humanity".[13]

The twelve existing Houses of Worship were built as the Bahá'í community could support their construction through voluntary contributions. There are no collections during services and only Bahá'ís are permitted to contribute to the Bahá'í funds, including funds for the construction and maintenance of the House of Worship. The Houses of Worship are administered and maintained by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the country in which they are located.[5]

The Shrine of the Báb and other buildings at the Bahá'í World Centre are not Houses of Worship, although tourists often mistakenly refer to the Shrine as a Bahá'í temple.[citation needed]

Continental Houses of Worship

Bahá'í House of Worship, Wilmette, Illinois, USA
Bahá'í House of Worship, Wilmette, Illinois, USA

Wilmette, U.S.

The cornerstone for the Bahá'í House of Worship in Wilmette, Illinois was brought to the site by Nettie Tobin and accepted in 1912 by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá during his only visit to the United States and Canada. Construction began in 1921 and was completed in 1953, with a delay of several years during the Great Depression and World War II. The Wilmette House of Worship is the largest and the oldest surviving Bahá'í House of Worship. Known by Baha'is as the "Mother Temple of the West" and formally as the "Bahá'í House of Worship for the North American Continent", it stands in north suburban Cook County, on the shores of Lake Michigan, at 42°04′27.88″N 87°41′05.89″W / 42.0744111°N 87.6849694°W / 42.0744111; -87.6849694. The cladding is made of white portland cement concrete with both clear and white quartz aggregate. It has received numerous design awards, and is a prominent Chicago-area landmark. In 1978, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places.[14]

The height of the auditorium is 138 feet (42 m), and the diameter of the dome is 90 feet (27.5 m). From ground level, which is 597 feet above sea level just on the west side of Sheridan Road, the building stands approximately 164 feet tall above ground level. The auditorium seats 1,192 visitors.[15] Like some other Bahá'í temples, it has a gallery balcony from which choirs or soloists may perform. No instrumental music is allowed during services in the auditorium, although all kinds of music may be performed in the meeting room below. In general, no videography, photography, or any other activity inconsistent with quiet meditation is allowed in the auditorium. Devotional programs are held daily at 9:15 a.m. and 12:30 p.m.

One of nine towers
One of nine towers

Foundation Hall, which is used for large meetings and holy day celebrations is located underneath the main auditorium. The large underground area also contains offices not regularly open to the general public, including a media center, studios, and the Baha'i Archives, which can be visited by appointment. As of May, 2015, the displays, restrooms, offices, bookstore, and the viewing room for videos have been moved to a newly constructed Welcome Center located between the gardens and the parking lot to the southwest of the House of Worship. The previous Visitor's Center is no longer routinely open to the public.

Calligraphy of the "Greatest Name" in the center of the dome
Calligraphy of the "Greatest Name" in the center of the dome

The principal architect was Louis Bourgeois, but the interior cladding was designed by Alfred Shaw of Shaw, Metz, and Dolio. Engineering plans were prepared by Allen McDaniel of The Research Service of Washington, D.C. The general contractor was George A. Fuller, Co. Both the pioneering exterior and interior cladding were fabricated and constructed by John Joseph Earley and the Earley Studio.[16][page needed]

The Bahá'í House of Worship is a place of worship for all people. The only decorative art inside and out involves shapes and designs made by intersecting lines. There are no images of people or places. The building itself is decorated inside and out with verses from the Baha'i Writings, all of them by Baháʼu'lláh. As there are nine entrances to the building, there are nine verses above the doors and nine inside the buildings above the alcoves.

The verses outside are engraved into the stone, in large legible letters. Above the doors are small engraved versions of the "Greatest Name", one of several Bahá'í symbols and an elaborate decorative design that includes the letters ABHA, representing the prayer "Alláh u Abhá" (God is Most Glorious) in Arabic. It is the numerical value of these four letters in the words abha and baha (for Baháʼu'lláh) that add up to total nine, one of reasons Bahá'í Houses of Worship are nine-sided.

The most decorative element on the outside of the building is the tracery on the nine towers. These are intertwined with the generally recognized symbols of many world religions, including the Cross, the star and crescent, the Star of David, and the original swastika design, an ancient symbol having arms bent at right angles, used for thousands of years as a representative symbol of world religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. The only decorative symbol inside the auditorium is a large, lighted version of the Greatest Name in the exact center of the inside of the dome.

For many years the Bahá'í House of Worship was associated with a "home for the aged", operated by the U.S. Bahá'í community. The Bahá'í Home has since closed, although the building remains in use for a local Baha'i School and regional training center.[17]

In 2007, the Bahá'í House of Worship was named one of the Seven Wonders of Illinois by the Illinois Bureau of Tourism.[18][19]

Bahá'í House of Worship, Kampala, Uganda
Bahá'í House of Worship, Kampala, Uganda

Kampala, Uganda

The Mother Temple of Africa is situated on Kikaaya Hill, in Kawempe Division, in northern Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city.[citation needed] It was designed by Charles Mason Remey.[1] Its foundation stone was laid in January 1958, and it was dedicated on January 13, 1961.

The building is more than 130 feet (39 m) high, and over 100 meters in diameter at the base. The dome, composed of lace-like tiles, rises over 124 feet (37 m) high and is 44 feet (13 m) in diameter. The foundation goes 10 feet (3 m) underground to protect it from earthquakes common in this part of the world.

The green dome is made of fixed mosaic tiles from Italy, and the lower roof tiles are from Belgium. The walls of the temple are of precast stone quarried in Uganda. The colored glass in the wall panels was brought from Germany. The timber used for making the doors and benches was from Uganda. The 50-acre (200,000 m2) property includes the House of Worship, extensive gardens, a guest house, and an administrative center.[20]

Sydney Bahá'í Temple
Sydney Bahá'í Temple

Sydney, Australia

Interior of the Bahá'í House of Worship in Sydney
Interior of the Bahá'í House of Worship in Sydney

The fourth Baháʼí temple to be completed (and third still standing) is in Ingleside in the northern suburbs of Sydney, Australia.[5] This Temple serves as the "Mother Temple of the Antipodes".[21] According to Jennifer Taylor, a historian at Sydney University, it is among Sydney's four most significant religious buildings constructed in the twentieth century.[22] The initial design by Charles Mason Remey was given to Sydney architect John Brogan to develop and complete.[22] It was dedicated in September 1961 and opened to the public after four years of construction.[23]

Construction materials include crushed quartz,[21] local hardwoods in the interior,[22] and concrete and marble in the dome.[23] There is seating for six hundred people.[1] The building stands 38 metres in height, has a diameter at its widest point of 20 metres, and is a highly visible landmark from Sydney's northern beaches.[1] The property is set high in a natural bushland setting overlooking the Pacific Ocean.[1] The surrounding gardens contain a variety of native Australian flora including waratahs, three species of eucalypts, caleyi and other grevillea, acacia, and woody pear.[1] Other amenities located on the site include a visitors' centre, a bookshop, a picnic area, and the administrative offices of the Australian Baháʼí community.[21]

Bahá'í House of Worship, Langenhain, Germany
Bahá'í House of Worship, Langenhain, Germany

Hofheim-Langenhain, Germany

The Mother Temple of Europe is located at the foot of the Taunus Mountains of Germany, in the village of Langenhain, a suburb of Hofheim, Hesse near Frankfurt. It was designed by Teuto Rocholl. The temple was dedicated on July 4, 1964, after three and a half years of construction, including a performance by Maria Montana.[24] It is made of steel, aluminum, and glass. 540 diamond-shaped windows give the dome an optical lightness and permit the sunlight to play in it. Diameter of the central hall area is 25 meters, while the diameter of the outside ambulatory area is 48 meters. Height from ground level is 28 meters. The outstanding characteristic acoustics of this setting are created by the reverberation within the dome and the resonance of its myriad window ledges. Choirs here sometimes sing while standing around the circumference of the temple floor, with the audience in the center.

Bahá'í House of Worship, Panama City, Panama
Bahá'í House of Worship, Panama City, Panama

Panama City, Panama

The Bahá'í temple in Panama City, Panama, dedicated April 29, 1972, was designed by English architect Peter Tillotson.[5] It serves as the mother temple of Latin America. It is perched on a high cliff, "Cerro Sonsonate" ("Singing Hill"), overlooking the city, and is constructed of local stone laid in a pattern reminiscent of Native American fabric designs.

The dome is covered with thousands of small oval tiles, and the entrance gates of the temple are constructed in a unique three-dimensional design each consisting of an equilateral triangle of three vertical posts with multiple rows of bars stretching between them at various angles, each row of which gradually changes from vertical to horizontal.

Tiapapata, Samoa

Bahá'í House of Worship in Apia, Samoa
Bahá'í House of Worship in Apia, Samoa

The Bahá'í House of Worship in Tiapapata, 8 km from Apia, Samoa, was dedicated on September 1, 1984, having been completed at a cost of $6,500,000.[25] It serves as the Mother Temple of the Pacific Islands. The temple was designed by Hossein Amanat, and was dedicated by Malietoa Tanumafili II, the reigning O le Ao o le Malo of Samoa[26] (1913–2007) and the world's first Bahá'í head of state. Its 30-meter domed structure is open to the public for individual prayer, commemoration of Baha'i holy days, and weekly devotional meetings. The structure is completely open to the island breezes.

New Delhi, India

Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, India, also called the Lotus Temple
Bahá'í House of Worship in New Delhi, India, also called the Lotus Temple

The Bahá'í House of Worship in Bahapur,[1] New Delhi, India was dedicated in December 1986, having been completed for a total cost $10 million.[25] The major part of the funds needed to buy this land was donated by Ardishír Rustampúr from Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan,[27] who gave his entire life savings for this purpose in 1953.[28][page needed] It was designed by Iranian-American architect Fariborz Sahba and is commonly known as the Lotus Temple.[29]

Inspired by the lotus flower, the temple's design is composed of 27 free-standing, marble-clad "petals" grouped into clusters of three and thus forming nine sides.[1] Nine doors open on to a central hall, capable of holding up to 2,500 people.[30] The temple is situated on a 26-acre (105,000 m2; 10.5 ha) property featuring nine surrounding ponds.[30] It has won numerous architectural awards[31][30] and has been featured in magazines and newspapers.[31]

Santiago, Chile

Bahá'í House of Worship in Santiago, Chile
Bahá'í House of Worship in Santiago, Chile

In late 2002, the National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Chile and the Universal House of Justice announced a competition for the design of the mother temple of South America, to be built in Santiago. The chosen design was by Siamak Hariri of Hariri Pontarini Architects in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.[32] The construction completed in October 2016,[33] with doors opening on October 19, 2016.[34]

The temple's sides and dome are composed of nine wings, each one consisting of a steel space frame with panels of translucent marble and cast glass cladding.[35] The construction phase started in November 2010.[36] It has won a range of Canadian and international architectural awards.[37][38][39][40][41][42]

Local and National Houses of Worship

In 2012, the Universal House of Justice announced plans for the first local and national Bahá'í Houses of Worship to be built.[7] The first two national Houses of Worship would be in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Papua New Guinea, while the first five local Houses of Worship would be in Battambang, Cambodia; Bihar Sharif, India; Matunda Soy, Kenya; Cauca, Colombia; and Tanna, Vanuatu.[7] The Universal House of Justice characterized the Bahá'í communities chosen to host these new temples as unique in the world:

The Mashriqu'l-Adhkár, described by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá as “one of the most vital institutions of the world”, weds two essential, inseparable aspects of Bahá'í life: worship and service. The union of these two is also reflected in the coherence that exists among the community-building features of the Plan, particularly the burgeoning of a devotional spirit that finds expression in gatherings for prayer and an educational process that builds capacity for service to humanity. The correlation of worship and service is especially pronounced in those clusters around the world where Bahá'í communities have significantly grown in size and vitality, and where engagement in social action is apparent. [...] It is within these clusters that, in the coming years, the emergence of a local Mashriqu'l-Adhkár can be contemplated.[43]

Battambang, Cambodia

Local Bahá'í House of Worship in Battambang
Local Bahá'í House of Worship in Battambang

The Battambang, Cambodia temple was the world's first local Bahá'í House of Worship to be completed. The temple was designed by Cambodian architect Sochet Vitou Tang, who is a practicing Buddhist, and integrates distinctive Cambodian architectural principles.[44] A dedication ceremony and official opening conference took place on September 1–2, 2017, attended by Cambodian dignitaries, locals, and representatives of Bahá'í communities throughout southeast Asia.[45][46]

Agua Azul, Colombia

Local Bahá'í House of Worship in Agua Azul, Colombia
Local Bahá'í House of Worship in Agua Azul, Colombia

The temple in Agua Azul in the municipality of Villa Rica in the Cauca Department, Colombia was the second local House of Worship to be completed. The temple design, by architect Julian Gutierrez Chacon, was inspired by the shape of the cocoa pod, a plant integral to Colombian culture.[47] An opening dedication ceremony was conducted on July 22, 2018, followed by devotional services in the House of Worship.[48]

Matunda Soy, Kenya

A local Bahá'í House of Worship was opened on Sunday, May 23, 2021 in Matunda Soy, Kenya.[49]

Lenakel, Vanuatu

On November 13, 2021, a local Bahá'í House of Worship opened in the town of Lenakel on the island of Tanna, Vanuatu.[50]

Others planned or under construction

Currently, construction of a Bahá'í House of Worship is ongoing in Papua New Guinea,[51] while groundbreaking ceremonies have taken place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo[52] and India.[53]

Other selected sites

According to the United States Bahá'í Office of Communications in 2007, the Universal House of Justice had mentioned 123 sites for future Houses of Worship, in addition to the seven already standing at that time.[54]

Tehran, Iran

Approved Design for Bahá'í House of Worship, Tehran, Iran
Approved Design for Bahá'í House of Worship, Tehran, Iran

A site was selected and purchased before 1944[55] for a Bahá'í House of Worship in Tehran, Iran.[21] Upon the request of Shoghi Effendi, Charles Mason Remey provided a design for this temple which Shoghi Effendi approved. The drawing of it was published in The Bahá'í World XIV: 1963-1968, p. 495. The construction of this temple has been delayed indefinitely, however, due to the hostile political situation in Iran.[56][21]

Haifa, Israel

Model of the Mount Carmel House of Worship
Model of the Mount Carmel House of Worship
Obelisk marking the position of the future Bahá'í House of Worship, Mount Carmel, Haifa
Obelisk marking the position of the future Bahá'í House of Worship, Mount Carmel, Haifa

A site has been selected for a Bahá'í Temple in the vicinity of the Bahá'í World Centre on Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel. It is near the spot where Baháʼu'lláh chanted the Tablet of Carmel, the "Charter of the World Spiritual and Administrative Centers of the Faith on that mountain" according to Shoghi Effendi. A design by Mason Remey was approved by Shoghi Effendi.[57] A photo of that model can be found in Baha'i World vol. XII, p. 548. It now stands in the upper hall of the Mansion of Bahji.[58] In August 1971 the Universal House of Justice erected an obelisk on the site, on the side of which is the Greatest Name.

Eliot, Maine, U.S.

Upon his visit to Green Acre in Eliot, Maine in 1912, ʻAbdu'l-Bahá stated that the second Bahá'í House of Worship in the United States would be located there.[59]

Destroyed House of Worship in Turkmenistan

The first Bahá'í House of Worship
The first Bahá'í House of Worship

The first Bahá'í House of Worship was built in the city of ʻIshqábád, then ruled by Russia and now the capital of Turkmenistan. It was started in 1902 and completed in 1908. The design was prepared by Ostad Ali-Akbar Banna, and the construction was supervised by Vakílu'd-Dawlih, later named one of the nineteen Apostles of Baháʼu'lláh.[5][60]

ʻIshqábád is located in the desert plain of western Turkmenistan near the foothills of the Alborz Mountains. Under the protection and freedom given by the Russian authorities, the number of Bahá'ís there rose to over 1,000 and for the first time anywhere in the world a true Bahá'í community was established, with its own schools, medical facilities, cemetery, etc. Eventually the Bahá'ís in ʻIshqábád decided to build the institution of the spiritual and social heart of the Bahá'í community: the Mas͟hriqu'l-Ad͟hkár.

The House of Worship itself was surrounded by gardens. At the four corners of the garden were four buildings: a school, a hostel where travelling Bahá'ís were entertained, a small hospital, and a building for groundskeepers. The Bahá'ís lived as much as possible in proximity to the House of Worship. It was the centre of the community materially, as well as spiritually. The House of Worship in ʻIshqábád has been the only house of worship thus far to have the humanitarian subsidiaries associated with the institution built alongside it.[60]

After serving the community for two decades, the House of Worship was expropriated by the Soviet authorities in 1928 and leased back to the Bahá'ís. This lasted until 1938, when it was fully secularized and turned into an art gallery. The 1948 Ashgabat earthquake seriously damaged the building and rendered it unsafe; the heavy rains of the following years weakened the structure, and it was demolished in 1963 and the site converted into a public park.[5]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Hassall 2012b.
  2. ^ Herrmann 1994.
  3. ^ Smith 2000, p. 235: "Mashriqu'l-Adhkhár"
  4. ^ a b Momen 1997.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Rafati & Sahba 1989.
  6. ^ Warburg 2006, p. 493.
  7. ^ a b c Baháʼí World News Service 2012.
  8. ^ ʻAbdu'l-Bahá 1982, p. 71.
  9. ^ Effendi 1982, p. 311.
  10. ^ ʻAbdu'l-Bahá 1978, p. 65.
  11. ^ Momen 1995.
  12. ^ Baháʼí World Centre 1998.
  13. ^ Taherzadeh 1984, p. 347.
  14. ^ Richardson 1997, p. 50.
  15. ^ Visitor's Center brochure, October 2007.
  16. ^ Whitmore 1984.
  17. ^ Village of Wilmette, Illinois 2004.
  18. ^ Geller 2019.
  19. ^ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 2007.
  20. ^ Rulekere 2006.
  21. ^ a b c d e Badiee 2009.
  22. ^ a b c Dictionary of Sydney 2008.
  23. ^ a b Hassall 2012a.
  24. ^ Baháʼí News 1964, p. 2.
  25. ^ a b Baháʼí News 1987.
  26. ^ Baha'i House of Worship Samoa.
  27. ^ Baháʼí World 1979–1983.
  28. ^ Faizi 1993.
  29. ^ Mackin-Solomon 2013.
  30. ^ a b c Rizor 2011.
  31. ^ a b Baháʼí World News Service 2000.
  32. ^ Scott 2006.
  33. ^ Watkins 2016.
  34. ^ Razmilic 2016.
  35. ^ Official Temple website: Architecture Archived 2012-07-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  36. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2010.
  37. ^ Chicago Athenaeum Museum of Architecture and Design 2017.
  38. ^ American Institute of Architects 2017.
  39. ^ Architecture MasterPrize n.d.
  40. ^ Ontario Association of Architects 2018.
  41. ^ Institution of Structural Engineers n.d.
  42. ^ Royal Architectural Institute of Canada 2019.
  43. ^ Universal House of Justice 2012.
  44. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2017b.
  45. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2017a.
  46. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2017c.
  47. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2018a.
  48. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2018b.
  49. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2021b.
  50. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2021c.
  51. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2019.
  52. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2020.
  53. ^ Baháʼí World News Service 2021a.
  54. ^ US Bahá'í Office of Communications 2007.
  55. ^ Bahá'í Publishing Committee 1944, p. 16.
  56. ^ Baháʼí World 1963–1968, p. 495.
  57. ^ MacEoin & Collins 1997, p. 165.
  58. ^ Baháʼí World 1950–1954, p. 548.
  59. ^ Atkinson 1990: "This is hallowed ground made so by your vision and sacrifice. Always remember this is hallowed ground which I am pointing out to you. This is where the first Bahá'í University will be built; this is where the second Bahá'í Temple in the United States will be raised".
  60. ^ a b "Baha'i House of Worship - Ashkabad, Central Asia". The National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States. 2007. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 3 August 2007.




News reports


Further reading

External links

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