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Back-up collision

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Back-up collisions happen when a driver reverses the car into an object, person, or other car. Although most cars come equipped with rear view mirrors which are adequate for detecting vehicles behind a car, they are inadequate on many vehicles for detecting small children or objects close to the ground, which fall in the car's blind spot, particularly directly aft. That area has been called a "killing zone."[1] Large trucks have much larger blind spots that can hide entire vehicles and large adults.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • The Physics of Car Crashes
  • Active collision warning alerts for manned forklift truck applications


Gasoline has approximately 56 Megajoules of chemical energy per liter , which is more energy than you get from exploding the same of amount of TNT, and is enough to power a toaster for a full day. Cars work by burning gasoline to convert that chemical energy into the kinetic energy of motion of the car, though almost 80% of it is lost as heat in the engine. Still, 20% of 56 million joules is a lot of joules… To give a direct sense of gas-to-car conversion, it takes about five teaspoons of of gas to accelerate a 2 ton car to 60kph, and about a third of a cup more for every additional minute you want to keep it going at that speed. That might not sound like a lot of fuel, but the energy of a car moving 60kph is equivalent to dropping an elephant – or stegosaurus – from the top of a three-story building. And in order for the car to stop, all that energy has to go somewhere. If the brakes do the stopping, they dissipate the energy by heating up. In the case of a collision, energy is dissipated by the bending and crumpling of metal in the outer areas of the car. And just like how smooth braking is nicer than a quick jerky stop, cars are carefully designed to crumple - when they crash - in a way that lengthens the duration of the impact so that stopping requires less intense acceleration. Lots of acceleration over a very short time is not good for soft human brains and organs. However, people don’t like driving cars with Pinocchio-length noses, so most cars only have around 50 cm of crushable space in which to dissipate the energy equivalent of our falling stegosaur. That means that, while crumpling, they need to maintain a resistive force of about a quarter the thrust of the space shuttle main engine. Over half of the controlled-crumpling work is done by a pair of steel rails connecting the front bumper to the body, which bend and deform to absorb energy and slow the car. Most of the rest of the energy is absorbed by the deformation of other pieces of structural metal throughout the front of the car. This meticulously engineered destruction allows a crashing car to decelerate at a high but reasonable rate: just slightly over the acceleration experienced by fighter pilots or astronauts in centrifuge training. As comparison, if cars were super rigid (like they were before the 1950s) and didn’t crumple, they would stop so fast that they would undergo acceleration 15 times what fighter pilots experience in training. Thankfully engineers have learned to make cars with crunchy crumple zones surrounding their rigid safety cell, because fully rigid cars are not good for fighter pilots or anyone else. Except, maybe, robots. This MinutePhysics video was made possible by Ford - I was able to talk to an awesome crash test safety engineer there who told me all about the complex physics and engineering that goes into vehicle development and improving how cars perform in a crash. Ford gave me this opportunity because they want you to know how important and carefully designed all the parts involved are, and in particular that the only parts developed and tested to work with their vehicles are original Ford parts. If you want to learn more about why the right parts matter, you can head to And I personally want to say that making this video has just reinforced to me that regardless of what kind of car you have, big dents and deformations in the body aren’t just aesthetic problems – they can be safety hazards, too.



According to research by the advocacy web site, back up collisions were the leading cause (34%) for U.S. non-traffic fatalities of children under 15 from 2006–2010.[2]

The U.S. Center for Disease Control reported that from 2001–2003, an estimated 7,475 children (CI = 4,453--10,497) (2,492 per year) under the age of 15 were treated for automobile back-over incidents.[3] About 300 fatalities per year result from backup collisions.[4]

The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration found that back-up collisions most often:[5]

  • occur in residential driveways and parking lots
  • involve sport utility vehicles (SUVs) or small trucks
  • occur when a parent, relative or someone known to the family is driving
  • particularly affect children less than five years old

The driver of the car backing up and hitting an object, a person, or another car is usually considered to be at fault.[citation needed]

Prevention and regulation

Prevention organizations suggest that parents use common sense, and also take safety measures such as installing cross view mirrors, audible collision detectors, backup camera, or some type of reverse backup sensors. Furthermore, safer backing up is done when the driver turns completely around and looks out of the rear window of the car, rather than relying on mirrors. This provides a wider field of vision and better control of the vehicle.[citation needed]

In the United States, the Cameron Gulbransen Kids Transportation Safety Act of 2007[6] required the federal Secretary of Transportation to issue backup collision safety regulations within 3 years and require full compliance within 4 years after final rulemaking. As of 2012, regulations are still under study.[4] About half of model year 2012 automobiles already have backup cameras installed.[4]

Blind spot monitors and other technology

Blind spot monitors are an option that may include more than monitoring the sides of the vehicle. It can include "Cross Traffic Alert," "which alerts drivers backing out of a parking space when traffic is approaching from the sides."[7][8][9]

See also


  1. ^ a b "The danger of blind zones The area behind your vehicle can be a killing zone". Consumer Reports. Consumers Union. March 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
  2. ^ "U.S NON-TRAFFIC FATALITIES BY TYPE (2006-2010)" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-20.
  3. ^ "Nonfatal Motor-Vehicle--Related Backover Injuries Among Children --- United States, 2001--2003".
  4. ^ a b c "Government Backs Up On Rearview Car Cameras". National Public Radio. 2012-03-02. Retrieved 2012-04-20.
  5. ^ Deaths and Injuries Resulting from Certain Non-Traffic and Non-Crash Events. US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. May 2004.
  6. ^ Pub.L. 110–189
  7. ^ Ford Motor Company (2008). "See It, Hear It, Feel It: Ford Seeks Most Effective Driver Warnings for Active Safety Technology. Increased warnings indicate potentially hazardous lane changes". Gale, Cengage Learning/Free Library. Retrieved August 11, 2013.
  8. ^ Jensen, Christopher (August 18, 2009). "Are Blind Spots a Myth?". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2013.
  9. ^ Automobile Blind-Spot Monitoring System, Tri-City Insurance News, January 27, 2006 Archived December 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.

External links

This page was last edited on 14 May 2018, at 05:02
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