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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 Screenshot of the Oria search page, showing a search for "Wikipedia" at the University of Bergen Library
Screenshot of the Oria search page, showing a search for "Wikipedia" at the University of Bergen Library
 Screenshot of the older Ask version of Bibsys, showing the advanced search field
Screenshot of the older Ask version of Bibsys, showing the advanced search field

BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange, storage and retrieval of data pertaining to research, teaching and learning – historically metadata related to library resources.

BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway.[1][2] Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), located in Trondheim, Norway. The board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research.

BIBSYS offer researchers, students and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. [3] They also deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources. [4]

As a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.

All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • Norsk Filmsensur Episode 1: Kinoloven av 1913 (The Norwegian Cinema law of 1913, eng sub)

Transcription

Hi, my name is Christopher Kjølberg. I’m a educated film scholar and owner of CKJ Media. If you want more info about me or CKJ Media, you can click on the video here. Or you can go to ckjmedia.no. This is a series about the Norwegian film censorship. Based on my master thesis, which is linked to in the description (Norwegian only). Film censorship is something that is in constant change. For example, there are currently 6 movies that are banned in Norway. The last movie to be banned was in 2011. In 2015 we got new protection laws and new age ratings. But this is something we will get back to in later episodes. First we are going back to the beginning. The first public display of film in Norway, was in 1896. In Oslo or Kristiania as it was called in those days. it was shown during Circus Varieté, which mainly was meant as entertainment for the bourgeoisie or the middle class. It was Emil and Max Skladanowsky who were responsible for the screening. And unlike Edison’s peep show, the brothers had developed the bioscope. With this, they could enlarge the image 5000 times without losing quality. So now more people could watch the same movie at the same time. Initially, the film was seen as a curiosity. It was the ability to capture motion in moving pictures that was the main event. And if we look at the early films, we see that there was not any real story, the point was the movement in itself. For example in Ringkampfer, which was one of the first movies by the Skladanowsky brothers. It is the movement of the image which is the main point. There were also made a couple of comedic sketches. For example, I have to apologize for the pronunciation, I do not speak German. Komische Begenung im Tiergarden zu Stockholm. Which was also produced by the the Skladanowsky brothers. This was the first film that was filmed in Sweden in 1896 outside Skansen. As mentioned earlier, the film was meant as entertainment for the bourgeoisie or the middle class. But they started to lose interest. So it was decided that to reach a larger audience, they had to build specific locals for movies. The first cinema opened in 1904, by AB Swedish Cinematographers. And thus they could reach the lower classes. Gradually, they began to experiment with what one could do with film as a medium. Among the great pioneers from this time was Georges Méliès. And as we see in this example, the film Black Imp, we see how the use of editing gives an illusion of the constant appearance of new chairs. So more fictitious started to appear. More action and eroticism. But not everyone was as excited about this. Both the association of moralists and the association for teachers were skeptical to this development. They were worried about how the film could affect people and their morals. They feared that the moral degradation shown on film could infect the audience and society. The children were the main concern when it came to film censorship. And it was not only about morality, but also the physical. There were doctors that claimed that children reported pain in the eyes, and even reduced sight after watching too many movies. An example of a violent film from this period is The Great Train Robbery from 1903. Where you have cowboy and train robbers, lots of shootings and people get killed. But what made specifically this film famous, was the final scene, when one of the robbers points his gun at the camera, and seemingly shoots the audience. The main focus for the censorship was erotic films or piquant films, as they also was called. This was movies with partly or fully naked women, who found themselves in risqué situations. The movies were usually comedies. In this example, we see the movie The vain Housemaid from 1908. Produced by the Saturn Film, which was Austrian movie production company, whom only produced erotic films. It was specifically association of moralists that wanted national film censorship. There were several associations around the country, and they were generally large organizations. This gave them power not just morally but also politically, through lobbying. So the association sent a letter to the Justice Department in 1911. Where they demanded a new law for movies and cinemas. The Justice Department began to work on a draft for the new law, but the process was halted. At this time the government consisted of The Conservative Party and the Free-minded Liberal Party. The Free-minded Liberal Party used to be a part of the Liberal Party, but broke away from them because if several reasons. Later they would end up being absorbed by The Conservative Party. But at that time, they shared power as a separate political party with The Conservative Party The FMLP realized that they had difficulty getting enough votes after universal suffrage was introduced. They therefore started to cooperate with the lobbyist from the association of moralists. And in 1912 they managed to get the governmental power alone. Short time after they got the power, the Justice Department started working on the new bill. They forwarded it to the Church Department for further treatment. And the new law was ready within a year. The Norwegian Cinema Law used the Swedish law as an example. There was going to be three film sensors. At least one of them had to be female. The film censorship was centralized in Kristiania. At least two of the three sensors had to accept the film. The film would then get a seal of approval. The distributors had to pay to get the film censored. And children under 15 were not allowed into the cinemas after 8pm. When it came to banning films, the film sensors could of course ban any film that went directly against the Norwegian law. They could also ban films that showed serious crimes, or films that had scary or unpleasant scenes. The sensors could also ban films that they believed was tendentious and could have a negative effect on minors. Because film censorship was mainly directed towards children. Even though the distributor said that the particular film was meant for adults, it didn’t matter. All films had to be judged equally regardless. The exception from this was topicality films or newsreels. Which only needed permission from the police. This applied only if the movie was shown a maximum of two weeks after the incident had been filmed. But the film sensors could not deny the fact that there was movies with high quality that may not be appropriate for minors. And there was growing demand for uncensored film. So in 1922 the 16 years age limit was introduced. But soon came the question, what about the youth? Because during this period there came several movies that were even more violent than previous movies. This was mainly westerns and gangster films. And this were films that had generally good quality, but was not suited entirely for those who was too old to be children, but neither were adults. An example of this development is the movie Little Caesar from 1931. Where the main focus is on Rico who is a gangster. They believed that this focus on the criminals could create a form of sympathy or empathy for the criminal. And as we see in this sample, there are a lot shooting and killing, which could lead to a negative effect on the audience. But even though there were an increase in violence in the movies, it was still eroticism which was the main concern among the film sensors. It wasn’t unusual to remove scenes and shots of kissing and certain dance scenes that they thought were to challenging for the Norwegian people. There were fewer bans when Sigurd Nergaard was control manager for the film censorship, but there were still a lot of editing. The real change didn’t come until the 30’s when Bernt A. Nissen became the new control manager for the film censorship. He held a more liberal view when it came to sexuality. But he still believed that censorship had an important role to play in society. Nissen as very interested in psychology, especially Freud. He believed that children should avoid violent films, which would minimize the possibility of sadistic behavior later in life. Nissen viewed sexuality as something natural, and that it was important to show more natural eroticism in movies. During this period the society was much more liberal towards sexuality than in earlier periods. And Nissen thought that movies should portray society as it actually was when it came to sexuality. This growing liberalization, was mainly caused by and the growing interest in psychology, psychoanalysis and the increased research in sexual science. This lead to polarization between the cultural radicalists and the cultural conservatists. The radicalists believed that society needed to be more open when it came sexuality. While the conservatists believed that society had gone too far. Most agree that the cultural radicalists won, and that society became more liberal. But there were still the question of what should and should not be allowed. Nissen did believe that censorship was a necessity, and certain things should be banned. But it turned out that this was a problem that, in a way, solved itself. The reason for this was that film censorship in the United States had become much stricter. USA was at that time, one of the biggest producers of movies. If you click on this image, you'll come to a video about the development of film censorship in the USA. But the result was that, movies from America came to Norway almost ready censored, so there were a little less work for the Norwegian film censorship. If you thought this was interesting, pleas click subscribe and or like. For more information about med go to CKJMedia.no (also in english). Sources and rights in the description and also comes in the credits now.

Contents

History

BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library (Det Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs Bibliotek), the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology. The purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries. The target group has also expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources.

BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, and administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS. BIBSYS also offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply.

See also

References

  1. ^ Language institute asks hackers to help (archived) in Aftenposten, 7 June 2002 "The Ivar Aasen Center is a member of Bibsys, which is a library data center offering services to all Norwegian University Libraries, the National Library, all college libraries, and a number of research libraries."
  2. ^ Kulturell kampanjejournalistikk in Aftenposten 4 March 2009 "Et enkelt søk i Bibsys (et elektronisk biblioteksystem for hele landet, red.anm.)"
  3. ^ Pilotprosjekt i det stille in Aftenposten 25 June 2009 "eller du kan låne den fra nærmeste bibliotek gjennom Bibsys."
  4. ^ Harvard i spissen for utdanningsrevolusjon in Aftenposten 5 June 2014 "Mellom fem og ti nye studietilbud har meldt sin ankomst til sommeren og høsten, sier Frode Arntsen i Bibsys, som er ansvarlig for nettportalen."

External links

This page was last edited on 23 March 2018, at 12:22.
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