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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Angel of Death giving a welcoming depiction of the archangel of death,[1] as usually attributed to Azrael, by Evelyn De Morgan, 1881.
Angel of Death giving a welcoming depiction of the archangel of death,[1] as usually attributed to Azrael, by Evelyn De Morgan, 1881.

Azrael (/ˈæzriəl/; Biblical Hebrew: עֲזַרְאֵלʿázarʾēl) is the Angel of Death in Islam and some Jewish traditions. The Hebrew name translates to "Angel of God", "Help from God".[2]:64–65 Azrael is the spelling of the Chambers Dictionary. Both in Islam and Judaism, he is said to hold a scroll concerning the fate of the mortals.[3] In Islam, he is one of the four archangels, and is identified with the Quranic Malak al-Mawt (ملك الموت) "angel of death", which corresponds with the Hebrew term malach ha-maweth in Rabbinic literature. The Arabic language adapts the name as ʿAzrāʾīl (عزرائيل). He is responsible for transporting the souls of the deceased after death. In comparison to similar concepts of angels of death, Azrael holds a rather benevolent role as the angel of death.[4]

Background

Depending on the outlook and precepts of various religions in which he is a figure, Azrael may be portrayed as residing in the Third Heaven.[2]:288 In one description, he has four faces and four thousand wings, and his whole body consists of eyes and tongues whose number corresponds to the number of people inhabiting the Earth. He is constantly recording and erasing in a large book the names of men at birth and death, respectively.[5]

Judaism

The name indicates a Hebrew origin. Archaeological evidence found in Jewish settlements in Mesopotamia confirm, that the name Azrael was indeed used in Aramaic Incantation texts from the seventh century.[6] The text only lists names, thus it can not be determined, whether or not Azrael was associated with death or not, before the advent of Islam. First after the emergence of Islam, the name Azrael becomes popular among both Jewish and Islamic literature and folklore.[6]In Jewish mysticism, he is the embodiment of evil.[2]:64–65[dubious ]

In Islam

Azrael is, along with Jibrail, Mīkhā'īl and Isrāfīl, one of the four major archangels in Islam.[7] He is responsible for taking the souls of the deceased away from the body.[8][9] Azrael does not act independently, but is only informed by God when time is up to take a soul.[10] According to one Muslim tradition, forty days before the death of a person approaches, God drops a leaf from a tree below the heavenly throne, on which Azrael reads the name of the person he must take with him.[11]

In Quran and exegesis

Surah 32:11 mentiones an angel of death identified with Azrael.[12] When the unbelievers in hell cry out for help, an angel, also identified with Azrael, will appaer on the horizon and tell them, they have to remain.[13] Other Quranic verses refer to a multitute of angels of death as Surah 79 does. According to exegesis, these verses refer to lesser angels of death, subordinative to Azrael, who aid the archangel in his duty. Tafsir al-Baydawi mentions an entire host of angels of death, subordinative to Azrael.[14]

The name of Azrael is not attested by the Quran nor by the Kutub al-Sittah themselves. Rather mufassirs derive the details of Azrael from the reports of the Tabi‘un especially Wahb ibn Munabbih, compiled during the reign of the Rashidun.[15] Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik contains many such hadiths describing the appearance of Azrael, his duties and meetings between him and the prophets,[16] including Idris, Moses[17] and Solomon.[18]

Azrael in folklore

Azrael kept his importance in everyday life. According to the Sufi teacher Al-Jili, Azrael appears to the soul in a form provided by its most powerful metaphors. Great prophets such as Moses and Muhammad are invited politely by him, but also saints are said to meet Azrael in beautiful forms. A common belief holds that the lesser angels of death are for the common people, but saints and prophets meet the archangel of death himself.[19] It is said that, when Rumi was about to die, he lied in his bed and met Azrael in human shape.[20] The belief what Azrael appears to saints before they actually die to prepare themselves for death, is also attested by the testament of Nasir Khusraw, in which he claims to have met Azrael during his sleep, informing him about his upcomming death.[21]

Relationship between Azrael and Death

Islam elaborated further narratives concerning the relation between Azrael and Death. The Kitab ahwal al-qiyama offers an account of death and its relation to Azrael, representing Death and Azrael as former two separate entities, but when God created Death, God ordered the angels to look upon it and they swoon for a thousand years. After the angels regained consciousness, death recognized it must submit to Azrael.[22] According to another famous narrative, God once ordered to collect dust from earth from which Adam is supposed to be created from. Only Azrael succeeded, whereupon he was destined to become the angel concerning life and death of human.[23]

Western reception

The Islamic notion of Azrael, including some narratives such as the tale of Solomon, a hadith reaching back to Shahr Ibn Hawshab,[24] was already known in America in the 18th century as attested by Gregory Sharpe and James Harris.[25] Some Western adaptions extended the physical description of Azrael, thus the poet Leigh Hunt depicts Azrael as wearing a black hooded cloak. Although lacking the eminent scythe, his portrayal nevertheless resembles the Grim Reaper.[25] Henry Wadsworth Longfellow mentions Azrael in "The Reaper and the Flowers" as an angel of death. But he is not equated with Samael, the angel of death in Jewish lore, who appears as a fallen and malevolent angel, instead.[26]

See also

References

  1. ^ Elise Lawton Smith, Evelyn De Morgan (2002). Evelyn Pickering De Morgan and the Allegorical Body. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 9780838638835. p. 153-154
  2. ^ a b c Davidson, Gustav (1967), A Dictionary of Angels, Including the Fallen Angels, ISBN 9780029070505
  3. ^ Michelle M. Hamilton Beyond Faith: Belief, Morality and Memory in a Fifteenth-Century Judeo-Iberian Manuscript BRILL, 14.11.2014 ISBN 9789004282735 p. 234
  4. ^ Davidson, Gustav. "Longfellow's Angels". Prairie Schooner, vol. 42, no. 3, 1968, pp. 235–243. JSTOR 40630837.
  5. ^ Hastings, James; Selbie, John A. (2003), Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 3, Kessinger Publishing, p. 617, ISBN 0-7661-3671-X
  6. ^ a b Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi Akhbar al-malik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0
  7. ^ Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002). Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow. ISBN 9780810843059.
  8. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 9781610692175 pp. 137
  9. ^ Houtsma, M. Th.; Arnold, Russel; Gibb, Camilla, eds. (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 570. ISBN 978-9-004-08265-6.
  10. ^ Jane I. Smith, Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection State University of New York Press 1981 ISBN 9780873955072 p. 35
  11. ^ Houtsma, M. Th.; Arnold, Russel; Gibb, Camilla, eds. (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 570. ISBN 978-9-004-08265-6.
  12. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 9781610692175 pp. 137
  13. ^ Christian Lange|Locating Hell in Islamic Traditions| BRILL | 978-90-04-30121-4 | p. 93
  14. ^ Michelle M. Hamilton Beyond Faith: Belief, Morality and Memory in a Fifteenth-Century Judeo-Iberian Manuscript BRILL, 14.11.2014 ISBN 9789004282735 p. 235
  15. ^ Cenap Çakmak Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia [4 volumes] ABC-CLIO 2017 ISBN 9781610692175 pp. 137
  16. ^ Burge, Stephen (2015). Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi akhbar al-mala'ik. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0.
  17. ^ Scott B. Noegel, Brannon M. Wheeler Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism Scarecrow 2002 ISBN 978-0-810-84305-9
  18. ^ Houtsma, M. Th.; Arnold, Russel; Gibb, Camilla, eds. (1987). E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam 1913-1936. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Publishers. p. 571. ISBN 978-9-004-08265-6.
  19. ^ Michelle M. Hamilton Beyond Faith: Belief, Morality and Memory in a Fifteenth-Century Judeo-Iberian Manuscript BRILL, 14.11.2014 ISBN 9789004282735 p. 235
  20. ^ A Dictionary of Angels, including the fallen angels by Gustav Davidson, Simon & Schuster, p.255
  21. ^ Julia Rubanovich|Orality and Textuality in the Iranian World: Patterns of Interaction Across the Centuries|BRILL|2015|isbn: 9789004291973| p. 148
  22. ^ Jane I. Smith, Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection State University of New York Press 1981 ISBN 9780873955072 p. 34-35
  23. ^ A Dictionary of Angels, including the fallen angels by Gustav Davidson, Simon & Schuster, p.255
  24. ^ Aiman Sanad Al-Garrallah |The Islamic Tale of Solomon and the Angel of Death in English Poetry: Origins, Translations, and Adaptations |Faculty of Arts, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University | Adhruh Road, Maan| 71111, Jordan
  25. ^ a b Al-Garrallah, Aiman Sanad (December 2016). "The Islamic tale of Solomon and the Angel of Death in English Poetry: Origins, Translations, and Adaptations". Forum for World Literature Studies. 8 (4): 528–547. ISSN 1949-8519. Issue link.
  26. ^ Davidson, Gustav (Fall 1968). "Longfellow's Angels". Prairie Schooner. 42 (3): 235–243. JSTOR 40630837.

External links

  • Media related to Azrael at Wikimedia Commons
This page was last edited on 20 February 2020, at 23:55
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