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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An auxiliary force is an organized group supplementing but not directly incorporated in a regular military or police entity. It may comprise either civilian volunteers undertaking support functions or additional personnel directly performing military or police duties, usually on a part-time basis.

Historically the designation "auxiliary" has also been given to foreign or allied troops in the service of a nation at war.[1] In the context of colonial armies locally recruited irregulars were often described as auxiliaries.

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  • ✪ Basic English Grammar: What is an auxiliary verb?
  • ✪ Auxiliary Verbs सहायक क्रिया Learn English in Hindi - Auxiliary Verbs Examples
  • ✪ English Grammar - Modal Auxiliaries - PSA - CBSE - IX & X
  • ✪ English Grammar: Auxiliary Verbs
  • ✪ Modal Auxiliaries or Modals - Learn English Grammar

Transcription

Hi. I'm Jade. What we're talking about today is auxiliary verbs. You don't have to be scared of that word, "auxiliary", because it's a grammar word. Basically, what they are is they're helper verbs. They are not the most important verb in the sentence, but they're important so we know what tense it is. So the reason I made this lesson today is I found that people who taught English to themselves get to a point where some confusion comes in because if you're watching videos about learning English and things like that, sometimes, you're going to hear grammar words that you're not sure about. And then, some confusion can happen. So if the teacher says, "Find the verb in the sentence", sometimes, what happens is you just find the verb you know, but you don't realize that it's not the important verb there. So the whole idea of this lesson is to just teach you a bit of grammar so that you don't get confused in the future when you're watching videos and things like that. So yeah. They're helper verbs. They're not the most important verb in the sentence. There can be more than one of them in a sentence and even still not being the main verb. It's important because it will help you to recognize the tense, the different tenses of English. Maybe you don't use all the tenses actively, but it's still good to be able to recognize them. And also, the most important thing about auxiliary verbs is that it's not helpful for you to directly translate these words because you'll just get a really confusing, confusing meaning. And sometimes, that's a mistake people make. So what we're going to do is go through the different auxiliary verbs in English and look at the different ways that we use them. So the first one you might not think of as being a helping verb, but it's a good example of what I mean when you see the verb, and then you try to translate it, and it doesn't really give you a good meaning; it doesn't really explain what it means well. The best example of that is "be" in the present and past simple. "She is my boss." What does "be" mean? What does it -- what does "be" mean? I don't know. I was personally confused about that even though I didn't need to learn English. And what it's doing is being a linking verb. In grammar terms, all it's doing is joining subject to object. It doesn't carry its own meaning, you could say. So in that sense, the verb isn't that important here. It's the subject and the object that are important. Anyway. The next examples, they start to get a little more complicated, but not too bad. Another example of "be", but this time in the continuous sentence -- in the continuous tenses. "He is sleeping." Let's have a think. What tense is that one? That one is the present continuous. And this one, "They have been talking." This one is the present perfect continuous. And what I mean by "auxiliary verb" in these is that they're not the most important verb in those examples. The most important verb is "sleeping" here. And the most important verb is "talking" here. In this example, the present perfect continuous actually has two auxiliaries because you can have more than one auxiliary verb in a sentence. Next example. "Have" in the perfect tenses. We've got two examples here. We've got, "I've got a car" and, "They had gone home." What tenses are we talking about here? "I've got a car." That one is the present perfect. And what about this one? What's this one? This one is the past perfect. Where's the most important verb? The most important verb is "get" here. We're using it for possession. It means "to own something, to possess something" here. In the second example, the most important verb is "go". This is a past participle. It becomes "gone". Let's move on to "do" -- our first example of "do". When we're making a negative sentence in the present simple or the past simple, in the negative form, we use "do". Let's look at the examples. "I do not like Peter." I'm sorry, Peter. "Do" shows us that we're making a negative sentence. What's the most important verb? The most important verb is "like". What about next example? "We didn't go." Again -- naughty me -- no full stop. The most important verb is "go". There's our negative, this time in a contracted form. Next example of "do" is in questions. What does "do" mean in a question? "Do" basically means I'm asking a question now. For example, "Do you like London?" Yes, I do. I like London. And now, we're talking about "will" as an auxiliary verb. It can mean two things. It can mean the future tense -- "I will be there later." And "will" shows us we're talking about the future. But it's not the most important verb. The most important verb is "be". And our other way -- another meaning of "will", you could say, is to express certainty. So in this other sentence, "You will like this", we're not talking about a future time. We're just trying to express certainty about something. But it's not our most important verb because it's an auxiliary verb. Our most important verb, again, is "like". Now, talking about modal verbs, we use modal verbs when we're talking about necessity or the probability of something. And this group of verbs isn't ever the most important verb in the sentence in terms of grammar. So here's an example. "They might help you." Our most important verb is "help". We have other modal verbs as well, but, you know, "might", "may", "should", "must" are the modal verbs. And the last auxiliary verb we're going to talk about is "would", and we use "would" for talking about hypothetical situations. And "hypothetical" means imagined. Not true situations, but we're using it to think about something in the future imagined or something in the past imagined. But it's not the most important verb for meaning. The most important verb for meaning in this sentence is "do". Now, I realize we've been talking a lot about, "Oh, this auxiliary verb, does this, does this, does this" -- but let's come back and look at how to find the main verb in the sentence because that will be useful for you whenever you need to really find the meaning in the sentence. Let's have a look at my tips for finding the main verb in the sentence because it's sometimes really needed to find the main verb so you can understand the full meaning of the sentence. And just knowing what auxiliaries are, they can help you find the main verb. So we'll look at the tips, and that should help you not have really bad grammar confusion, hopefully in the future. So tip No. 1: We can find the main verb after "is", "was", or "were" in the present or past continuous. We've got some examples here. "I was eating pizza." That's the past continuous. And, "They were singing". That's also the past continuous. And the main verb is coming after "was" and after "were". Next example. Tip No. 2: after "have" or "has" in the present perfect; or after "had" in the past perfect. Let's look at examples. "We have got a dog" or "We've got a dog" in the contracted speech form. After "have" -- because this is the present perfect -- our main verb is "get", but we're using it in that way that I mentioned to you before, to mean possession. So all together, this means, "I own a dog" or, "I possess a dog." In the present perfect, our main verb is here. "Have" is not our most important verb. Next example. "I had had fun." That maybe looks wrong or weird to you to see "had" together twice. Sometimes people get confused about it. But it's actually okay to say that. We have "had", and then, our main verb here is "had". "I had had fun." And that's the past perfect tense. Moving on for tip No. 3: We can find the main verb after "have been" or "has been" or after "had been" in the perfect tense, in the perfect continuous tenses. Let's take a look at some examples. "They have been lying." In these examples, we have two auxiliaries; we have two helper verbs. "Had" is a helper verb; "been" is a helper verb; and our main verb is "lying". It comes from the verb "lie" -- "to tell a lie." Let's look at the next example. "He had been sleeping." This one is the past perfect continuous. Again, we've got two helper verbs here, "had", "been" -- helping verbs. Our main verb is "sleeping". That's the most important one to carry meaning. Tip No. 4: after the modal verb or after the modal verb followed by other auxiliaries. And I didn't write you an example there. So let me give you one. "I might have told you earlier" or, "I might have given you an example." So after the modal verb "might" comes "have given". "I might have given." We have one auxiliary verb there, "have". "I might have given you an example on the board." And our last example -- this is probably an easier way if you can remember this one. After "been". After "been" is the main verb. "I have been thinking." So these tips are all useful to find the main verb. This is a general grammar lesson to mainly just stop that confusion that happens sometimes when you know little bits of grammar, but it's not all together up there in your head. Knowing and finding the main verb is really useful -- a lot. It can save you confusion when you're doing exercises and things like that. It's really helpful. So we're finished for the lesson, but if you want to do a quiz, you can find the quiz at www.engvid.com. You can answer questions about this. And what I'd also like you to do is subscribe to this channel. This is my personal channel here on EngVid. If you like my lessons -- because I make all kinds of other lessons about learning English, which I really want you to watch if you like watching me. And... I am finished now! But I want you to come back. Come back soon for more English with me. And until then, bye-bye.

Contents

Historical usage

Roman auxiliaries

Auxiliaries in the Roman army were recruited from provincial tribal groups who did not have Roman citizenship. As the Roman army of the Republican and early Empire periods was essentially based on the heavy infantry who made up the legions, it favored the recruitment of auxiliaries that excelled in supplementary roles. These included specialists such as missile troops (e.g. Balearic slingers and Cretan archers), cavalry (recruited among peoples such as the Numidians, and the Thracians), or light infantry. Auxiliaries were not paid at the same rate as legionaries, but could earn Roman citizenship after a fixed term of service.[2]

By the 2nd Century AD the auxiliaries had been organised into permanent units, broadly grouped as Ala (cavalry), Cohors (infantry) and Cohors equitata (infantry with a cavalry element). Both cavalry alae and infantry cohors numbered between 480 and 600 men each. The mixed cohors equitata usually consisted of 6 centuries of foot soldiers and six squadrons of horsemen.[3] Specialist units of slingers, scouts, archers and camel mounted detachments continued in existence as separate units with a regional recruitment basis.

United Kingdom and British Empire

The Auxiliary Legion was a British military force sent to Spain to support the Liberals and Queen Isabella II of Spain against the Carlists in the First Carlist War.

During the Second Boer War Boer auxiliaries were employed by the British Army under the designation of "National Scouts". Recruited in significant numbers towards the end of the war from Afrikaner prisoners and defectors, they were known as hensoppers ("hands-uppers" i.e. collaborators) by their fellow Boers.[4]

Prior to the creation of the Territorial Force in 1908, the term "Auxiliary Forces" was used by the British Army to collectively cover Yeomanry, Militia and Volunteers. That is to say the various part-time units maintained to act in support of the regular army.[5]

The Auxiliary Division was a British paramilitary police unit raised during the Irish War of Independence 1919–21. Recruited from former officers of the British Army who had served during World War I, the Auxiliary Division was a motorized mobile force nominally forming part of the Royal Irish Constabulary.

Cumann na mBan was the preceding organisation of the Women's Arm of the Irish Volunteers that acted as an auxiliary in the Easter Rising and the Irish War of Independence.

In 1941 the British Government created an organization of Auxiliary Units in southern England who would wage a guerilla war against occupying forces should Britain be invaded by the Nazis. Their average life span was two weeks, and they were ultimately never used in combat. The Auxiliary Units were meant to carry out assaults on German units, along with damaging train lines and aircraft if necessary.

Whilst working as full time, active duty personnel, the women's services of WWII were titled as or seen as auxiliaries to the male services. These services were:

The Royal Auxiliary Air Force was originally an auxiliary of the Royal Air Force, when it was first conceived and formed in 1924. Today the RAuxAF acts as a military reserve; this is reflected in its more common name 'RAF Reserve'.

Other former British military or governmental auxiliary organizations included:

Auxiliary organizations of other countries of the British Empire:

Denmark

French Africa

France made extensive use of tribal allies (goumiers) as auxiliaries in its North African possessions.[6] During the Algerian War of 1954-62 large numbers of Muslim auxiliaries (Harkis) were employed in support of regular French forces.[7]

Japan

During the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made use of honghuzi to act as auxiliaries against Russian forces.[8]

Nazi Germany

German paramilitary police forces, called Hilfspolizei or Schutzmannschaft, were raised during World War II and were the collaborationist auxiliary police battalions of locally recruited police, which were created to fight the resistance during World War II mostly in occupied Eastern European countries. Hilfspolizei refers also to German auxiliary police units. There was also a HIPO Corps in occupied Denmark. The term had also been applied to some units created in 1933 by the early Nazi government (mostly from members of SA and SS) and disbanded the same year due to international protests.[9][10][11]

From 12 February 1945, the Nazis conscripted German women and girls into the auxiliaries of the Volkssturm.[12] Correspondingly, girls as young as 14 years were trained in the use of small arms, panzerfausts,  machine guns, and hand grenades from December 1944 through May 1945.[13]

Finland

Poland

United States

Current military or governmental auxiliaries

Australia

Canada

Hong Kong

Ireland

Israel

Malaysia

Philippines

Russia

Singapore

Sweden

United Kingdom

United States

Federal Government

State Government

State Defense Forces may be considered as auxiliary military organisations.[19]

Local Government

References

  1. ^ Concise Oxford Dictionary, ISBN 0-19-861131-5
  2. ^ Simkins, Michael. The Roman Army from Caesar to Trajan. p. 7. ISBN 0-85045-191-4.
  3. ^ Wary, Raffaele D'Amato. Roman Army Units in the Eastern Provinces (1). p. 13. ISBN 978-1-4728-2176-8.
  4. ^ Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. pp. 542 & 571. ISBN 0-7474-0976-5.
  5. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, Volume 3, page 50
  6. ^ Larcade, Jean-Louis. Zouaves & Tirailleurs: Vol 1. p. 280. ISBN 2-9515171-0-6.
  7. ^ Windrow, Martin. The Algerian War 1854-62. p. 20. ISBN 1-85532-658-2.
  8. ^ Ivanov & Jowett (2004). The Russo-Japanese War 1904–05. Osprey Publishing Ltd. pp. 12, 13, 46.
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 October 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ Richard Wires (1985). Terminology the Third Reich. Ball State University.
  11. ^ Christopher Ailsby (1998). SS: Hell on the Eastern Front: The Waffen-SS War in Russia, 1941-1945. MBI Pub., Company. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-0-7603-0538-6.
  12. ^ Hildebrand (1984). The Third Reich, p. 82.
  13. ^ Kater (2004). Hitler Youth, p. 238.
  14. ^ [1] Australian Red Cross Submission to the Australian Defence White Paper 2015
  15. ^ About the Civil Air Patrol
  16. ^ About the Military Auxiliary Radio System
  17. ^ About the Coast Guard Auxiliary
  18. ^ About the Merchant Marines
  19. ^ Volunteer Military Organizations: An Overlooked Asset
  20. ^ About the Connecticut Auxiliary State Police
  21. ^ About the Florida Highway Patrol Auxiliary
  22. ^ About the Illinois Police Reserves
  23. ^ About the Indiana Law Enforcement Academy
  24. ^ About the Ohio State Highway Patrol Auxiliary
  25. ^ About the New Hampshire State Police Auxiliary
  26. ^ About the New Mexico Mounted Patrol
  27. ^ About Penn State University Auxiliary Student Police
  28. ^ About the Vermont State Police Auxiliary
  29. ^ About the Arlington County Police Department Auxiliary
  30. ^ About the Cheltenham Township Auxiliary Police
  31. ^ About Fair Lawn Auxiliary Police
  32. ^ About the Greenburgh Auxiliary Police
  33. ^ About Hazlet Township Auxiliary Police
  34. ^ About the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department Reserves
  35. ^ About Madison Police Auxiliary Unit
  36. ^ About Metuchen Police Auxiliary
  37. ^ About the Nassau County Police Auxiliary
  38. ^ About the New York City Police Department Auxiliary
  39. ^ About Old Bridge Township Auxiliary Police
  40. ^ About the Rockland County Sheriff's Office Reserve Force
  41. ^ About Sayreville Police Auxiliary
  42. ^ About Waltham Auxiliary Police

This page was last edited on 21 December 2018, at 21:26
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