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Autostrade of Italy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map of the autostrade of Italy
Map of the autostrade of Italy
Interactive map of Autostrade in Italy

The Autostrade (Italian: [autoˈstraːde]; singular autostrada [autoˈstraːda]) are roads forming the Italian national system of motorways. The total length of the system is about 6,758 kilometres (4,199 mi).[1] In North and Central Italy, the Autostrade mainly consists of tollways managed by Atlantia S.p.A. (formerly Autostrade S.p.A.), a holding company controlled by the Benetton family.[2][3] Other operators include ASTM, ATP, and Autostrade Lombarde in the north-west; Autostrada del Brennero, A4 Holding, Concessioni Autostradali Venete, and Autovie Venete in the north-east; Strada dei Parchi, SALT, SAT, and Autocisa in the center; and CAS in the south.

History

Italy became the first country to inaugurate motorways reserved for motor vehicles with A1.[4] The Milano-Laghi motorway (connecting Milan to Varese) was devised by Piero Puricelli, a civil engineer and entrepreneur. He received the first authorization to build a public-utility fast road in 1921, and completed the construction (one lane each direction) between 1924 and 1926. By the end of the 1930s, over 400 kilometers of multi- and dual-single-lane motorways were constructed throughout Italy, linking cities and rural towns.

Traffic laws

Italy's autostrade must not be used by:[5]

  • pedestrian and animals (except in rest areas)
  • pedal-cycles
  • moped
  • motorcycles having an engine displacement less than 150 cc (if equipped with an internal combustion engine)
  • sidecars having an engine displacement less than 250 cc (if equipped with an internal combustion engine)
  • motorized tricycles designed for the transport of people with up to 2 seats having an engine displacement less than 250 cc (if equipped with an internal combustion engine) or having an engine power less than 15 kilowatts (20 PS)
  • motorcycle-like vehicles (motoveicoli) not included in previous categories having an empty vehicle weight up to 400 kg or a gross vehicle mass up to 1300 kg
  • cars with a design speed on flat road less than 80 km/h[6]
  • vehicles without tyres
  • agricultural vehicles and technical veichles (e.g. heavy equipment)

Speed

Autostrada sign
Autostrada sign

Italy's autostrade have a standard speed limit of 130 km/h (81 mph) for cars. Limits for other vehicles (or during foul weather and/or low visibility) are lower. Legal provisions allow operators to set the limit to 150 km/h (93 mph) on their concessions on a voluntary basis if there are three lanes in each direction and a working SICVE, or Safety Tutor, which is a speed-camera system that measure the average speed over a given distance. In 2016, no road was utilizing this possibility.

The first speed limit, to 120 km/h (75 mph), was enacted in November 1973 as a result of the 1973 oil crisis.[7] In October 1977, a graduated system was introduced: cars with engine displacement above 1.3 L (79 cu in) had a 140 km/h (87 mph) speed limit, cars of 900-1299 cm3 had a limit of 130 km/h (81 mph), those of 600-899 cm3 could drive at 110 km/h (68 mph), and those of 599 cm3 (36.6 cu in) or less had a maximum speed of 90 km/h (56 mph).[7] In July 1988 a blanket speed limit of 110 km/h (68 mph) was imposed on all cars above 600 cm3 (the lower limit was kept for smaller cars) by the short-lived PSDI government. In September 1989 this was increased to 130 km/h (81 mph) for cars above 1.1 L (67 cu in) and 110 km/h (68 mph) for smaller ones.[8]

List of current Autostrade

Number Name km Start End Opened E-roads
A1 Autostrada del Sole
759.8
Milan Naples
1964
E35, E45
A2 Autostrada del Mediterraneo
442.9
Salerno Reggio Calabria
2017
E45, E90, E841
A3
51.7
Naples Salerno
1974
E45
A4 Serenissima
522.4
Turin Trieste
1927
E55, E64, E70
A5 Autostrada della Valle d'Aosta
141.4
Turin Mont Blanc
1961
E25, E612
A6 La Verdemare
123.7
Turin Savona
1960
E717
A7 Serravalle
135.5
Milan Genoa
1935
E25, E62
A8 Autostrada dei Laghi
43.6
Milan Varese
1924
E35, E62
A9 Autostrada dei Laghi
30.9
Lainate Chiasso
1924
E35
A10 Autostrada dei Fiori
158.1
Genoa Ventimiglia
1967
E25, E74, E80
A11 Autostrada Firenze-Mare
81.7
Florence Pisa
1933
E76
A12 Autostrada Azzurra
210.0
Genoa Rosignano Marittimo
1967
E80
A13
116.7
Bologna Padua
1970
A14 Autostrada Adriatica
743.4
Bologna Taranto
1966
E45, E843
A15 Autocamionale della Cisa
108.5
Parma La Spezia
1975
E33
A16 Autostrada dei Due Mari
172.5
Naples Canosa di Puglia
1966
E842
A18
76.8
Messina Catania
1971
E45
A18
40.0
Syracuse Rosolini
1983
E45
A19
191.6
Palermo Catania
1970
E90, E932
A20
183.0
Messina Buonfornello
1972
E45, E90
A21 Autostrada dei Vini
238.3
Turin Brescia
1968
E70
A22 Autostrada del Brennero
315.0
Brenner Modena
1968
E45
A23 Autostrada Alpe-Adria
119.9
Palmanova Tarvisio
1966
E55
A24 Autostrada dei Parchi
158.8
Rome Teramo
1969
E80
A25 Autostrada dei Parchi
115.0
Torano di Borgorose Pescara
1969
E80
A26 Autostrada dei Trafori
197.1
Genoa Gravellona Toce
1976
E25, E62
A27 Autostrada d'Alemagna
82.5
Venice Belluno
1972
A28
48.8
Portogruaro Conegliano
1974
A29 Autostrada del Sale
114.8
Palermo Mazara del Vallo
1972
E90
A30
55.3
Caserta Salerno
1975
A31 Autostrada della Val d'Astico
88.7
Badia Polesine Piovene Rocchette
1976
A32 Autostrada del Frejus
73.0
Turin Fréjus Road Tunnel
1983
E70
A33
23.0
Cuneo Carrù
2005
A34
17.5
Villesse Gorizia
2013
A35 BreBeMi
54.8
Castegnato Melzo
2014
A36 Pedemontana Lombarda
23.0
Cassano Magnago Lentate sul Seveso
2015
A50 Tangenziale Ovest di Milano
31.3
Ring road around Milan
1968
E35, E62
A51 Tangenziale Est di Milano
30.7
Ring road around Milan
1971
A52 Tangenziale Nord di Milano
21.6
Ring road around Milan
1994
A53
9.2
Bereguardo Pavia
1960
A54 Tangenziale Ovest di Pavia
8.4
Ring road around Pavia
1994
A55 Tangenziale di Torino
57.5
Ring road around Turin
1976
E70
A56 Tangenziale di Napoli
20.2
Ring road around Naples
1972
A57 Tangenziale di Mestre
26.7
Ring road around Mestre
1972
E55
A58 Tangenziale Est Esterna di Milano
31.8
Ring road around Milan
2014
A59 Tangenziale di Como
2.9
Ring road around Como
2015
A60 Tangenziale di Varese
4.5
Ring road around Varese
2015
A90 Grande Raccordo Anulare di Roma
68.2
Ring road around Rome
1951
E80
A91
18.4
Rome Fiumicino Airport
1959
E80
A92 Autostrada Azzurra
79.6
Rome Civitavecchia
1967
E80
A93
42.3
Marene Asti
2007
E74

List of bretelle and raccordi autostradali

Some autostrade are called bretelle, diramazioni or raccordi because they are short and have few exits.

Bretelle, diramazioni or raccordi are generally connections between two motorways, or connections between motorways and important cities without a motorway.

They have the same number (sometimes with the suffix dir) as one of the two autostrade linked, a combination of the numbers of the two autostrade linked, or the number of the main autostrada.

Number Name (length) Connection
A1
Raccordo Milano-Piazzale Corvetto (2 km) A1 - Milano Piazzale Corvetto
A1
Diramazione Capodichino (3 km) A1 - Aeroporto di Capodichino - A56
A1dir
Diramazione Roma nord (23 km) A1 - GRA
A1dir
Diramazione Roma sud (20 km) A1 - GRA
A1var
Variante di Valico (32,966 km) A1 - A1
A2
A2 dir. Napoli (2 km) A2 - A3
A2
A2 dir. Reggio Calabria (9 km) A2 - Reggio Calabria
A4
Raccordo Chivasso (6 km) A4 - Verolengo
A4/A5
Raccordo Ivrea-Santhià (23,6 km) A4 - A5
Raccordo Aosta-Gran San Bernardo (7,9 km) A5 - SS27
A6
Diramazione per Fossano (6,6 km) A6 - Fossano
A8/A26
Diramazione Gallarate-Gattico (23,2 km) A8 - A26
A11/A12
Diramazione Lucca-Viareggio (20 km) A11 - A12
A12
Diramazione per Livorno (4,5 km) A12 - Livorno
A13
Diramazione per Padova sud (4,3 km) A13 - Padova
A13
Diramazione per Ferrara (6,3 km) A13 - Ferrara - RA8
A14
Raccordo per Tangenziale di Bari (4,6 km) A14 - Tangenziale di Bari
A14dir
Diramazione per Ravenna (29,8 km) A14 - Ravenna
A15
Diramazione La Spezia-Santo Stefano di Magra Santo Stefano di Magra - A15 - La Spezia
A18dir
Diramazione per Catania (3,7 km) A18 - Catania
A19dir
Raccordo A19-Palermo (5,2 km) A19 - Circonvallazione di Palermo
A21dir
Diramazione per Fiorenzuola (12,3) A1 - A21
A4/A26
Diramazione Stroppiana-Santhià (29,7 km) A4 - A26
A26/A7
Diramazione Predosa-Bettole (17 km) A7 - A26
A29dir
Diramazione Alcamo-Trapani (36,9 km) A29 - Trapani
A29dirA
Diramazione per Birgi (13,1 km) A29dir - Aeroporto di Trapani-Birgi
A29racc
Bretella aeroporto Falcone e Borsellino (4 km) A29 - Aeroporto di Palermo
A29racc bis
Raccordo per via Belgio (5,6 km) A29 - Circonvallazione di Palermo
A55
Diramazione per Pinerolo (23,44 km) A55 - Pinerolo
A55
Diramazione per Moncalieri (6,18 km) A6 - Moncalieri
A55
Raccordo della Falchera (3,13 km) A55 - A4 - SR 11
A57
Bretella/raccordo aeroporto (6,73 km) A57 - Aeroporto di Venezia

Trafori (T)

Important alpine tunnels ((in Italian) trafori) are identified by the capital letter "T" followed by a single digit number. Currently there are only three T-classified tunnels: Mont Blanc Tunnel (T1), Great St Bernard Tunnel (T2) and Frejus Road Tunnel (T4). Tunnels that cross the border between Italy and France (T1, T4) or Switzerland (T2), are treated as motorways (green signage, access control, and so on), although they are not proper motorways. The code T3 was once assigned to the Bargagli-Ferriere Tunnel in Ligurian Appennines before it was reclassified as SP 226.

T1
Traforo del Monte Bianco
T2
Traforo del Gran San Bernardo
T4
Traforo del Frejus

Raccordi autostradali (RA)

RA stands for Raccordo autostradale (translated as "motorway connection"), a relatively short spur route that connects an autostrada to a nearby city or tourist resort not directly served by the motorway. These spurs are owned and managed by ANAS (with some exceptions, such as the RA7 that became A53 when assigned to a private company for maintenance). Some spurs are toll-free motorways (type-A), but most are type-B or type-C roads. All RA have separate carriageways with two lanes in each direction. Generally, they do not have an emergency lane.

Symbol Number
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 1.svg
RA1 A1 - A13 - A14

(Tangenziale di Bologna)

Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 2.svg
RA2 A3 - Avellino
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 3.svg
RA3 A1 - Siena
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 4.svg
RA4 A3 - Reggio Calabria - SS106
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 5.svg
RA5 A3 - Potenza
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 6.svg
RA6 A1 - Perugia
Autostrada A53 Italia.svg
A53 (or RA7) A7 - Tangenziale di Pavia
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 8.svg
RA8 A13 - Ferrara - Porto Garibaldi
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 9.svg
RA9 A16 - Benevento
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 10.svg
RA10 Torino - A55 - Turin Airport
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 11.svg
RA11 Ascoli - A14 - Porto d'Ascoli
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 12.svg
RA12 A25 - Chieti - A14 - Pescara
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 13.svg
RA13 A4 - SS202
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 14.svg
RA14 RA13 - Fernetti (state border with Slovenia)
Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 15.svg
RA15 A18 - A19 - Aut. CT-SR

(Tangenziale di Catania)

Italian traffic signs - raccordo autostradale 16.svg
RA16 A28 - SS13 Pontebbana

Strade extraurbane principali

Strada extraurbana principale sign
Strada extraurbana principale sign

Type B highway (or strada extraurbana principale), commonly but unofficially known as superstrada (Italian equivalent for expressway), is a divided highway with at least two lanes in each direction, paved shoulder on the right, no cross-traffic and no at-grade intersections. Access restrictions on such highways are exactly the same as autostrade. Signage at the beginning and the end of the highways is the same, except the background color is blue instead of green. The general speed limit on strade extraurbane principali is 110 km/h. Strade extraurbane principali are not tolled. All strade extraurbane principali are owned and managed by ANAS, and directly controlled by the Italian government or by the regions.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.aiscat.it/pubblicazioni/downloads/Trim%201-2_2014.pdf
  2. ^ Benetton Family to Control Italian Toll Road Operator
  3. ^ Infrastructure company controlled by the Benetton family
  4. ^ Service Areas on Motorways in Italy
  5. ^ Art. 175 Nuovo codice della strada
  6. ^ Art. 372 Regolamento di esecuzione del codice della strada
  7. ^ a b "Disegno di Legge" [draft law], Legislative Decree (in Italian), Senato della repubblica (967), p. 2, 1988-04-07
  8. ^ Novella de Luca, Maria (1989-09-28). "'Via libera ai 130 km/h' la camera aumenta i limiti di velocità" [Green light for 130 km/h: chamber increases speed limits]. La Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 2017-01-18.

External links

This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 17:42
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