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Autonomous administrative division

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division or internal territory of a sovereign state that has a degree of autonomyself-governance—under the national government. Autonomous areas are distinct from the constituent units of a federation (e.g. a state, or province) in that they possess unique powers for their given circumstances. Typically, it is either geographically distinct from the rest of the state or populated by a national minority. Decentralization of self-governing powers and functions to such divisions is a way for a national government to try to increase democratic participation or administrative efficiency or to defuse internal conflicts. States that include autonomous areas may be federacies, federations, or confederations. Autonomous areas can be divided into territorial autonomies, subregional territorial autonomies, and local autonomies.

List of major autonomous areas

Division State Notes
Azad Kashmir Azad Kashmir  Pakistan Azad Kashmir is self-governing polity which has not been formally annexed by Pakistan. It was established after a rebellion against the Maharajah of Kashmir, and the subsequent First Kashmir War.[1] It is located within the historic Kashmir region which is disputed between India, Pakistan and China.
 United Kingdom Three of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom, namely Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, each has an elected, devolved legislature which has the ability to legislate in devolved matters. The Parliament of the United Kingdom which retains sovereignty (the United Kingdom is a unitary state), can dissolve the devolved legislatures at any time, and legislates in matters that are not devolved, as well as having the capacity to legislate in areas that are devolved (by constitutional convention, without the agreement of the devolved legislature). Formerly, both Scotland and England were fully sovereign states.
 Kingdom of Denmark The two autonomous territories[2] (Danish: land, Faroese: land, Greenlandic: nuna) of the realm of the Kingdom, the Faroe Islands and Greenland, each have an elected devolved legislature which has the ability to legislate in devolved matters. The Kingdom Parliament 'Folketinget' retains sovereignty (The Kingdom of Denmark is a unitary state) and legislates in matters that are not devolved, as well as having the capacity to legislate in areas that are devolved (this does not normally occur without the agreement of the devolved legislature).
Tobago  Trinidad and Tobago The Tobago House of Assembly is a devolved legislature that is responsible for the island of Tobago.[3]
Jeju  South Korea
 Vojvodina  Serbia
Kosovo / Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija Claimed by:  Serbia
Controlled by:  Kosovo
In 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared itself as an independent state. Its international recognition is split between those who recognize it as an independent state and those who recognize it as an autonomous province of Serbia under United Nations administration.
 Åland  Finland
 Azores

 Madeira

 Portugal
Bangsamoro  Philippines
 Bougainville  Papua New Guinea
 Hong Kong
 Macau
 People's Republic of China
Somaliland is a self-declared independent state, although it is internationally considered an autonomous region in northwestern Somalia.
Atlántico Norte  Nicaragua
Atlántico Sur
 Rodrigues  Mauritius
Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria  Syria
Zanzibar  Tanzania
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic Nakhchivan  Azerbaijan
Adjara  Georgia
Abkhazia / Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia Claimed by:  Georgia
Controlled by:  Abkhazia
In 1999, the Republic of Abkhazia declared its independence from Georgia after the 1992–1993 war. Georgia and most of the U.N. member states have not recognized Abkhazia's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the claimed Autonomous Republic; its independence is recognized by Russia and three other U.N. member states.
Gorno-Badakhshan  Tajikistan
Republic of Crimea / Autonomous Republic of Crimea Claimed by:  Ukraine
Controlled by:  Russia
The 2014 annexation of Crimea by Russia is not recognized by most countries, including Ukraine.
Karakalpakstan  Uzbekistan
Gagauzia  Moldova
Transnistria / Left Bank of the Dniester Claimed by:  Moldova
Controlled by:  Transnistria
In 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR, commonly known as Transnistria) declared its independence from the Soviet Union. While Moldova has not formally recognized Transnistria's independence and still has an administrative apparatus for the claimed Autonomous Territorial Unit, its independence is recognized by 3 other non-UN member states.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
 Chile In 2007, the Chamber of Deputies of Chile passed a law designating both as "special territories", granting them more autonomy.[4] Additionally, the Juan Fernandez Islands archipelago is a commune, while Easter Island is both a commune and a province.
Barbuda (1976)  Antigua and Barbuda
 Rotuma  Fiji
Kurdistan Region Kurdistan Region (1970)  Iraq
 Nevis (1967)  Saint Kitts and Nevis
Autonomous Region of Príncipe (1995)  São Tomé and Príncipe
 Svalbard  Norway Although it does not fit the definition of autonomous area (not possessing partial internal sovereignty), Svalbard has the sovereignty of Norway limited by the Spitsbergen Treaty of 1920 and therefore is considered as having special status (as it is considered fully integrated with Norway, and not a dependency, it is a sui generis case).
 Heligoland  Germany Heligoland, Germany: Although it is part of a German state, Schleswig-Holstein, it has been excluded of some European Union normatives, such as customs union and the Value Added Tax Area.
Büsingen am Hochrhein  Germany Despite being integral parts of their respective countries, these two enclaves of Switzerland predominantly use Swiss franc as currency and are in customs union with it.
Campione d'Italia  Italy

Other territories considered autonomous

Crown Dependencies

Division State Notes
 Guernsey  United Kingdom
 Isle of Man
 Jersey

Guernsey, the Isle of Man, and Jersey are self-governing Crown Dependencies which are not part of the United Kingdom; however, the UK is responsible for their defence and international affairs.

British Overseas Territories

Division State Notes
 Anguilla  United Kingdom
 Bermuda
 British Indian Ocean Territory Indigenous population forcefully removed. Only current inhabitants are British and U.S. military personnel and associated contractors
 British Virgin Islands
 Cayman Islands
 Falkland Islands
 Gibraltar
 Montserrat
 Pitcairn
 Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands No permanent population
 Turks and Caicos Islands

Gibraltar is a self-governing overseas territory of the UK. Most of the other 13 British Overseas Territories also have autonomy in internal affairs through local legislatures.

Dutch constituent countries

Division State Notes
 Aruba  Kingdom of the Netherlands
 Curaçao
 Sint Maarten
 Netherlands

Aruba, Curaçao, and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, each with their own parliament. In addition they enjoy autonomy in taxation matters as well as having their own currencies.

French overseas collectivities, New Caledonia, and Corsica

Division State Notes
 Alsace (2021)  France single territorial collectivity
 Corsica (2018) single territorial collectivity
French Guiana overseas collectivity
Guadeloupe overseas region and department
Martinique overseas region and department
 Mayotte overseas region and department
Réunion overseas region and department
 Clipperton Island state private property
 French Polynesia overseas collectivity
 Saint-Barthélemy overseas collectivity
Saint-Martin overseas collectivity
 Saint-Pierre and Miquelon overseas collectivity
 Wallis and Futuna overseas collectivity
 New Caledonia sui generis collectivity
 French Southern and Antarctic Lands overseas territory

The French Constitution recognises three autonomous jurisdictions. Corsica, a region of France, enjoys a greater degree of autonomy on matters such as tax and education compared to mainland regions. New Caledonia, a sui generis collectivity, and French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity, are highly autonomous territories with their own government, legislature, currency and constitution. They do not, however, have legislative powers for policy areas relating to law and order, defense, border control or university education. Other smaller overseas collectivities have a lesser degree of autonomy through local legislatures. The five overseas regions, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion, are generally governed the same as mainland regions; however, they enjoy some additional powers, including certain legislative powers for devolved areas.

New Zealand overseas territories

Division State Notes
 Cook Islands  New Zealand
 Niue
 Tokelau

New Zealand maintains nominal sovereignty over three Pacific Island nations. The Cook Islands and Niue are self-governing countries in free association with New Zealand that maintain some international relationships in their own name. Tokelau remains an autonomous dependency of New Zealand. The Chatham Islands—despite having the designation of Territory—is an integral part of the country, situated within the New Zealand archipelago. The territory's council is not autonomous and has broadly the same powers as other local councils, although notably it can also charge levies on goods entering or leaving the islands.[5]

Ethnic autonomous territories

Ethiopian special woredas

In Ethiopia, "special woredas" are a subgroup of woredas (districts) that are organized around the traditional homelands of an ethnic minority, and are outside the usual hierarchy of a kilil, or region. These woredas have many similarities to autonomous areas in other countries.

Areas designated for indigenous peoples

Division State Notes
Nisga'a Nation  Canada
 Nunatsiavut
Tłı̨chǫ Government
Haida Nation
 Hopi Reservation  United States
 Cherokee Nation
 Choctaw Nation
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation
 Navajo Nation
Emberá-Wounaan  Panama
Kuna de Madugandí
Kuna de Wargandí
Kuna Yala
Ngöbe-Buglé
Naso Tjër Di Comarca

Other areas that are autonomous in nature but not in name are areas designated for indigenous peoples, such as those of the Americas:

List of historical autonomous administrative divisions

See also

References

  1. ^ "Azad Kashmir | Meaning, History, Population, & Government | Britannica".
  2. ^ a b * Benedikter, Thomas (2006-06-19). "The working autonomies in Europe". Society for Threatened Peoples. Archived from the original on 2008-03-09. Retrieved 2019-08-30. Denmark has established very specific territorial autonomies with its two island territories
    • Ackrén, Maria (November 2017). "Greenland". Autonomy Arrangements in the World. Archived from the original on 2019-08-30. Retrieved 2019-08-30. Faroese and Greenlandic are seen as official regional languages in the self-governing territories belonging to Denmark.
    • "Greenland". International Cooperation and Development. European Commission. 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2019-08-27. Greenland [...] is an autonomous territory within the Kingdom of Denmark
    • "Facts about the Faroe Islands". Nordic cooperation. Archived from the original on 23 April 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2015. The Faroe Islands [...] is one of three autonomous territories in the Nordic Region
  3. ^ Tobago Division Of Tourism - About Tobago, Governance Archived 2007-07-10 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Easter Islands now a "special territory" with more autonomy".
  5. ^ "Chatham Islands Council Act 1995 No 41 (as at 01 July 2013), Public Act Contents – New Zealand Legislation". www.legislation.govt.nz.

Works cited

This page was last edited on 8 November 2022, at 21:46
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