To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Founded1964; 55 years ago (1964)
Key people
  • Heard Smith (CEO)
  • Philip Snider (COO)
OwnerEquistone Partners Europe
Footnotes / references

AstroTurf is an American subsidiary that produces artificial turf for playing surfaces. The original AstroTurf product was a short-pile synthetic turf.[2] Since the early 2000s, AstroTurf has marketed taller pile systems that use infill materials to better replicate natural turf.[3] The prime reason to incorporate AstroTurf on game fields is to avoid the cost of laying and maintaining natural turf and to maximize hours of usage.[citation needed] In 2016, AstroTurf became a subsidiary of German-based SportGroup, a family of sports surfacing companies, which itself is owned by the investment firm Equistone Partners Europe.[1][4]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    396 204
    1 860
    1 540
    1 211
    5 152
  • ✪ Sport Science -- Turf vs. Grass
  • ✪ The new Astroturf Gameday Grass 3D at Griswold Stadium
  • ✪ AstroTurf Corporate Video
  • ✪ Colorado State Athletics: On-Campus Stadium Synthetic Turf Installation




AstroTurf installation at Boston College's Alumni Stadium
AstroTurf installation at Boston College's Alumni Stadium

The original AstroTurf brand product was co-invented in 1965[contradictory] by Donald L. Elbert, James M. Faria, and Robert T. Wright. It was patented in 1965 and originally sold under the name "ChemGrass." It was rebranded as AstroTurf by a company employee named John A. Wortmann after its first well-publicized use at the Houston Astrodome stadium in 1966.[5]

Early iterations of the short-pile turf swept many major stadiums, but the product did need improvement. Concerns over directionality and traction led Monsanto's R&D department to implement a texturized nylon system. By imparting a crimped texture to the nylon after it was extruded, the product became highly uniform.

In 1987, Monsanto consolidated its AstroTurf management, marketing, and technical activities in Dalton, Georgia, as AstroTurf Industries, Inc. In 1988, Balsam AG purchased all the capital stock of AstroTurf Industries, Inc. In 1994, Southwest Recreational Industries, Inc. (SRI) acquired the AstroTurf brand. In 1996, SRI was acquired by American Sports Products Group Inc.

While AstroTurf was the industry leader throughout the late 20th century, other companies emerged in the early 2000s. FieldTurf, AstroTurf's chief competitor since the early 2000s, marketed a product of tall-pile polyethylene turf with infill, meant to mimic natural grass more than the older products. This third-generation turf, as it became known, changed the landscape of the marketplace. Although SRI successfully marketed AstroPlay, a third-generation turf product, increased competition gave way to lawsuits. In 2000, SRI was awarded $1.5 million in a lawsuit after FieldTurf was deemed to have lied to the public by making false statements regarding its own product and making false claims about AstroTurf and AstroPlay products.[6]

UFCU Disch–Falk Field in Texas, utilizing an older-style AstroTurf surface that has since been replaced
UFCU Disch–Falk Field in Texas, utilizing an older-style AstroTurf surface that has since been replaced

Despite their legal victory, increased competition took its toll. In 2004, SRI declared bankruptcy.[7] Out of the bankruptcy proceedings, Textile Management Associates, Inc. (TMA) of Dalton, Georgia, acquired the AstroTurf brand and other assets. TMA began marketing the AstroTurf brand under the company AstroTurf, LLC. In 2006, General Sports Venue (GSV) became TMA's marketing partner for the AstroTurf brand for the American market. AstroTurf, LLC handled the marketing of AstroTurf in the rest of the world.[8]

In 2009, TMA acquired GSV to enter the marketplace as a direct seller. AstroTurf, LLC focused its efforts on research and development, which has promoted rapid growth. AstroTurf introduced new product features and installation methods, including AstroFlect (a heat-reduction technology)[9] and field prefabrication (indoor, climate-controlled inlaying).[10] AstroTurf also introduced a product called "RootZone" consisting of crimped fibers designed to encapsulate infill.[11] This product has been adopted by many professional organizations and colleges in the United States.[12]

In 2016, SportGroup Holding announced that it would purchase AstroTurf, along with its associated manufacturing facilities. The AstroTurf brand now operates in North America as AstroTurf Corporation.[13]

Product and installation timeline




  • First major installation of AstroTurf (ChemGrass) at the Houston Astrodome indoor stadium for the Houston Astros. The infield portion was in place before opening day in April; the outfield was installed in early summer.




  • The backyard of The Brady Bunch house between the service porch and garage and under Tiger's kennel is covered with AstroTurf. According to script development notes, the installation firm hired by Mike Brady to lay the turf was owned by his college roommate, who had just started a landscaping business after returning from a combat tour in the Vietnam War with the 18th Engineer Brigade. However, in keeping with studio instructions, no direct mention of the war in Vietnam appeared in the script. The scene in which the installation takes place was ultimately cut, so never appeared in the series.[18][19][20][21][22][23]



  • The 1970 World Series is the first with games on AstroTurf (previously installed at Cincinnati's Riverfront Stadium), as the Reds play the Baltimore Orioles.[24]




  • The Buffalo Bills' home field of Rich Stadium (later Ralph Wilson Stadium and now New Era Field) opens in Orchard Park, New York, with an AstroTurf playing surface.





  • The Philadelphia Phillies and Kansas City Royals play the entire 1980 World Series on AstroTurf in their ballparks.



  • The St. Louis Cardinals and Minnesota Twins play the entire 1987 World Series on AstroTurf in their ballparks.





  • Real Madrid C.F. (Spain) becomes the first European football club to purchase an AstroTurf system for their practice fields.[29]









  1. ^ a b "Ownership". AstroTurf. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  2. ^ US 3332828 [1]
  3. ^ "History". AstroTurf. 2016-05-16. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  4. ^ "AstroTurf Sale to SportGroup Finalized". AstroTurf. 2016-08-20. Retrieved 2017-05-30.
  5. ^ Weeks, Jennifer (2015). "Turf Wars". Distillations Magazine. 1 (3): 34–37. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  6. ^ "Southwest Recreational Industries, Inc. Reaffirms Jury Decision". 8 January 2001.
  7. ^ "SRI's bankruptcy puts customers on new turf". Austin Business Journal.
  8. ^ "History Timeline – AstroTurf". Archived from the original on 2013-04-08.
  9. ^ "AstroFlect". Archived from the original on 2013-09-26.
  10. ^ "Prefabrication". Archived from the original on 2013-09-26.
  11. ^ "RootZone".
  12. ^ "Installations – AstroTurf". Archived from the original on 2013-05-15.
  13. ^ "SportGroup Holding Purchases AstroTurf, SYNLawn, and Associated Manufacturing Operations | | AstroTurf". Retrieved 2016-07-12.
  14. ^ "History Timeline | AstroTurf". Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.
  15. ^ Topic Galleries -[dead link]
  16. ^ [2]
  17. ^ About AstroTurf Archived December 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ Exterior vs interior of the brady bunch house
  19. ^ 18th Engineer Brigade Homepage: History Archived 2007-10-24 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Socio-cultural analysis of the Brady Bunch
  21. ^ Write it funny or they'll cut it: famous scenes that never made it to the sit com screen
  22. ^ Brady Bunch secrets and hidden back stories revealed in old production notes
  23. ^ The Brady Bunch Goes to Saigon: Season One DVDs reveal some striking connections between the resilient clan and the Vietnam War
  24. ^ "1970 World Series by Baseball Almanac".
  25. ^ "Page Not Found". FOX Sports. Archived from the original on 2007-02-25.
  26. ^ "Percival Molson Memorial Stadium".
  27. ^ The College of New Jersey Athletics - Lions' Stadium
  28. ^ Marshall Press Release
  29. ^ News & Events - SRI Sports - International - Field, Track, Indoor, Tennis Systems & Services Archived February 25, 2007, at the Wayback Machine

External links

This page was last edited on 22 September 2019, at 23:07
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.