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Army National Guard

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Army National Guard
Seal of the Army National Guard
ActiveAs state-funded militia under various names: 1636–1903
As federal reserve forces called the Army National Guard: 1903–present
Country United States
AllegianceFederal (10 U.S.C. § E)
State and territorial (32 U.S.C.)
BranchUnited States Army
TypeReserve force
Militia
Size336,000 personnel (authorized end strength for Fiscal Year 2020)[1]
Part ofNational Guard
National Guard Bureau
Garrison/HQArmy National Guard Readiness Center, Arlington Hall
Arlington County, Virginia
Nickname(s)"Army Guard", "The Guard"
Anniversaries13 December 1636 (founding)
Websitewww.army.mil/nationalguard
www.nationalguard.com
Commanders
DirectorLTG Jon A. Jensen
Deputy DirectorMG John C. Andonie[2][3]
Command Chief Warrant OfficerCW5 Teresa A. Domeier
Command Sergeant MajorCSM John T. Raines III

The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is an organized militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States Army. They are simultaneously part of two different organizations: the ARNG of each state, most territories, and the District of Columbia (also referred to as the Militia of the United States), as well as the federal ARNG (as part of the U.S. National Guard). The ARNG is divided into subordinate units stationed in each U.S. region, operating under their respective governors and governor-equivalents.[4]

The foundation for what became the ARNG occurred in the city of Salem, Massachusetts, in 1636, the first time that a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area.[5][a]

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Transcription

Activation

The Army National Guard (ARNG) as currently authorized and organized operates under Title 10 of the United States Code when under federal control, and Title 32 of the United States Code and applicable state laws when under state control. The ARNG may be called up for active duty by the state or territorial governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes, as well as civil disorder.[4] The District of Columbia Army National Guard is a federal militia, controlled by the President of the United States with authority delegated to the Secretary of Defense, and through him to the Secretary of the Army.[7]

Members or units of the ARNG may be ordered, temporarily or indefinitely, into the service of the U.S.[8][9] If mobilized for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the U.S. ARNG, which is a reserve component of the U.S. Army.[10][11][12] Individuals volunteering for active federal service may do so subject to the consent of their governors.[13] Largely on the basis of a 1990 U.S. Supreme Court decision, governors generally cannot veto involuntary activations of individuals or units for federal service, either for training or national emergency.[14]

The President may also call up members and units of the ARNG, in its status as the militia of the several states, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws.[15] The U.S. ARNG is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the U.S. Air National Guard. The Director of the ARNG is the head of the organization, and reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Because the ARNG is both the militia of the several states and a federal reserve component of the Army, neither the Chief of the National Guard Bureau nor the Director of the ARNG "commands" it. This operational command authority is performed in each state or territory by the State Adjutant General, and in the District of Columbia by the Commanding General of the D.C. National Guard when a unit is in its militia status. While under federal activation, the operational command authority is transferred to the commanders of the unified combatant commands, who command all U.S. forces within their area of responsibility. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Director of the ARNG serve as the channel of communications between the Department of the Army and the ARNG in each state and territory, and administer federal programs, policies, and resources for the National Guard.[16]

The ARNG's portion of the president's proposed federal budget for Fiscal Year 2018 is approximately $16.2 billion to support an end strength of 343,000, including appropriations for personnel pay and allowance, facilities maintenance, construction, equipment maintenance and other activities.[17]

History

ARNG recruits arriving at Fort Jackson for BCT

Prominent members

U.S. presidents

Of the 45[b] individuals to serve as President of the United States as of 2021, 33 had military experience. Of those 33, 21 served in the militia or ARNG.

(Note: President George W. Bush served in the National Guard in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and he was the first Air National Guard member to attain the presidency.)[63]

Units and formations

Deployable Army units are organized as table of organization and equipment (TOE) organizations or modified table of organization and equipment (MTOE) organizations. Non-deployable units, such as a state's joint force headquarters or regional training institutes are administered as table of distribution and allowance (TDA) units.[64]

Commands

Divisions

In addition to many deployable units which are non-divisional, the Army National Guard's deployable units include eight Infantry divisions.[65] These divisions, their subordinate brigades or brigades with which the divisions have a training oversight relationship, and the states represented by the largest units include:[66]

Army Aviation Magazine wrote on 31 March 2021 that "The ARNG is pressing forward with the Division Alignment for Training (DIV AFT) effort. The DIV AFT intent is to enhance leader development and training readiness through codified relationships across echelons and states to develop combat capable division formations for large scale combat operations. The Director, ARNG.. recently convened a DIV AFT Initial Planning Conference to clarify unit alignments for all eight ARNG Division Headquarters and synchronize activities that will facilitate unity of effort between Division Headquarters and aligned for training States."[67]

Multifunctional Support Brigades

The Army National Guard fields 37 multifunctional support brigades.

Maneuver Enhancement Brigades

Field Artillery Brigades

Sustainment Brigades

Military Intelligence Brigades

Functional Support Brigades and Groups

Engineer Brigades

Air Defense Artillery Brigades

Theater Tactical Signal Brigades

Military Police Brigades

Theater and Combat Aviation Brigades

Other brigades

Other Groups

Regular Army – Army National Guard Partnership

In 2016, the Army and the Army National Guard began a training and readiness initiative that aligned some Army brigades with National Guard division headquarters, and some National Guard brigades with Army division headquarters. Among others, this program included the National Guard's 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team becoming affiliated with the Army's 10th Mountain Division[69] and the National Guard's 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment affiliating with the Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team.[70] In addition, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division began an affiliation with the National Guard's 36th Infantry Division.[71]

Army units partnering with Army National Guard headquarters include:

By state

The Army and Air National Guard in each state are headed by the State Adjutant General. The Adjutant General (TAG) is the de facto commander of a state's military forces, and reports to the state governor.[72]

Legacy units and formations

Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 47th Infantry Division, inactivated in 1991
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 50th Armored Division, inactivated in 1993

Several units have been affected by Army National Guard reorganizations. Some have been renamed or inactivated. Some have had subordinate units reallocated to other commands. A partial list of inactivated major units includes:

Leadership

National Guard Bureau organizational chart depicting command and reporting relationships
Army National Guard staff organizational chart
Chief of the National Guard Bureau Gen. Daniel R. Hokanson administers the oath of office to Lt. Gen. Jon A. Jensen as the 22nd director of the Army National Guard on Monday, 10 August 2020 at the Temple Army National Guard Readiness Center in Arlington, Virginia.

Upon the creation of the United States Air Force in 1947, the National Guard Bureau was organized into two divisions; Army National Guard and Air National Guard. Each were headed by a major general who reported to the chief of the National Guard Bureau. The head of the Army National Guard was originally established as the chief of the Army Division at the National Guard Bureau. The position was downgraded to brigadier general in 1962 due to force reduction. It was renamed to Director of the Army National Guard and elevated back to major general in 1970. The position was later elevated to the rank of lieutenant general in 2001. The Army National Guard is also authorized a deputy director which was originally established as a brigadier general office in 1970. It was elevated to the rank of major general in 2006.

The director of the Army National Guard oversees a staff which aids in planning and day-to-day organization and management. In addition to a chief of staff, the Director's staff includes several special staff members, including a chaplain and protocol and awards specialists. It also includes a primary staff, which is organized as directorates, divisions, and branches. The directorates of the Army National Guard staff are arranged along the lines of a typical American military staff: G-1 for personnel; G-2 for intelligence; G-3 for plans, operations and training; G-4 for logistics; G-5 for strategic plans, policy and communications; G-6 for communications; and G-8 for budgets and financial management.

List of chiefs and directors

No. Commander Term
Portrait Name Took office Left office Term length
Chiefs of the Army Division at the National Guard Bureau
1Major General
Raymond H. Fleming
194819502 years
2Major General
William H. Abendroth
195119554 years
3Major General
Donald W. McGowan
195519594 years
4Major General
Clayton P. Kerr
195919623 years
5Brigadier General
Francis Greenlief
196219631 year
6Brigadier General
Charles L. Southward
196419662 years
7Brigadier General
Leonard C. Ward
196819702 years
Directors of the Army National Guard
8Major General
Francis Greenlief
197019711 year
9Major General
La Vern E. Weber
197119743 years
10Major General
Charles A. Ott Jr.
197419784 years
11Major General
Emmett H. Walker Jr.
197819824 years
12Major General
Herbert R. Temple Jr.
198219864 years
13Major General
Donald Burdick
198619915 years
14Major General
Raymond F. Rees
199119921 year
15Major General
John R. D'Araujo Jr.
199319952 years
16Major General
William A. Navas Jr.
October 1995May 19983 years
17Lieutenant General
Roger C. Schultz
1 June 199815 June 20057 years, 14 days[95]
18Lieutenant General
Clyde A. Vaughn
15 June 20059 May 20093 years, 328 days
Major General
Raymond W. Carpenter
Acting
9 May 200928 November 20112 years, 203 days
19Lieutenant General
William E. Ingram Jr.
28 November 201114 January 20142 years, 47 days
Major General
Judd H. Lyons
Acting
14 January 201427 March 20151 year, 72 days
20Lieutenant General
Timothy J. Kadavy
27 March 201525 March 20193 years, 363 days
21Lieutenant General
Daniel R. Hokanson
20 June 20193 August 20201 year, 44 days
22Lieutenant General
Jon A. Jensen
10 August 2020Incumbent3 years, 119 days

See also

Comparable organizations

Notes

  1. ^ The 181st Infantry, the 182nd Infantry, the 101st Field Artillery and the 101st Engineer Battalion of the Massachusetts Army National Guard stem from the 1636 unit.[6]
  2. ^ As of 2021. While there have been 46 presidencies, only 45 individuals have served as president. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is numbered as both the 22nd and 24th U.S. president.

References

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  9. ^ 10 USC 12107. Army National Guard of United States; Air National Guard of the United States: enlistment in
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External links

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