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Armoured train

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The 'Hurban' Armoured train located in Zvolen, Slovakia. It is not the original, but a replica used in a film. Only two preserved original cars exist; they are stored nearby in the railway repair shops at Zvolen, where they were produced in 1944
The 'Hurban' Armoured train located in Zvolen, Slovakia. It is not the original, but a replica used in a film. Only two preserved original cars exist; they are stored nearby in the railway repair shops at Zvolen, where they were produced in 1944

An armoured train is a railway train protected with armour. Armoured trains usually include railroad cars armed with artillery and machine guns. They were mostly used during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when they offered an innovative way to quickly move large amounts of firepower. Most countries discontinued their use – road vehicles became much more powerful and offered more flexibility, and train tracks proved too vulnerable to sabotage as well as to attacks from the air. However, the Russian Federation used improvised armoured trains in the Second Chechen War of 1999–2009.

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  • ✪ Armoured Trains of World War 1 I THE GREAT WAR Special feat. Military History Visualized
  • ✪ Armored Trains in World War 1 - Germany & Austro-Hungary featuring The Great War Channel

Transcription

They were a development of the 19th century, but they certainly played a part in the First World War and beyond in the 20th, especially in the wide-open spaces of Russia and the Eastern Front where roads didn’t go. I’m talking about armored trains. I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to a Great War Special Episode about Armored Trains. Before I start, I want to point out that these are trains that had armored protection for their crews AND weapons, not like “armed trains” which were more for transportation only. And not like the mighty railway guns, which developed in parallel to armored trains and deserve their own special. Anyhow, the expansion of railway networks during the industrial revolution saw trains becoming vital military resources. Mostly for transport, but even in combat as early as the Austrian revolutionary days of 1848. Armored trains were used in the American Civil War in the 1860s; the first one patrolling north of Baltimore and being used against the Confederacy - this hinted at their later use in anti-partisan warfare. For the remainder of the century, the British army led their development, using them in colonial warfare. A big development during this time was placing an expendable railway car at the front of the train to protect the locomotive. The first major deployment of armored trains was in the Boer Wars, and the British had 13 trains in use - they could travel quickly through dangerous territory and soldiers could fight from within. “The best known action took place on November 15th, 1899... General Louis Botha ordered a Boer military force to block the train near Frere, while his troops launched an ambush from behind... When the train attempted to withdraw, it ran into a large boulder placed on the tracks... and one of the armored infantry wagons was derailed. The armored train was then blasted by the Boers, who were armed with two field guns... The armored train’s own 7 pounder gun was knocked out of action, but the armored locomotive was eventually able to push past the obstruction, leaving behind the derailed truck. Botha’s task force captured over 50 British troops as well as a young journalist... the young Winston Churchill.” This showed that the trains couldn’t really operate independently, so the British gave them seven main missions: infantry support, intercepting enemy troops, flanking protection, reinforcing railway stations and camps, patrolling, reconnaissance, and railway protection. They did not further develop the trains, though, as they saw them as only useful in colonial warfare, not European, but the Russians had been taking notes and began building armored trains around the turn of the century. So, when the Great War broke out neither the British or French had armored trains deployed. The Germans converted 9 civilian trains with armour plates and these were used behind the lines against Belgian and French saboteurs. The Belgians actually had two armoured trains of their own. The British Navy helped out at Antwerp by putting some naval guns on flatcars, and the Germans also used some during the beginnings of the Battle of Verdun, but armored trains weren’t very useful in the stalemate of the Western Front. It was a different story in the east. The war there was often highly mobile and covered huge expanses of land that were inaccessible by roads. Now, the Russian armored trains were based around an armored locomotive that pulled two armored cars that had machine guns and cannons. It also pushed two flatcars in front for security. These were used in the Battle of Galicia and in East Prussia in 1914 and had notable successes around Lemberg and then Brest-Litovsk in 1915. Austria-Hungary was so impressed - or concerned - by their performance that Hungarian Railways began building them in the winter of 1914-15. By 1916, they had improved the design and had deployed ten of them in Russia, Italy, and Romania. Again, the Germans put some together that were improvised designs, but they weren’t nearly as good/sophisticated as the Austrian or Russian models. MHV: Actually, Indy the Germans had a pretty good plan on how to use their armoured trains. Indy: Oh, I would recognise that German accent anywhere, you are the guy from Military History Visualised! MHV: Genau! And as I was saying the Germans had already developed a plan on using armoured trains for transport and patrol purposes, 4 years before the war they had regulations that even detailed how to mobilize their trains. Although, later on they improved less than the Russians and Austro-Hungarians. Yet, one interesting concept was the “Panzerhaus” or “armored house”, it was a rail car with traversable armored box or house on it. This allowed them to put various various field guns into them and since those also had frontal shields anyway, they had basically a poor man’s turret. Indy: This certainly sounds like the kind of ingenious design the Germans would come up with during the war. MHV: Exactly! If you want to know more about the German and Austro-Hungarian Armoured trains, you should come over to my channel and check out my new video about it. Indy: Oh, that sounds awesome, we will certainly do that. And I am sure everybody out there will also do that. Thanks for stopping by! Anyway, the Russian army. They really used armoured trains for surprise attacks and carrying troops into “hot zones”. They had 15 armored trains in use from Finland down to the Caucasus. Early in the war they were really just rolling fortresses with firing slits in armored cars, but by 1915 they were more like warships, with turreted guns and multiple machine guns. The Khunkhuz class for example had a 76.2mm gun at the front with a wide angle of fire and with a bunch of Maxim guns to protect it. Development then proceeded to armored railcruisers. These were self-propelled, needing no locomotive, and both the Russians and Austrians used these smaller machines with a fair degree of success. The most intense use of armored trains, though, came during the Russian Civil War. You could sort of guess that since much of the war was fought along railway connections between the larger cities, and that war also saw many smaller factions fighting irregular warfare. Different local militias took over the trains left from WW1, but the Red Army began producing its own. There was a wide variety of models, but the most common was still with two armored cars, a locomotive in the middle, and flatcars up front, maybe with a couple of field guns and 12 machine guns or so. Even so, these made up only around a quarter of the roughly 300 armored trains used in the Civil War. They were very effective; a Polish soldier recounted from the Polish-Soviet War, “In the recent battles, armored trains were the most serious and terrible adversaries. They are well-designed, act shockingly, desperately, and decisively, have large amounts of firepower and are the most serious means of our enemy’s tactics. Our infantry is powerless against enemy armored trains.” They eventually became the shock force of the Red Army, transporting raiding teams made up of 165 infantry, 47 cavalry, and a machine gun detachment. These units functioned as the train’s protection, but also as an extension of its operative range. That war even saw train on train combat, as the White Army had more than 80 armored trains of its own. One famous armored railcruiser was Zaamurets. Built in Odessa in 1916 and powered by two Fiat automobile engines, it saw fighting in 1916 and 1917, then when the Bolsheviks came to power it changed hands several times, fighting with Ukrainian militias, Bolshevik revolutionaries, and the German army of occupation. Eventually, it had an armored train attached and was taken by the Czech Legion, who were trying to leave Russia but had to go by the Pacific since the Germans were still fighting the war to the west. It was renamed Orlik and served with the Legion until they reached Vladivostok in 1920. The White Army then used it to fight the Bolsheviks until 1922 when they took it to Manchuria where it fought with the Fengtian Army in the Zhili-Fengtian War. It was captured by the Japanese and that’s the last I know of it. If you know more, tell us in the comments. Post WW1, armored trains were used by emerging nations from the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, they were used in the Chinese Civil War, and both the Nazis and the Soviets used them in World War Two, but their “glory days” were over; the days as a technical marvel and a weapon to be feared on the Eastern Front and indeed throughout Russia. One of the main sources for this video was “Armoured Trains” by Steven J Zaloga, a great overview on the topic with some really detailed illustrations. You can of course get the book and support our show if you get it through our amazon store by following the link in the description. If you want to learn more about the German and Austro-Hungarian armoured train doctrines, check out the new video by Military History visualised right here. Don’t forget to subscribe, and see you next time.

Contents

Design and equipment

A Polish armoured train, the Danuta, in 1939. From the left: artillery wagon, infantry assault wagon, armoured locomotive, artillery wagon
A Polish armoured train, the Danuta, in 1939. From the left: artillery wagon, infantry assault wagon, armoured locomotive, artillery wagon
A TKS tankette used as an armoured reconnaissance draisine, an attempt to overcome one of the inflexibilities of the armoured train - being limited to the track
A TKS tankette used as an armoured reconnaissance draisine, an attempt to overcome one of the inflexibilities of the armoured train - being limited to the track

The rail cars on an armoured train were designed for many tasks. Typical roles included:

  • Artillery - fielding a mixture of guns, machine guns and rocket launchers. See also railway guns.
  • Infantry - designed to carry infantry units, may also mount machine guns.
  • Machine gun - dedicated to machine guns.
  • Anti-aircraft - equipped with anti-aircraft weapons.
  • Command - similar to infantry wagons, but designed to be a train command centre
  • Anti-tank - equipped with anti-tank guns, usually in a tank gun turret
  • Platform - unarmoured, used for any purpose from the transport of ammunition or vehicles, through track repair or derailing protection to railroad ploughs for track destruction.
  • Troop sleepers
  • The German Wehrmacht would sometimes put a Fremdgerät, such as a captured French Somua S-35 or Czech PzKpfw 38(t) light tank, or Panzer II light tank on a flatbed car which could be quickly offloaded by means of a ramp and used away from the range of the main railway line to chase down enemy partisans
  • Missile transport - the USSR had railway-based RT-23 Molodets ICBMs by the late 1980s (to reduce the chances of a first strike succeeding in destroying the launchers for a retaliatory strike). The US at one time proposed having a railway-based system for the MX Missile program but this never got past the planning stage

Different types of armour were used to protect from attack by tanks. In addition to various metal plates, concrete and sandbags were used in some cases for improvised armoured trains.

Armoured trains were sometimes escorted by a kind of rail-tank called a draisine. One such example was the 'Littorina' armoured trolley which had a cab in the front and rear, each with a control set so it could be driven down the tracks in either direction. Littorina mounted two dual 7.92mm MG13 machine gun turrets from Panzer I light tanks.

History

Origins

An 1861 "Railroad battery" used to protect workers during the American Civil War
An armoured CGR 3rd Class 4-4-0 1889 locomotive derailed on 12 October 1899 during the first engagement of the Second Boer War at Kraaipan

Armoured trains saw use during the 19th century in the American Civil War (1861–1865), the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), the First and Second Boer Wars (1880–1881 and 1899–1902). During the Second Boer War, Winston Churchill, then a war-correspondent, was travelling aboard an armoured train on 15 November 1899, when a Boer commando led by General Louis Botha ambushed the train. The Boers captured Churchill and many of the train's contingent, but many others escaped, including wounded soldiers who had been carried on the train's engine.[1]

Early in the 20th century, Russia used armoured trains during the Russo-Japanese War.[2] Armoured trains went on to see use during the Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) and World War I (1914–1918). The most intensive use of armoured trains was during the Russian Civil War (1918–1920). The Spanish Civil War saw a little use of armoured trains, though World War II (1939–1945) saw more. The French used them during the First Indochina War (1946–1954), and a number of countries had armoured trains during the Cold War. The last combat use appears to have been during the Yugoslav wars of the 1990s.

American Civil War

The most successful armoured train was a single car built to defend the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad. The railroad had been attacked by southern forces to prevent transport of Union soldiers to the front; and snipers were discouraging men attempting to repair the damage. Baldwin Locomotive Works modified a baggage car in late April 1861. A 24-pounder howitzer was placed on a swivel mount at the opposite end of the car from the pushing locomotive. The sides of the car were sheathed with 2.5-inch (6.4 cm) oak planks covered with 0.5-inch (1.3 cm) boiler plate. The end of the car around the howitzer was fitted with hinged 2-foot (61 cm) panels which could be temporarily lifted to aim and fire the howitzer and then lowered to protect the crew of six men loading the howitzer with grapeshot or canister shot. The remainder of the car contained fifty ports for riflemen. The car was effective for its original purpose, but vulnerability to artillery rendered such cars of comparatively little use during later stages of the war. In August 1864, a Confederate raiding party disabled a Baltimore and Ohio Railroad locomotive pushing an armoured train; and then piled tires around the armoured car and set them afire.[3]

Volunteers

In 1884 Charles Gervaise Boxall (1852–1914), a Brighton-born solicitor and officer in the 1st Sussex Artillery Volunteers, published The Armoured Train for Coast Defence in Great Britain, outlining a new way to employ heavy artillery. In 1894, when he had become commanding officer of the 1st Sussex AV, railway workers among the volunteers of No 6 Garrison Company manned an armoured train constructed in the workshops of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (of which the unit's Honorary Colonel, Sir Julian Goldsmid, was a director).[4][5][6]

Second Boer War

The British Army employed armoured trains during the Second Boer War, most famously a train that was extemporised in the railway workshops at Ladysmith just before the siege was closed round the town. On 15 November 1899 it left the town on reconnaissance manned by a company of the Royal Dublin Fusiliers under the command of Captain Aylmer Haldane, a company of volunteers of the Durban Light Infantry, and a 7-pounder mountain gun manned by sailors from HMS Tartar. Winston Churchill accompanied the mission as a war correspondent. The train was ambushed and part-derailed, and Haldane, Churchill and some 70 of the troops were captured after a fire-fight, although the locomotive got away with the wounded.[7][8][9] Recalling his experience in My Early Life, Churchill wrote "Nothing looks more formidable and impressive than an armoured train; but nothing is in fact more vulnerable and helpless. It was only necessary to blow up a bridge of culvert to leave the monster stranded, far from home and help, at the mercy of the enemy". [10]

World War I

French mobile artillery battery (1914)
French mobile artillery battery (1914)
An Austro-Hungarian armoured train from 1915
An Austro-Hungarian armoured train from 1915

During World War I Russia used a mix of light and heavy armoured trains. The heavy trains mounted 4.2 inch or 6 inch guns, the light trains were equipped with 7.62 mm guns.[2]

Austria-Hungary also fielded armoured trains against the Italians in World War I.

A Royal Navy armoured train from Britain, armed with four QF 6 inch naval guns and one QF 4 inch naval gun, was used in support of the British Expeditionary Force in the opening phase of the First Battle of Ypres in October 1914.[11]

Crewe-built armoured train for coastal defence in Britain during WW1
Crewe-built armoured train for coastal defence in Britain during WW1

Two armoured trains were constructed at Crewe Works during 1915 for British coastal defence duties; one was based in Norfolk and one in Edinburgh to patrol rail routes on stretches of coast considered vulnerable to amphibious assault. The trains comprised two gun trucks, one at each end, mounted with a 12-pounder quick firing gun and a machine gun; an armoured cabin behind the artillery piece contained the magazine. Inboard of each gun truck was a truck for infantry quarters. This was also armoured, with observation ports and loops for rifle fire. The armoured locomotive, with the cab and motion protected, was marshalled into the centre of the train. The driver took up a position at whichever end of the train was leading, with the regulator controlled by a mechanical connection. The intention was that the infantry, with artillery support from the train's guns, was to hold off a hostile landing force until reinforcements could be deployed.[12][13][14]

Interwar years

The Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War used a wide range of armoured trains.[15] Many were improvised by locals, others were constructed by naval engineers at the Putilov and Izhorskiy factories.[15] As a result, the trains ranged from little more than sandbagged flatbeds to the heavily armed and armoured trains produced by the naval engineers.[15] An attempt to standardise the design from October 1919 only had limited success.[15] By the end of the war the Bolshevik forces had 103 armoured trains of all types.[15]

Estonian improvised armoured train in 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence.
Estonian improvised armoured train in 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence.

The Czechoslovak Legion used heavily armed and armoured trains to control large lengths of the Trans-Siberian Railway (and of Russia itself) during the Russian Civil War at the end of World War I.[16]

Estonia built a total 13 armoured trains during the Estonian War of Independence, 6 on broad-gauge and 7 on narrow-gauge railways. The first three armoured trains with fully volunteer crews formed the backbone of the front in critical early stages of conflict. Carriages were former goods carriages and at first armor was limited to wood and sand, but later steel plating, machine guns, and cannons were added.[17]

Lithuania had three armoured trains, named after the Grand Dukes of Lithuania - Gediminas, Kęstutis and Algirdas. The armoured trains trains were used in a period of 1920 - 1935. The first of them - Gediminas, was used in Polish–Lithuanian War.[18]

Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3 with Lithuanian soldiers
Lithuanian armoured train Gediminas 3 with Lithuanian soldiers

After the First World War the use of armoured trains declined. They were used in China in the twenties and early thirties during the Chinese Civil War,[19] most notably by the warlord Zhang Zongchang, who employed refugee Russians to man them.

World War II

A typical Polish artillery car from 1939. Such cars were used in the trains Śmiały and Piłsudczyk
A typical Polish artillery car from 1939. Such cars were used in the trains Śmiały and Piłsudczyk

Poland used armoured trains extensively during the invasion of Poland. One observer noted that "Poland had only few armoured trains, but their officers and soldiers were fighting well. Again and again they were emerging from a cover in thick forests, disturbing German lines".[20] One under-appreciated aspect of so many Polish armoured trains being deployed during the Polish Defensive War in 1939 is that when German planes attacked the railroads, it was usually the tracks themselves. As late as September 17, three fresh divisions in the east were moved westward by train. On September 18, three more divisions followed.[citation needed]

This in turn prompted Nazi Germany to reintroduce armoured trains into its own armies. Germany then used them to a small degree during World War II. However, they introduced significant designs of a versatile and well-equipped nature, including railcars which housed anti-aircraft gun turrets, or designed to load and unload tanks and railcars which had complete armour protection with a large concealed gun/howitzer. Germany also had fully armoured locomotives which were used on such trains.[citation needed]

During the Slovak National Uprising, the Slovak resistance used three armoured trains. The Hurban, Štefánik and Masaryk, which were built in the Zvolen railway factory, are preserved and can be seen near Zvolen Castle.[citation needed]

A Russian WW II-era armoured train with antiaircraft gunners
A Russian WW II-era armoured train with antiaircraft gunners

The Soviets had a large number of armoured trains at the start of World War II but many were lost in 1941.[21] Trains built later in the war tended to be fitted with T-34 or KV series tank turrets.[21] Others were fitted as specialist anti-aircraft batteries.[21] A few were fitted as heavy artillery batteries often using guns taken from ships.[21]

Canada used an armoured train to patrol the Canadian National Railway along the Skeena River from Prince Rupert, British Columbia to the Pacific coast, against a possible Japanese seaborne raid. The train was equipped with a 75 mm gun, two Bofors 40 mm guns, and could accommodate a full infantry company. The No 1 Armoured Train entered service in June 1942 and was put into reserve in September 1943, to be dismantled in the following year.[22]

Twelve armoured trains were formed in Britain in 1940 as part of the preparations to face a German invasion; these were initially armed with QF 6 pounder 6 cwt Hotchkiss guns and six Bren Guns. They were operated by Royal Engineer crews and manned by Royal Armoured Corps troops. In late 1940 preparations began to hand the trains over to the Polish Army in the West, who operated them until 1942.[23] They continued in use in Scotland and were operated by the Home Guard until the last one was withdrawn in November 1944. A 6-pounder wagon from one of these trains is preserved at the Tank Museum.[24] A miniature armoured train ran on the 15-inch gauge Romney Hythe and Dymchurch Railway.[25]

Japanese Imperial Army also utilized armored trains when they engaged Chinese NRA and CPC troops in Second Sino-Japanese War.

Later uses

A RT-23 Molodets in the Saint Petersburg railway museum
A RT-23 Molodets in the Saint Petersburg railway museum

In the First Indochina War, the French Union used the armoured and armed train La Rafale as both a cargo-carrier and a mobile surveillance unit.[26][27] In February 1951 the first Rafale was in service on the Saigon-Nha Trang line, Vietnam[28][29] while from 1947 to May 1952 the second one which was escorted by onboard Cambodian troops of the BSPP (Brigade de Surveillance de Phnom Penh) was used on the Phnom Penh-Battambang line, Cambodia.[30] In 1953 both trains were attacked by the Viet-Minh guerrillas who destroyed or mined stone bridges when passing by.[31]

Fulgencio Batista’s army operated an armoured train during the Cuban revolution though it was derailed and destroyed during the Battle of Santa Clara.

Facing the threat of Chinese cross-border raids during the Sino-Soviet split, the USSR developed armoured trains in the early 1970s to protect the Trans-Siberian Railway. According to different accounts, four or five trains were built. Every train included ten main battle tanks, two light amphibious tanks, several AA guns, as well as several armoured personnel carriers, supply vehicles and equipment for railway repairs. They were all mounted on open platforms or in special rail cars. Different parts of the train were protected with 5–20 mm thick armour. These trains were used by the Soviet Army to intimidate nationalist paramilitary units in 1990 during the early stages of the Nagorno-Karabakh War.[32][33]

Towards the end of the Cold War, both superpowers began to develop railway-based ICBMs mounted on armoured trains; the Soviets deployed the SS-24 missile in 1987, but budget costs and the changing international situation led to the cancellation of the programme, with all remaining railway-based missiles finally being deactivated in 2005.

An improvised armoured train named the "Krajina express" (Krajina ekspres) was used during the Croatian War of Independence of the early 1990s by the army of the Republic of Serbian Krajina. Composed of three fighting cars and three freight cars hooked to the front to protect it from mine blasts,[34] the train carried a M18 Hellcat with a 76 mm cannon, a 40 mm Bofors, a 20 mm cannon, twin 57 mm rocket launchers and a 120 mm mortar, plus several machine guns of between 12.7 and 7.62 mm.[35] During the Siege of Bihać in 1994, it was attacked on a few occasions with antitank rocket-propelled grenades and 76 mm guns and hit by a 9K11 Malyutka missile, but the damage was minor, as most of the train was covered with thick sheets of rubber which caused the missile's warhead to explode too early to do any real damage.[34] The train was eventually destroyed by its own crew[citation needed] lest it fall into enemy hands during Operation Storm, Croatia's successful effort to reclaim the territories under occupation by Serbs. The Army of Republika Srpska operated a similar train that was ambushed and destroyed in October 1992 at the entrance to the town of Gradačac by Bosnian Muslim forces that included a T-55 tank. The wreckage was later converted into a museum.[36] The Croatian Army deployed a two-wagon armoured train built in Split with a shield composed of two plates, one 8 mm and the other 6 mm thick, with a 30-50 mm gap filled with sand between them. The vehicle was armed with 12.7 mm machine guns.[37]

One armoured train that remains in regular use is that of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il, which the former received as a gift from the Soviet Union and the latter used heavily for state visits to China and Russia as he had a fear of flying.

Pro-Russian militants in the Donbass region of Ukraine were pictured operating a homemade armoured train in late 2015.[38]

Armoured tram

Armoured trams also existed, although apparently not purpose-built as some of the armoured trains. The just-formed Red Army used at least one armoured tram during the fighting for Moscow in the October Revolution in 1917.[39][40][41] The Slovak National Uprising, more well known for its armoured trains described above, also used at least one makeshift example.[42]

See also

References

  1. ^ Zaloga, Steven J; Bryan, Tony (2008). Armoured Trains. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-84603-242-4.
  2. ^ a b Zaloga, Steven J; Grandsen, James (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two. Arms and Armour Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.
  3. ^ Dome, Steam (1974). "A Civil War Iron Clad Car". Railroad History. The Railway & Locomotive Historical Society. 130 (Spring 1974): 51–53.
  4. ^ Norman Litchfield & Ray Westlake, The Volunteer Artillery 1859–1908 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1982, ISBN 0-9508205-0-4, pp. 160–2.
  5. ^ "Shoreham Fort - The 1st Sussex Artillery Volunteers". Shoreham Fort.
  6. ^ Boxall at Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  7. ^ Gen Sir Aylmer Haldane, A Soldier's Saga, Edinburgh: William Blackwood, 1948, pp. 139–46.
  8. ^ Rayne Kruger, Goodbye Dolly Gray, London: Cassell 1959/Pan 1974, ISBN 0-330-23861-2, pp. 104–5.
  9. ^ Thomas Pakenham, The Boer War, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1979/abridged edition 1993, ISBN 0-297-83222-0, pp. 95–6.
  10. ^ Roy Jenkins, Churchill. A Biography, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2001, p. 52.
  11. ^ 1914: The Days of Hope, Lyn MacDonald, Penguin Books 1989 ISBN 0-14-011651-6
  12. ^ Pratt, Edwin A. (1921). "Armoured trains for coast defence". British railways and the great war. 2. London: Selwyn & Blount. OCLC 835846426.
  13. ^ Batchelor, Simon. "Armoured trains in the First World War". National Railway Museum. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  14. ^ Nathan, Stuart (13 February 2017). "February 1919: First World War armoured trains". The Engineer.
  15. ^ a b c d e Zaloga, Steven J; Grandsen, James (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two. Arms and Armour Press. pp. 30–33. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.
  16. ^ First World War - Willmott, H.P.; Dorling Kindersley, 2003, Page 251
  17. ^ Rosenthal, Reigo (28 September 2012). "Armoured trains in Estonian War of Independence". Estonica. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  18. ^ Lietuvos kariuomenės šarvuotieji traukiniai 1920–1940 m. [Armoured trains of the Lithuanian Army 1920-1940] (PDF) (in Lithuanian). Vytauto Didžiojo karo muziejus. 2016. ISBN 978-609-412-089-3.
  19. ^ "Armored Car Like Oil Tanker Used by Chinese" Popular Mechanics, March 1930
  20. ^ Wie das Gesetz es befahl - Karschkes, Helmut, DVG Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, ISBN 3-920722-69-8
  21. ^ a b c d Zaloga, Steven J; Grandsen, James (1984). Soviet Tanks and Combat Vehicles of World War Two. Arms and Armour Press. pp. 200–205. ISBN 0-85368-606-8.
  22. ^ Rowse, Sue Harper (2005), In Times of War: Prince Rupert 1939-1945 ISBN 978-1411639270 (pp. 82-84)
  23. ^ Balfour, G 1981. The Armoured Train: its development and usage. Batsford
  24. ^ "The Tank Museum | E1987.159". tankmuseum.org.
  25. ^ "The Romney Hythe and Dymchurch Railway". narrow-gauge-pleasure.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
  26. ^ Le 5e Régiment du Génie d'hier et d'aujourd'hui : l'aventure des Sapeurs de chemins de fer, Lavauzelle, 1997, p. 73 (in French)
  27. ^ L’audace du rail : les trains blindés du Sud-Annam in Revue historique des armées #234, Alexis Neviaski, 2004, quoted in the French Defense Ministry archives Archived 2008-12-16 at the Wayback Machine
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Further reading

  • Zaloga, Steven J; Bryan, Tony (2008). Armored Trains. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-242-4.

External links

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