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Arlene Foster

Arlene Foster MLA (cropped) 2.jpg
First Minister of Northern Ireland
Assumed office
11 January 2020
Serving with Michelle O'Neill
In office
11 January 2016 – 9 January 2017[1]
Serving with Martin McGuinness
Preceded byPeter Robinson
Leader of the Democratic Unionist Party
Assumed office
17 December 2015
DeputyThe Lord Dodds of Duncairn
Preceded byPeter Robinson
Minister for Finance and Personnel
In office
11 May 2015 – 12 January 2016
Preceded bySimon Hamilton
Succeeded byMervyn Storey
Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Investment
In office
9 June 2008 – 11 May 2015
Preceded byNigel Dodds
Succeeded byJonathan Bell
Minister for the Environment
In office
8 May 2007 – 9 June 2008
Preceded byDermot Nesbitt
Succeeded bySammy Wilson
Member of the Legislative Assembly for Fermanagh and South Tyrone
Assumed office
26 November 2003
Preceded byJoan Carson
Personal details
Arlene Isabel Kelly

(1970-07-17) 17 July 1970 (age 50)[1]
Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland
Political partyDemocratic Unionist Party
Other political
Independent (2003–2004)
Ulster Unionist Party (before 2003)
Spouse(s)Brian Foster
Alma materQueen's University of Belfast
WebsiteOfficial website
^1 Foster served as Acting FM from 11 January 2010 to 3 February 2010 and from 10 September 2015 to 20 October 2015 while Robinson was on leave.

Arlene Isabel Foster, PC, MLA (née Kelly; born 17 July 1970),[1] is a Northern Irish politician serving as First Minister of Northern Ireland since January 2020, and previously from 2016 to 2017. She has served as Leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) since 2015 and Member of the Northern Ireland Assembly (MLA) for Fermanagh and South Tyrone since 2003.

Foster served in the Northern Ireland Executive as Minister of the Environment from 2007 until 2008, Minister for Enterprise and Investment from 2008 until 2015 and Minister for Finance and Personnel from 2015 until 2016. In January 2016, Foster became First Minister of Northern Ireland and shared power with Martin McGuinness.

McGuinness resigned as deputy First Minister in January 2017 amid the Renewable Heat Incentive scandal, which involved a green energy scheme that Foster set up during her time as Minister for Enterprise and Investment. The scheme was set to cost the taxpayer £490 million and there were allegations of corruption surrounding it. McGuinness asked Foster to step aside as First Minister while her involvement in the scheme was investigated, but she refused to step aside or resign and said that the voices calling for her resignation were those of "misogynists and male chauvinists".[2] Under the terms of the Northern Ireland power-sharing agreement known as the Good Friday Agreement, the First and deputy First Ministers are equal and, therefore, Foster could not remain in her post as First Minister, even in a caretaker capacity. McGuinness's resignation caused a 2017 snap assembly election to be held, in which the DUP lost 10 seats. In January 2020 she became First Minister of Northern Ireland again after the cabinet was reinstated.


Arlene Kelly, as she was then, was born in Enniskillen[3] and was raised at Dernawilt, a townland beside Aghadrumsee, a hamlet located between Lisnaskea and Roslea in the south-east of County Fermanagh.[4] Aghadrumsee, which is located in the Barony of Clankelly (Irish: Clann Cheallaigh, meaning 'Kelly Clan'), is only a few miles north of Clones, a town in County Monaghan.[5] When she was aged nine, her family moved to live in the Castlebalfour Estate, a housing estate in nearby Lisnaskea, after an IRA attack on the family home at Dernawilt.[6][7] She is a member of the Church of Ireland.[8] Her experience with the Troubles began early in her life when a night-time attempt was made to kill her father, a Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) reservist, who was shot and severely injured at their family farm; the family was forced to leave the Roslea area,[4] moving to Lisnaskea instead.

As a teenager, Foster was on a school bus that was bombed by the IRA, the vehicle targeted because its driver was a soldier in the Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR). A girl sitting near her was seriously injured.[9] She was a pupil at Enniskillen Collegiate Grammar School in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, from 1982 to 1989, and attended The Queen's University of Belfast (QUB), where she graduated with an LL.B. degree.[10] Her political career began at Queen's University after she joined the Queen's Unionist Association, part of the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP).[11]

She served as the association's chairman from 1992 to 1993.[12] After leaving Queen's University she remained active in the UUP, chairing its youth wing, the Ulster Young Unionist Council, in 1995. In 1996, she became an Honorary Secretary of the UUP's ruling body, the Ulster Unionist Council, a position which she held until her resignation from the UUP on 18 December 2003.[12] She was a Councillor on Fermanagh District Council representing Enniskillen from 2005 to 2010.

Assembly career

She was elected as an Ulster Unionist in the 2003 Assembly elections. While a member of the UUP, she was part of a "rightwing cabal within the UUP known as the 'baby barristers'." They actively opposed party leader David Trimble, and were a "thorn in [his] side" after he supported the Belfast Agreement.[13]

In 2004, Foster resigned from the UUP and joined the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), together with fellow Assembly members Jeffrey Donaldson and Norah Beare.[14][15] She was selected as the DUP's candidate for Fermanagh and South Tyrone in the 2005 UK general election, where she gained 28.8% of the vote.[16]

Negotiations took place between the local branches of the DUP and UUP with the aim of finding an agreed unionist candidate. The negotiations broke down with neither party willing to accept the electoral dominance of the other; the UUP claiming Foster's defection to the DUP disguised the reality of the UUP's electoral strength, while the DUP pointed to the change in the unionist political landscape following the 2003 Assembly election and the 2004 European Parliament election. The UUP candidate was Tom Elliott. Foster finished second in the 2005 general election with 14,056 votes.[citation needed]

On 11 January 2010, she assumed the duties of the First Minister of Northern Ireland, as Peter Robinson stepped aside for a planned period of up to six weeks. Foster worked alongside the deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness.[17] Robinson returned earlier than planned, on 3 February 2010.[18]

Minister for the Environment

In September 2007, a privately financed proposal for a new Giant's Causeway centre was given preliminary approval by Foster in her role as Northern Ireland Environment Minister.[19] Immediately afterwards, the public money that had been allocated to the causeway development was frozen. The proposal resulted in a public row about the relationship between the private developer Seymour Sweeney and the DUP; Sweeney was a member of the DUP, although both he and the DUP denied that he had ever donated financially to the party.[20]

On 29 January 2008, Foster announced that she had decided against Sweeney's proposal for a £21 million visitors' centre on a protected greenfield site, reversing her earlier position of "being minded" to approve it.[21] Although the public funds for a causeway scheme remained frozen, it seemed highly likely that the publicly funded plan for the causeway would go ahead with the support of deputy DUP leader Nigel Dodds.[22]

Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Investment

A major concession for Northern Ireland was the reduction to zero of Air Passenger Duty on long-haul flights from the province. In the devolution settlement such burdens were to be born by the Assembly government. But negotiations proved how DUP could sell their support to Whitehall.[23] In 2011, she had written to the Organised Crime Task Force about the need to bring fuel licensing within the remit of the Petrol licensing Consolidation (NI) Act 1929, demonstrating the relevance of cross-border law enforcement jurisdiction in helping to reduce frauds.[24]

As the minister responsible for energy policy in June 2012, Foster criticised the Co-operative Group over the showing of a documentary opposing fracking, saying: "I find your claim that you take 'ethics to the next level' hard to reconcile with your demonstrable support for a film which presents a wholly one-sided and partial approach to the debate about hydraulic fracturing."[25]

She successfully liaised with UK ministers, such as Secretary of State for Northern Ireland Theresa Villiers MP, to restore HMS Caroline in Belfast.

In March 2014, Foster called for an apology for what she described as "deeply insulting" language" in a comment made by fellow MLA Anna Lo of the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland. Lo had described herself as "anti-colonial" and said the partition of Ireland was "artificial".[26] Foster herself was challenged in a blog by Irish writer Jude Collins over the fact that she had chosen to speak out so robustly on the matter after not commenting about remarks made the previous day by another Unionist politician, Progressive Unionist Party leader Billy Hutchinson. The former UVF member who was responsible for two sectarian murders during The Troubles stated that he had "no regrets in terms of my past because I believe that I contributed to preventing a united Ireland." Hutchinson also stated: "There is no room for violence in this society."[27][28][better source needed]

First Minister of Northern Ireland

In January 2016, as she was poised to become First Minister, Foster stated that she would not be travelling to Dublin for the official centenary celebrations of the 1916 uprising against British rule, describing the rising as "an attack on democracy".[29]

Arlene Foster was First Minister of Northern Ireland from January 2016 to January 2017. She set the agenda during her maiden speech as First Minister as one of "hope for all the community".[30] Throughout Foster's period in office, a return to conservative social issues compounded by strong support for the government in Westminster made her a scourge of her left-wing critics.[citation needed] In May 2018, she announced she would be leading an Orange Order march in Fife, Scotland. As a committed member of the Order, this was a reason behind the original defection from the UUP ten years ago. As First Minister, Foster was emphatic in support for Brexit with a soft border along the republic; yet leaving the EU on the same terms as the rest of the UK.

The assembly was suspended following disagreements between the parties, particularly over the Renewable Heat Incentive scandal. While the Government talked about restoring the Executive as a "top priority" the constitutional impasse has made it impossible.[31] In May 2018, the High Court ruled that the civil service could not grant planning permission for an incinerator in Mallusk.[32]

In 2018, Foster addressed a PinkNews reception in Belfast, becoming the first DUP leader to attend an LGBT event.[33] Foster stated that, despite her opposition to same-sex marriage, she valued the contribution of the LGBT community in Northern Ireland and requested that differing views be respected.[33]

Committed to a business case, Foster was responsible for a super-fast broadband connection designed to enhance communications with international offerings. Regional Aid proved a vital part of the budget within the devolved framework. The reduction of sales and purchase taxes, such as Air Passenger Duty was typically part of her wider experience of stimulating business at DETI.[34] Fighting the cause of private enterprise has been an important issue for Foster: mobile phone companies and saving Bombardier jobs brought investment of £500 million, while public sector employment has declined.[35]

Renewable Heat Incentive scandal

In December 2016, Foster faced criticism and controversy after a whistleblower revealed that the Renewable Heat Incentive scheme overspent by £400m, a failure which has been nicknamed the Cash for Ash scandal.[36] The scheme was originally set up by the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (DETI, now Department for the Economy) when she was Minister of the department and the scheme offered incentives to businesses if they installed renewable heating systems, such as burning wooden pellets.

She faced strong criticism after it was claimed that she personally campaigned to keep the scheme open, even when senior civil servants warned of the overspend and the Minister responsible, Jonathan Bell, planned on closing it. It remained open for an extra two weeks before it was finally closed. It was also revealed that the Northern Ireland budget would lose £400m over the next 20 years as a result of the failure of the scheme. An independent audit investigated 300 sites and found there were issues at half of them, including 14 cases where there were suspicions of 'serious fraud'.

When senior civil servants suggested the closure of the scheme in September 2015, the Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister (now the Executive Office) pressured the department to keep the scheme open, which is when there was a spike in applications.[37] There were calls for Foster to resign as First Minister after the scandal broke.[38][39]

On 9 January 2017, McGuinness resigned as deputy First Minister. Under the terms of the power-sharing agreement that created what is now the Executive Office, his resignation has also resulted in Foster being removed from office, until Sinn Féin nominates a new deputy First Minister; the party stated that it will not replace McGuinness. No nomination was made before 16 January, resulting in the collapse of the Executive. James Brokenshire, the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland, assumed the powers of the Executive and called for a snap election scheduled for 2 March.[40]

In a statement posted to Facebook, Foster said that she was "disappointed" with McGuinness' decision and condemned it as "not principled": "At a time when we are dealing with Brexit, needing to create more jobs and investing in our health and education system, Northern Ireland needs stability. But because of Sinn Féin's selfish reactions, we now have instability, and I very much regret that." She expressed concern over the possibility of another election less than a year after the previous one, and said "this is not an election of our making", but that "the DUP will always defend unionism and stand up for what is best for Northern Ireland."[41]

Northern Ireland political deadlock

Since McGuinness' resignation, Northern Ireland was in a continuous state of political deadlock until January 2020. One of the key issues was the Irish Language Act, which Sinn Féin insist on and Foster has said that her party will never agree to. With regard to the proposed act, she said "If you feed a crocodile, it will keep coming back for more." This remark was widely cited during the 2017 Northern Ireland Assembly election even though Foster later apologised for it.[42][43] On 11 January 2020, the Executive was re-formed with Arlene Foster as First Minister and Sinn Féin's Michelle O'Neill as deputy first minister.[44]

Brexit and its aftermath

Following a Brexit breakthrough on 8 December 2017, Foster broadly welcomed the deal to progress talks, stating that she was "pleased" to see changes which meant there is "no red line down the Irish Sea".[45]

Both the border issue and abortion are 'red lines' for the eight Unionist MPs.[46] In May 2018, Theresa May stated that abortion is a matter for the devolved Northern Ireland government.[47] On 25 March 2020, Northern Ireland published the changes to the abortion law.[48] This law permits abortion on demand for the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, since 31 March 2020.[49][50]

In February 2021 after Brexit had been formally consummated on 31 December 2020, Foster raised a ruckus over the red line down the Irish Sea.[51][52] In a Daily Telegraph op-ed she maintained that the Northern Ireland Protocol (NIP) had "fundamental flaws" and suggested, in light of the COVID vaccine dispute, that in order to "protect the UK internal market by all legislative means necessary including triggering Article 16, Boris Johnson must now back up those words with tangible actions that protect the integrity of the whole of the United Kingdom."[53]

On 21 February 2021, Foster announced the launch of a judicial review of the NIP as she said it had driven "a coach and horses" through the Act of Union and the Northern Ireland Act 1998, which gives legislative effect to the Belfast Agreement. She takes the position that "Fundamental to the Act of Union is unfettered trade throughout the UK," and that the "new regulatory and customs processes required to bring goods into Northern Ireland from the rest of the UK" are inimical to the Act of Union. She is joined by various members of the DUP along with Kate Hoey, Jim Allister and Ben Habib. The threat of the EU to reinstitute a hard border if not for the customs barrier in the Irish Sea is a problem.[54] The group was joined by Nobel Peace Prize winner David Trimble on 24 February, as he wrote a scathing open letter to Boris Johnson prior to the commencement of proceedings. The group have instructed John Larkin QC, the former attorney general of Northern Ireland. Foster was part of discussions involving deputy First Minister Michelle O'Neill, CDL Michael Gove and Vice-President of the European Commission Maros Sefcovic .[55]

On 29 March 2021, the Johnson government decided not to force a preliminary hearing. A full court case for the Judicial Review was scheduled to be heard the week of 13 May 2021 in Belfast High Court.[56]

Personal life

Arlene Foster has three children with her husband Brian: Sarah, George and Ben.[57] In 2008, she was recognised as Assembly member of the year at the Women in Public Life Awards.[58] She and her family live on the outskirts of Brookeborough, a village in the east of County Fermanagh.[59][60]

See also


  1. ^ a b MLA Details: Mrs Arlene Foster
  2. ^ Cunliffe, Rachel (5 January 2017). "By crying wolf over sexism, Arlene Foster undermines other women's achievements". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  3. ^ "Fostering ambition: We profile politician Arlene Foster". Belfast Telegraph. 16 May 2015.
  4. ^ a b Arlene Foster – Profile Archived 11 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 11 January 2010.
  5. ^ Aghadrumsee Townland, Co. Fermanagh.
  6. ^ Fostering ambition: We profile politician Arlene Foster.
  7. ^ Arlene Foster: Effective politician, but with a fierce temper.
  8. ^ Manley, John (5 April 2017). "Arlene Foster: where did it all go wrong?". The Irish News. Belfast. Archived from the original on 25 June 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2017. For many observers, the new DUP leader's former associations with the Ulster Unionist Party and her membership of the Church of Ireland represented a break with her party's fundamentalist past.
  9. ^ Staff. "From bombs to the ballot box: New DUP leader Arlene Foster symbolises the Province's newfound hopes". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 18 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  10. ^ "Biography – Arlene Foster". Archived from the original on 13 March 2010.
  11. ^ Arlene Foster's unlikely path to Northern Ireland's top job Archived 15 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Telegraph, 12 January 2010.
  12. ^ a b Political Biography – Arlene Foster Archived 4 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine Democratic Unionist Party
  13. ^ McDonald, Henry (11 January 2010). "Robinson saga: Profile of Arlene Foster". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 19 May 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
  14. ^ "Donaldson resigns from UUP". BBC News. 18 December 2003. Archived from the original on 7 June 2004. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  15. ^ Jones, George (6 January 2004). "Ulster Unionist MP defects to Paisley". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  16. ^ "Election Data 2005". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
  17. ^ Peter Robinson steps aside as NI first minister Archived 14 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 11 January 2010
  18. ^ Robinson back as Northern Ireland first minister, BBC News, 4 February 2010.
  19. ^ Developer set to get Causeway nod, BBC, 10 September 2007.
  20. ^ Developer's DUP link 'no bearing' Archived 11 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 11 September 2007
  21. ^ Gordon, David (29 January 2008). "Foster ditches Sweeney centre". Belfast Telegraph. pp. 1–2.
  22. ^ Tom Peterkin (14 September 2017). "Giants Causeway Development Plan Anger". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  23. ^ An Air Transport Policy for Northern Ireland, 28 May 2012, House of Commons Northern Ireland Committee hearings, p.81.
  24. ^ Fuel Laundering and Smuggling in Northern Ireland: 3rd Report, House of Commons, Northern Ireland Affairs Committee, December 2011.
  25. ^ Magee, Kevin (14 June 2012). "Arlene Foster criticises Co-operative Group over fracking film". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  26. ^ "Anna Lo: 'United Ireland' remarks 'insulting', say unionists". BBC News. 20 March 2014. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014.
  27. ^ McBride, Sam (19 March 2014). "My murder of two Catholics helped prevent united Ireland – PUP leader Billy Hutchinson". News Letter. Belfast. Archived from the original on 6 August 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  28. ^ "What Anna said". Jude Collins. Archived from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
  29. ^ Henry McDonald. "Arlene Foster: Easter Rising was attack on democracy". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  30. ^ Maiden speech as Leader Archived 12 June 2018 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  31. ^ vol.791, Hansard, Lord Duncan of Springbank, House of Lords, 23 May 2018.
  32. ^ "Mallusk incinerator plan blocked by court". 14 May 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  33. ^ a b Salisbury, Josh (29 June 2018). "Arlene Foster addresses PinkNews summer reception in Belfast: Her speech in full". PinkNews. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  34. ^ vol.554, Inward Investment debate, House of Commons, 5 December 2012.
  35. ^ vol.675, 26 February 2014, Public Sector Jobs debate, House of Commons
  36. ^ "RHI scandal: RHI 'cash for ash' scandal to cost NI taxpayers £490m". BBC News. 23 December 2016. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017.
  37. ^ "Foster 'intervened to keep heat scheme subsidy open'". BBC News. 14 December 2016. Archived from the original on 15 December 2016.
  38. ^ Simpson, Claire. "People Before Profit to hold rallies calling for Arlene Foster's resignation". The Irish News. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  39. ^ "Arlene Foster rejects call to resign over botched renewable energy scheme". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 14 December 2016.
  40. ^ "Elections to be held in NI on 2 March". BBC News. 16 January 2017. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017.
  41. ^ "Martin McGuinness resigns as NI deputy first minister". BBC News. 9 January 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  42. ^ Devenport, Mark (9 May 2017). "Language issue still has (crocodile) teeth". Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  43. ^ Gordon, Gareth (7 February 2017). "Crocodiles, alligators and Irish language". Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  44. ^ "DUP and Sinn Féin back in top jobs at Stormont". BBC News. 11 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  45. ^ "Brexit: Broad welcome in NI and Republic for UK-EU deal". BBC News. 8 December 2017. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
  46. ^ Revesz, Rachel (4 June 2018). "The Northern Irish abortion issue could topple Theresa May once and for all – here's why". Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  47. ^ Walker, Peter (29 May 2018). "No plans to intervene on Northern Ireland abortion law, says No.10". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2018.
  48. ^ "Changes to the law in Northern Ireland: updated information". GOV.UK. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  49. ^ "NI to offer unrestricted abortion up to 12 weeks". BBC News.
  50. ^ "NI to offer unrestricted abortion up to 12 weeks". BBC News.
  51. ^ Hope, Christopher (3 February 2021). "Potatoes and tractors banned from Northern Ireland if they have British soil on them, says Arlene Foster". Telegraph Media Group Limited.
  52. ^ Yorke, Harry (3 February 2021). "Scrap useless Northern Ireland Protocol, urges Foster, as Johnson threatens EU". Telegraph Media Group Limited.
  53. ^ Foster, Arlene (3 February 2021). "Sticking plasters will not fix the fundamental flaws in the Northern Ireland Protocol". Telegraph Media Group Limited.
  54. ^ "Arlene Foster launches legal challenge to Northern Ireland protocol". Telegraph Media Group Limited. 21 February 2021.
  55. ^ McGovern, Eimear (24 February 2021). "Architect of Good Friday Agreement Lord Trimble joins legal challenge against UK government over NI protocol". Belfast Telegraph.
  56. ^ Yorke, Harry (29 March 2021). "Unionist legal challenge over Northern Ireland Protocol set for High Court hearing". Telegraph Media Group Limited.
  57. ^ Horan, Niamh (14 May 2017). "'I will not forgive or forget, but now I want to look ahead' – Arlene Foster". Irish Independent. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  58. ^ "Arlene Foster, MLA Minister of Enterprise, Trade and Investment". DETI. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2012.
  59. ^ Arlene Foster: Effective politician, but with a fierce temper.
  60. ^ Arlene Foster's son (10) expresses support for shared education.

External links

Northern Ireland Assembly
Preceded by
Joan Carson
Member of the Legislative Assembly
for Fermanagh and South Tyrone

Political offices
Office suspended
Title last held by
Dermot Nesbitt
Minister for the Environment
Succeeded by
Sammy Wilson
Preceded by
Nigel Dodds
Minister for Enterprise and Investment
Succeeded by
Jonathan Bell
Preceded by
Simon Hamilton
Minister for Finance and Personnel
Succeeded by
Mervyn Storey
Preceded by
Peter Robinson
First Minister of Northern Ireland
2016–2017, 2020–present
Party political offices
Preceded by
Peter Robinson
Leader of the Democratic Unionist Party
This page was last edited on 13 April 2021, at 11:56
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