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Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Archdiocese of Tours

Archidioecesis Turonensis

Archidiocèse de Tours
Cathédrale Saint-Gatien de Tours.JPG
Location
CountryFrance
Ecclesiastical provinceTours
Statistics
Area6,158 km2 (2,378 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2017)
604,000 (est.)
498,800 (est.)
Information
DenominationRoman Catholic
Sui iuris churchLatin Church
RiteRoman Rite
Established3rd Century (As Diocese of Tours)
5th Century (As Archdiocese of Tours)
CathedralCathedral of St. Gatianus in Tours
Patron saintSt. Gatianus of Tours
St. Martin of Tours
Secular priests79 (diocesan
22 (Religious Orders)
24 Permanent Deacons
Current leadership
PopeFrancis
ArchbishopVincent Jordy
SuffragansArchdiocese of Bourges
Diocese of Blois
Diocese of Chartres
Diocese of Orléans
Bishops emeritusBernard-Nicolas Aubertin
Map
Locator map, archdiocese of Tours
Website
Website of the Archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours (Latin: Archidioecesis Turonensis; French: Archidiocèse de Tours) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The archdiocese has roots that go back to the 3rd century, while the formal erection of the diocese dates from the 5th century.

The ecclesiastical province of Tours corresponds with the late Roman province of Tertia Lugdunensis. During Breton independence the see of Dol briefly exercised metropolitical functions (mainly tenth century). In 1859 the Breton dioceses except that of Nantes were constituted into a province of Rennes. Tours kept its historic suffragans of Le Mans, Angers together with Nantes and a newly constituted Diocese of Laval. In 2002 Tours lost all connection with its historic province, all its previous suffragans depending henceforth on an expanded province of Rennes (corresponding to the Brittany and Pays de la Loire administrative regions). Tours since 2002 has become the ecclesiastical metropolis of the Centre administrative region.

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Transcription

(pipe organ music) - Oh, this is incredible. - Welcome, Cathedral of the Madeleine. (electronic beeping) - Hey, I'm Matt, this is the Ten Minute Bible Hour and whether you're into the whole Christianity thing or not, I bet you've heard of Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. These are two different expressions of Christian faith, they're kind of two of the three really big ones, historically. And Protestantism is about a 500 year old expression that was born out of Roman Catholicism. Some theological issues were percolating and people were debating them and ultimately these two groups ended up deciding we're just doing different things here, we think different stuff. And there's this parting of ways. So like your Lutherans, your Methodists, your Baptists, these are all different types of Protestants, whereas Roman Catholicism continues to be kind of a singular, monolithic thing. I've always had pretty good relationships with Roman Catholics. I've always had pretty high regard for Roman Catholicism, but it occurred to me the other day that pretty much everything I know about Roman Catholicism has been taught to me, told to me, explained to me by other protestants. And I just thought you know, at some point it would be pretty cool to go and hear what Roman Catholics think and see what they do by talking to an actual Roman Catholic in an actual Roman Catholic church. So I put out feelers with a whole bunch of different churches and one got back to me called the Cathedral of the Madeleine in Salt Lake City which is actually secretly who I was really hoping would get back to me. And they were kind enough to take a flyer on some protestant stranger from the internet and invite me there with a camera to see what happens. So I went, I met with Father Martin Diaz, and well, here's what happened. Hello, Father Diaz? - Hi. - Am I saying that right? - Yes. - Father is the correct title? - That's the correct title, welcome, welcome to the Cathedral of the Madeleine. - All right, thank you, thank you, I'm Matt Goodman nice to meet you sir. - Matt, great to meet you. - I'm walking in here clueless. I have a billion things to learn, and the first thing I see as I walk up is that the front of your church looks a lot different than the front of my church. Can you just walk me through what this means? - This is called a tympanum, - Okay. - And it's of course the crucifix there and you have Jesus in front. And this is Jesus the High Priest, or Jesus Christ the King. - [Matt] Okay. - All right, the idea of course is that you're being welcomed by Christ, Christ is sitting on top of the world and so that coming into Christ who is the universal salvation. - Are those like straight up Notre Dame style gargoyles up there? - They're actually fake now. - Oh they are? - So they deteriorated so much from 1909 to 1993 when we did the restoration that they were taken down and fashioned out of concrete and then put back up. So they do not work as gargoyles. Gargoyles are downspouts. - Yeah. Why make them look like that, like Griffins, and like some of the gargoyles that I've seen even look kind of like demonic. - Yeah, to keep away, kind of scare off the evil. - Okay, so that's kind of a leftover from European folklore - [Father Diaz] Sure, sure. - [Matt] And stuff like that. Well, I'm glad you stuck with it because they're incredible. Okay, so this stained glass window up here that I'm looking at, - [Father Diaz] The rose window. - It is called the rose window? - Yes. - It's like Notre Dame. - Yes, they're all called rose windows if they're round. - Oh, so that's, - The round rose petal, and the idea of that is the rose petals. So that's why it's called a rose window. - See, I'm already learning things. I thought it was like some special nickname that was like this special unique thing for just this one place. - Like rose color or something, but no. - See, this is why you ask questions. - [Father Diaz] Yes, yes. - I guess you have to have a building that can support that size of an open space in order to accommodate that kind of stained glass. - [Father Diaz] Right. - Is there stained glass inside too? - Yes. - Can we go poke around? - Sure. - All right, let's do it. - [Father Diaz] Let's go. Welcome, Cathedral of the Madeleine. - [Matt] It's stunning. - [Father Diaz] Angels at the top, and down here the ground and the earth here at the bottom. - [Matt] How long did it take to make this? - [Father Diaz] So it took 10 years to build the cathedral. It was started in 1899 and was completed in 1909. - Where do I even start? I mean there's so much going on in here in terms of imagery. Maybe you could just walk me through the stained glass and what these represent and the story behind them to start with. - Where do we start with the stained glass? (men laughing) The side windows are the mysteries of the rosary. So it starts with the angel with Mary, Mary going to Elizabeth, Mary and Joseph the birth of Jesus, the presentation in the temple, and then Jesus at 12 years old in the temple. On this side then the three mysteries of the rosary that are not in the Bible. This mystery is the Holy Spirit coming upon the Apostles, the Pentecost, and then the last two, Mary taken into heaven and Mary crowned as Queen of Heaven and Earth. So that's the mysteries of the rosary and the rose window, again rose windows are classical in this kind of a cathedral. In the center is Saint Cecilia. And she is known for music, so she is depicted with kind of a rudimentary organ. Because that's where the organ loft is. So Saint Cecilia is the patron saint of music and that's why she's in there. And we have, - I'm learning stuff. The Foo Fighters have an album, or a song called Saint Cecilia and I had no idea why they'd pick on that, now I get it. - Right, right, yes, the patron saint. - I'm learning things about rock music from your rose window. - Kind of the masterpiece if you will is in the apps. So Jesus is divine, 100% divine, 100% human, so it's earth, humankind, and divinity, it's the sky, the heavens and the earth coming together. You're entering sacred space which is where you, even though we're grounded on earth, are touching heaven. So for us, the eucharist is three events in one. So it's the last supper, so every mass is the last supper, every mass is in the present moment, and every mass is the banquet in heaven. - Now you're saying that word is, with tremendous emphasis. - So it is, there's only one event, there's only one sacrifice. - So it's not a repetition of that event, - It's not a recollection, it's not, - It's an atemporal version of that event. - Right, it is the last supper. There's only one sacrifice. - [Matt] Okay. - It's it's Jesus, - Do you see my protestant brain trying to wrap it, - Right, so it's the cross. He only died once for all, once for all. And the last supper is the unbloody sacrifice of the cross, okay. - Fascinating, okay, all right. - So this is my body, this is my blood which is offered on the cross, it's his body and blood that redeems us. His death, and so every time we have mass, heaven and earth come together. Whether you're in the Cathedral of the Madeleine or you know, in a, - So it's all one mass. - It's all one mass. - Okay. - All one event, but it's outside of our, so we left the world behind, we left time and space outside. We left our world outside, we're in a world, and whether we're in this space or we're in a village someplace in Cambodia or Africa or whatever country that would be you know, it's the same heaven and earth coming together. And so our architecture and art help to depict that. - Yeah, okay. - Help us to understand that. But it's not necessary, does that make sense? - Yeah, I wanna go all the way down the rabbit hole with you on like the mechanics of that. Maybe when we sit down I can pick your brain more about how that happens. - But you also, so this is a cruciform church, right? So you've got the crucifix up there, and then this is a crucifix. So the altar in this, so this is architectural for this church, not the altar doesn't have to be here, but in this architecture the altar is where the heart is. So the pouring out of God's love from his heart - [Matt] Okay. - comes from the altar. So this is the gifts of grace flow from the altar and behind the heart is the head. In the cathedral, what makes a cathedral to be a cathedral is the chair, the cathedra. It's unique to every diocese has a cathedral with a cathedra. - But not every church. - Not every church, just cathedrals. And there's one in every diocese. - Okay. - And so that's our chair for the Diocese of Salt Lake City. - Who sits in that chair? - So that's uniquely the Bishop of our Diocese, that's his chair uniquely. So the chair sits at the head because the head of our diocese is the Bishop. - So does he celebrate mass weekly here? Is he around a lot? How does that even, - Well luckily he's not around a lot. No, (men laughing) - Keep that. (men laughing) - So he's here not every Sunday but a lot of Sundays and then the special celebrations that we have. - [Matt] So does he conduct those services when he's here, or do you? - No, he does. - Okay. This looks like a European coat of arms up above. - [Father Diaz] Correct. - [Matt] What does this mean? - So each coat of arms is meant to pull something out of the area or the person. His coat of arms is a three part coat of arms coming out of who he is. And the saying underneath, the motto changes from Bishop to Bishop. - Seems like there's a lot of moving parts. Is this, do you teach from here? - So that's the scripture is read from the ambo. Only scripture and sermon, homilies are given from there. We feed on the word of God from the table of the ambo, all right? - What does ambo mean? - Pulpit, it just means stand. - Okay. - You know some fancy word in either Greek or Latin. - That sounds good to me. - I don't know, yeah, and so we talk about the two tables of the eucharist. You know you go back to Acts of the Apostles, what did they do? When they met for the breaking of the bread they read the scriptures which of course for them was what we call the Old Testament, the Hebrew scriptures. They read from the scriptures and the breaking of the bread. So every mass is reading the scripture, breaking the bread. - So then if that's what you do in every mass and every mass is the same, then everyone is always taking communion, the eucharist together. - Yes, so we are at one as Jesus says may they all be one as the Father and I are one. So in communion we are one. Because it's a sacrament, it does what it says it does. It has a reality that's beyond your reality. It makes you one. - It's almost like translating two languages from all of the language that I've been raised around my whole life in you know the protestant notion of symbolism, that we are, you know this is a separate thing and we are commemorating an event that we would view as a singular event at the cross. And so it's fascinating, it's pushing me, and I appreciate the idea of the universality of that singular event because well, of course the cross was one event, I've just never really thought about the Lord's Supper, the eucharist being a singular event as well. So do you serve from here then? - So then the altar and so the first part of the mass we have the chair for the prayers at the beginning, then the scriptures, the sermon, homily. Then we move into the second part which is the eucharist. So the bread and wine is prepared on the altar, usually we have a procession with the bread and wine and then the eucharistic prayer, the consecratory prayer doing what Jesus did at the Last Supper. This is my body, this is my blood, so that all takes place on the altar. And then that part is over, we move into the communion part which it starts with The Lord's Prayer. So there's an exchange of peace that we do also in our rite. And then from the altar we take communion to the people. And this is, so what we're supposed to be doing is that the people are supposed to come to the altar to receive communion. Like you would come to the table at home, you sit down at the table to eat, so they're supposed to be coming. So the idea of the procession is that you're coming to eat at the altar. - So they line up right down the middle here? - They line up, but of course they don't come up to the altar because it's, there are too, you know, - Logistically. - Logistically, not gonna work. - Okay, all right, all right. - But that was in the past when you had an altar rail around where people took communion from the altar rail, the rail was an extension of the altar. So they come in procession because it's an altar call. - Oh, again that language means something a little different in my tradition. - It's an altar call. So if you believe in Jesus, if Jesus is your Savior, if you want to receive the body and blood of Jesus, come on up. That's what, we don't say it that way, - So a non-confirmed protestant could take communion? - No, so only, - So if you believe and you've been confirmed. - And yeah, you sign the catholic doctrine, you can come in. - All right, all right, all right, I'm trackin'. - Because it's that one, - I wasn't trying to get greedy. - No, no, because it was that oneness. If we're gonna be all, if it's everybody one, then we all doctrinally need to be one. - Okay. - Okay, so there's I must admit there's probably some people that have received first communion, - Some real sneaky ones? - Yeah, see them come in. We preserve the blessed sacrament in a tabernacle. - Oh, is that what this is? - Behind here, and we can go. Let me show you the tabernacle. - Yeah, I'd love to see it. - So the tabernacle here, is where we keep the blessed sacrament. We have a light that lets people know that there, and it's just the communion that's left over. - And you can't untransubstantiate what is already the body and blood of Christ? - You cannot untransubstantiate. - Okay. - So once it's the eucharist, it is the eucharist. - Which happens there. - So once you say the prayer, it is Jesus. - So what is in here is all post prayer, - The little tiny hosts. - Okay. - And that. - And so it's all post prayer that's in here. - Post prayer. So we preserve that in here and we use it. And then over the centuries people said well, you know if I believe that was Jesus over there then I believe that's Jesus here, and I'm gonna come and pray, well where am I gonna come and pray? Pray in an empty building? No, I'm gonna come and pray and then I'm gonna light a candle and then you know, and now two thousand years later, here we are. - So this is in Roman Catholic theology, this is part of the presence of Christ, - Right, right, and in this church it's here again because it belongs, I mean in a way you would say that the head is right here in this cruciform, you know, so again, so everything is Christ. Christ is the altar, Christ is the people, Christ is the eucharist, everything. Everything says it's Jesus. - You're connecting the dots with all of that for me better than anybody ever has, so thank you for your patience with my, - You're welcome, you're welcome, you're welcome. - My fifth grade level questions here. Something else that stands out to me back here, this, - So that's a reliquary. - I kinda suspected it might be. - So that's a reliquary and a reliquary has something based on a saint. So what we say is that that is a relic of Saint Mary Magdalene who is the patron saint of our church. Cathedral of the Madeleine is Mary Magdalene. - [Matt] So there's something a couple thousand years old in there? - Yeah, so a little tiny bone fragment, and that's all we know. - Okay. - I mean, we only have that and it's believed that that's that. - And that's, tucked away in the tiny little - Tucked away in the you know behind the fleur de lis in there you know, and that. And then Mary Magdalene of course is at the foot of the cross. So Mary Magdalene appears three or four times in the church. - Is this a reminder, or is there a spiritual reality to, - It's a reminder that we're connected, we're connected to our patron saint. And it just turns out that our patron saint knew Jesus. - Even though she's a part of the church triumphant, that relic, does that mean that she is present in the same way that Christ is present? - Oh no, no not at all. - So no more, she would be like any other believer, - It's reverence, but this is Jesus. - So he is here, she is remembered. - Right, right, right. And it's just meant to make a connection, and most people probably don't even know that that's a relic of Saint Mary Magdalene. This is called the ambry. - [Matt] Ambry. - Ambry, so every church has an ambry which is where the holy oils are kept. So these are the oils, the urns that are actually blessed every year, the oil inside is blessed by the Bishop. - This Bishop. - This Bishop. - Okay, and where does the oil come from, what is it made of? - It's olive oil. Olive oil and then the Chrism has a balsam perfume in it. - So it's all the same oil. Is there some sort of spiritual transformation or transaction that's occurring? - The blessing is for each oil in particular. So the oil for the sick is a healing blessing. The oil of the Catechumens, meaning those who are coming into the church is a, well Catechumens are kind of a spiritual kind of get out the evil blessing, if you will. - The gargoyles. - Yeah, and then the Chrism oil is the Christ oil, is the anointing oil of confirmation, ordination, and that, the sealing and the configuring to Christ oil. And in that oil, when it's blessed, the Bishop breathes on the oil, because his spirit, like God breathed into the dirt and got Adam and Eve, so the Bishop breathes into it for his spirit then resides, Christ's spirit resides in that oil, because he is Christ for us in the sense of you know, a vicar of Christ if you will. One who stands in the place of Christ, and then that. - So is it oil instead of water because of a reference to like the Old Testament anointing? - Yeah, the anointing, so you know when they anointed a king, Samuel anoints David, he breaks the horn of oil, pours it on top of him, and so that's in that. - Okay. - And in James, you know call the presbyters, have them pray over you, - Oh yeah. - And you know anointed with oil. - Is this another relic here? - This is a relic of the true cross. So this is, in Catholic theology, so we have very small pieces of the cross of Jesus. So that's, we have one. - So this would be the one recovered by Saint Helena in the fourth century? - Right, in the fourth century, so they say that pieces of that have been spread throughout the world, and we have one. - It's, yes. - I mean the historian in me just wants to be like well, how do you, - How do you know that and how did it work? We have one. - So we come down here. Is there significance to the baptismal font being at the foot of the cross? - So the baptismal font is for the entrance into the church. - Okay. - So it doesn't have to be here at the entrance to the church, - [Matt] Okay. - But we were able in our 1993 restoration to place the baptismal font here. And because it's the first sacrament, so it's a sacrament of initiation, so how do you get into the church? - Interesting. - You were baptized, right, - I just never thought of it as being chronological. - So before you are baptized, you are not a member of the church, you are not a member of the body of Christ, correct, right? - It's different in other traditions, but yes, I understand. - I mean, you're a pagan. You're not a Christian. Here we have our confessionals. - Tell me about that. - Let me show you. So again, they don't have to be where they are. - Okay. - But in this church, they're on either side. So not every church has an ornate wood carved confessional. We're lucky, okay. In our confessional there are two sides. So I don't know, - Am I allowed to go in? - You can come on in, only if you're a sinner. - Oh, well good! I can do that with enthusiasm. - In our confessional, the priest sits on one side and the people have a choice. They can sit, talk face to face, or kneel and speak anonymously through a screen. And surprisingly enough, people will kind of look and say hello, and then kneel down anonymously. - [Matt] Oh really? - For many people the anonymous is I'm not talking to this priest, I'm talking to God. The priest is just listening for God, and they want to talk to God and say okay God, these are my sins and this is where I need help. Others when people sit face to face often it becomes more of a conversation. These are my sins, you know, can you give me some advice and help and that. And each confession takes three minutes, five at the most. Unless someone really wants to talk. It's a very short experience. Come in, when was my last confession? These are my sins, here is a penance, here is the absolution, I'm sorry for my sins, absolution, blessing, out we go. - What is a penance? - So the penance is something that you do that kind of says you were sincere. - Okay, so like stopping doing the bad thing I was doing? - It's usually like saying an Our Father, praying an Our Father, praying a Hail Mary, praying maybe a decade of the rosary. - I'm so ignorant, what are those? - So the Hail Mary? - Yeah, or the Our Father. - Lord's Prayer. - Oh, okay, we call it the Lord's Prayer. - Sorry, Lord's Prayer. - We got a difference language. - I thought what, you don't know the Our Father? No, it's the Lord's Prayer. - I do know that one actually. - So I always say pray one Our Father and one Hail Mary. Hail Mary is the prayer that comes from the angel. Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with you. Angel Gabriel, and then the last part is Holy Mary Mother of God, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death. So it's just asking Mary, pray for us now, the hour of our death. - Okay. - And so sacrament of healing. People go to confession once a year, twice a year, once a month, so it's just, everyone has a different kind of style for, kind of time period. - On Netflix is Daredevil which is my main source of information about confession. - Okay. (Father Diaz laughing) - It seems like they always open with how long has it been since your last confession? - Yes. - Is that real, do you do that? - So you do that, and why do you do it? We can step out, we don't have to stand in here. - [Matt] I think it's really neat. - So if you tell me it's been one month since my last confession and I missed going to church twice. - Mm-hmm. - So that's two out of four, okay. But if you tell me it's been one year since my last confession and I missed church Sunday twice, that's two out of 52. - So it gives you context? - It gives me a context, it helps to understand kind of what the person's working on and how, you know doesn't make any difference in the sense, you know, but if someone said I've been a year since my last confession and I've not been to mass at all, that's a whole year's worth, you know that's a different kind of response if you will, than if someone says it's been a month and I haven't been to mass. So this is kind of an acute, something's going on right now, what is it that's preventing you from going to mass? How can I help you get closer to God? - Yeah, well it's an entirely different pastoral exercise for you to work with somebody who's maybe kind of walked away from their faith, than somebody who really wants to get it right and has been here. - From the forgiveness point of view it's the same. God forgives you. Whatever you did, God forgives you. But if I can help you, I need a context to offer some kind of gentle advice or push or you know have you thought about it this way. - Mm-hmm. - Does that make sense in terms of, - It does, that's something I can relate to. So a practical question. If this is shut, can people hear you out here? - No, it's a heavy door. - Do you get a line sometimes? - Oh yeah, I hear confessions for an hour. - People back up, - Yeah, people back up, it's an hour. - They're eager to be here. - And again, why do people line up? It's a profession of faith. - Yeah, it's interesting. We stepped in there, and maybe it's the architecture, maybe it's the environment, maybe it's something subconscious is brilliantly crafted into this. Maybe it's the fact that I'm also a Christian, by my inclination was I want to turn these off, shut the door, and talk for a minute. - Shut the door and talk. - It's the first time I've ever been in one of these. - We get non-Catholics who come and sit and ask for forgiveness. - Hmm. - Maybe we can have a conversation about that before I go. - Yeah. (thundering pipe organ music) - That's pretty much where we wrapped up the tour but there was so much other interesting stuff that I'm sorry I wasn't able to cram into this edit, but here are maybe the two biggest things that I personally am going to take away from this experience. Thing number one, I was struck by how utterly cohesive Roman Catholic thought and practice is within the context of a few key Roman Catholic assumptions. It is so easy for me to do this routine where I sit over in my little intellectual thought bunker echo chamber and imagine that everybody who thinks things that are different than me is just crazy, how could you believe something like that. Or intellectually dishonest, you're lying to yourself over there. But not only is that not true of most people, it's mean on my part. Naw, the reality is that most points of view are rooted in a few key assumptions, and then whatever happens after that flows pretty naturally out of those key assumptions. Same thing here. If you answer a few key questions about Jesus' relationship with the church, if you interpret a couple of pivotal passages a certain way, you're just gonna be catholic. And everything's gonna play out exactly the way it's played out. If you answer them a slightly different way you're probably gonna be protestant and they're gonna play out that way or orthodox and they'll play out that way. Whatever the case, this was a humbling, helpful reminder about that reality. Second thing that really stood out to me here is and you could probably see this coming as you were watching the video, but the confession bit there at the end, kinda got through the armor for me. The longer we were in that room and talking about it, the more I started to think about myself and about God and who I am and where I'm at with things and I found myself really wanting to try that out. And so Father Diaz said it was fine to take confession from a non-Roman Catholic. So after the cameras turned off we shut the door and we did that. And I know I can have that conversation anywhere, anytime with God if I want to, but there was something very powerful about having Father Diaz sit in on that conversation and about the environment and context in which we had the conversation. So, huge thank you to the Cathedral of the Madeleine for hosting this. Huge thank you to Father Diaz for the time, the honesty, answering my questions, even when he suspected we might disagree or maybe it would make me uncomfortable. He shot straight with me, and what more can you ask from somebody than that. And finally, if some of you just watched this video and you were sitting there saying well why didn't you press him further on that, or why didn't he push back on you on this point a little bit more, we actually have a second half to this conversation. Father Diaz and I did a sit down interview where we cover a lot of those key theological differences that I referenced just a second ago. I think that conversation is really worth your time, it has a little different flavor than what we just did. And so if you want to catch that video, I would be so honored if you would consider subscribing to this channel which now because of the way YouTube works is kind of a two-fold process where you've got to click the red subscribe button and also hit that little gray bell or else they don't let you know when a video comes out. But if you would consider doing that I would be very grateful. If not, that's cool too. I'm just glad that you're here and that you're up for conversations like this. I'm Matt, this is the Ten Minute Bible Hour. Let's do this again soon.

Contents

History

Ancient

According to Louis Duchesne, the See of Tours was probably founded in the time of Constantine; Gregory of Tours says by Gatianus.[1] As the city, (called "Caesarodunum"), was important as a crossing point of the Loire, it became a stop on the route to Santiago de Compostela. The fourth bishop was Brice of Tours. Stories about his tenure suggest tensions between the regular clergy and the secular priests in Tours at that time. Saint Perpetuus was bishop from 460 to 490. During his administration Christianity was further developed and consolidated in the province of Touraine. He was followed by Volusianus of Tours, a relative of Ruricius of Limoges. The first cathedral, dedicated to Saint Maurice, was built by Bishop Lidoire, sometime in the fourth century; it burned down in 561, but was restored by Gregory of Tours.

Bishop Chrotbert (Robert) is mentioned in the earliest grant of privileges to the Monastery of St. Martin in Tours,[2] made by Pope Adeodatus (672–676). The document survives only in two copies which differ significantly between them;[3] both are suspect.[4]

Medieval

In May 858, which was the third year of his pontificate, Archbishop Herardus held a diocesan synod, in which a codification was issued of the capitula ('regulations') of the diocese. The document contained 140 chapters.[5]

On 21 January 1216, Pope Innocent III confirmed an agreement entered into between the Archbishop of Tours and the Chapter of the Cathedral on the election of a Dean and Provosts.[6]

After the death of Archbishop Jean de la Faye in April 1228, there appears to have been considerable difficulty in finding a new archbishop. Jean Maan, Dean of Mans, was brought to Tours, but he refused the chair, or was unable to muster sufficient votes. Then the chair was offered to Master Pierre de Collomedio of Champagne, a Canon of Thérouanne and Papal Legate, but, though the election was canonically carried out, he refused the offer.[7]

Revolution

The leaders of the French Revolution, as part of their program, planned to bring the religions in France under their control. The Roman Church was rich, and therefore powerful. The Revolution needed to redirect that power and acquire that wealth to finance their own projects. One device was to transfer old loyalties by breaking up the traditional units of political, social and religious organization. The property of the religious organizations was to be confiscated for the benefit of the people of France, and all clergy would become state employees, with their salaries fixed and paid by the government. The new political unit was to be the "département", of which eighty-four were planned.[8] It was determined by the Constituent Assembly that the Church was overloaded with bishops; therefore the number of dioceses needed to be reduced, from the 135 of the Ancien Régime, to 82 or 83, and that to the extent possible they were to have the same borders as the new political departments. The Diocese of Tours was therefore abolished and subsumed into a new diocese, coterminous with the new 'Departement d'Indre-et-Loire', which was to be a suffragan of the 'Metropole du Centre' (composed of the dioceses of Allier, Cher, Creuse, Indre, Indre-et-Loire, Loire-et-Cher, Nièvre and Vienne, with its center at Bourges[9]) in the "Constitutional Church".[10] The clergy were required to swear and oath to the Constitution, and under the terms of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy a new bishop was to be elected by all the voters of the département, who did not even need to be Catholics.[11] This placed them in schism with the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope. Archbishop de Conzié of Tours refused to take the oath,[12] and his bishopric was therefore declared to be vacant.

On 13 March 1791 the electors of Indre-et-Loire met in Tours in the cathedral. They were harangued by members of the Société des Amis de la Constitution, who pressed for the election of their President, a former Oratorian by the name of Ysabeau, who, however, could not muster a majority. Instead on the next day the electors chose Pierre Suzor, the curate of Ecueillé.[13] He proceeded to Paris, where he was consecrated a bishop on 10 April by Constitutional Bishops Massieu, Delcher, and Sibille.[14] His consecration was valid, but uncanonical and schismatic, and brought him excommunication. As bishop, he was at first conservative and somewhat rigorous, refusing to sanction the marriage of clergy, but later he succumbed to pressure. At the end of 1793, when Religion was abolished and replaced by Reason and the churches closed, most of the 360 clergy of Indre-et-Loire abdicated or apostasized. Religion was restored in 1795, but Suzor did not regain possession of the cathedral until 13 May 1797. Suzor suffered a stroke in 1797; the bishops of the Metropolitanate were allowed to assemble at Bourges in 1800 to find him a successor. On 1 February 1801 Hyacinthe Tardiveau accepted the position, and Suzor died on 13 April 1801, having approved of his successor. Tardiveau was never bishop, since he made his acceptance conditional upon receiving the traditional bulls from the pope, which never happened. In May 1801 First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte required the resignation of all Constitutional bishops; he was in the process of completing a concordat with the Papacy, and the Constitutional Church was an obstacle.[15]

After the Concordat went into effect, Pius VII was able to issue the appropriate bulls to restore many of the dioceses and to regulate their boundaries, most of which corresponded closely to the new 'départements'.[16] The Diocese of Tours, which was coterminous with the Department of Indre-et-Loire, had as suffragans: Le Mans, Angers, Rennes, Nantes, Quimper, Vannes, Saint-Pol, Treguier, Saint-Brieux Saint-Mâlo and Dol.


Pilgrimages

The main pilgrimage sites in the diocese besides the grottos of Marmoutier, are: Notre-Dame-la-Riche, a sanctuary erected on the site of a church dating from the third century, and where the founder St. Gatianus is venerated; Notre-Dame-de-Loches; St. Christopher and St. Giles at St-Christophe, a pilgrimage dating from the ninth century; the pilgrimage to the Oratory of the Holy Face in Tours, managed by Priests of the Holy Face canonically erected on 8 December 1876.[1][17]

Bishops

to 700

[Valatus 618–619][33]
  • Sigilaicus 619–622[34]
  • Leobaldus 622–625[35]
  • Medegisilus (625–638)[36]
  • Latinus (638–650)[37]
  • Charegiselus (Carégisile) 650–652
  • Rigobertus 652–654[38]
  • Papolenus 654–660
  • Chrotbert 660–695
  • Pelagius II 695–700

700 to 1000

  • Evartius 700–709
  • Ibbon 709–724
  • Gontran II 724–732
  • Didon 732–733
  • Rimbert 733–752
  • Aubert 752–754
  • Ostald 754–760
  • Gravien 760–765
  • Eusebe 765–771
  • Herling 771–792
  • Joseph I 792–815
  • Landran I 815–836
  • Ursmarus 836–846
  • Landran II 846–852
  • Amalricus (852–856)[39]
  • Herardus 856–871
  • Actardus (872–875)[40]
  • Adalardus 875–890[41]
  • Herbernus 890–916
  • Robert II of Tours 916–932
  • Theotolo 932–945
  • Joseph II 946–957
  • Frotaire 957–960
  • Hardouin 960–980
  • Archambault de Sully 981–1008

1000–1300

  • Hugues de Chateaudun 1008–1023
  • Arnoul 1023–1052
  • Barthelemy de Faye 1053–1068
  • Raoul I 1072–1085
  • Raoul II 1086–1117
  • Gilbert de Maillé 1118–1125
  • Hildebert de Lavardin 1125–1134
  • Hugues d'Etampes 1134–1146
  • Engebaldus 1146–1157[42]
  • Joscius 1157–1174[43]
  • Barthelemy de Vendôme 1174–1206
  • Géoffroy de la Lande (1206 – 29 April 1208)[44]
  • Jean de la Faye (4 October 1208 – 23 April 1228)[45]
[François Cassard 1228–1229][46]
  • Juhel de Mathefelon (1229 – 20 March 1244)[47]
  • Géoffroy Marcel (13 May 1245 – 10 July 1251)[48]
  • Pierre de Lamballe (8 April 1252 – 24 October 1256)[49]
[Philippe 1256–1257]
  • Vincent de Pirmil (1257 – 19 September 1270)[50]
  • Jean de Montsoreau (16 January 1271 – 26 January 1284)[51]
  • Olivier de Craon (24 May 1284 – 24 August 1285)[52]
  • Bouchard Dain (24 April 1286 – 19 October 1290)[53]
  • Philippe de Candé (3 January 1291 – 15 February 1291)[54]
  • Renaud de Montbazon (21 November 1291 – 23 August 1312)[55]

1300–1500

  • Geoffroy de la Haye (20 February 1313 – 6 April 1323)[56]
  • Étienne de Bourgueil (16 August 1323 – 7 March 1335)[57]
  • Pierre Frétaud (14 July 1335 – 21 May 1357)
  • Philippe Blanche (3 July 1357 – 1363)
  • Simon de Renoul (25 October 1363 – 2 January 1379)
  • Seguin d'Anton (14 January 1380 – 20 June 1380) (Avignon Obedience)[58]
  • Aléaume Boistel (20 June 1380 – 1382) (Avignon Obedience)[59]
  • Guy de Roye (17 October 1382 – 8 October 1383) (Avignon Obedience)[60]
  • Seguin d'Anton (8 October 1383 – 25 March 1395) ('Perpetual Administrator', Avignon Obedience)[61]
  • Ameil du Breuil (5 November 1395 – 1 September 1414) (Avignon Obedience)[62]
  • Jacques Gélu (7 November 1414 – 30 July 1427)[63]
  • Philippe de Coëtquis (30 July 1427 – 12 July 1441)[64]
  • Jean Bernard (11 December 1441 – 28 April 1466)[65]
  • Gerard Bastet de Crussol (9 June 1466 – 13 May 1468)[66]
  • Hélie de Bourdeilles, O.Min. (16 May 1468 – 5 July 1484)[67]
  • Robert de Lenoncourt (29 July 1484 – 28 March 1509)[68]

1500–1700

Claude de Saint George (1687–1693) (Vicar General and Administrator)[83]
  • Mathieu Isoré d'Hervault (22 December 1693 – 9 July 1716)[84]

1700–1900

Archbishop Bernard-Nicolas Jean-Marie Aubertin
Archbishop Bernard-Nicolas Jean-Marie Aubertin

From 1900

  • Albert Negre 1913–1931
  • Ludovico Gaillard 1931–1956
  • Louis Ferrand 1956–1980
  • Jean Marcel Honoré 1981–1997[100]; elevated to Cardinal in 2001
  • Michel Moutel 1997–1998
  • André Vingt-Trois 1999–2005[101]; appointed Archbishop of Paris (Cardinal in 2007)
  • Bernard-Nicolas Aubertin, O.Cist. (2005 - 26 October 2019)[102]
  • Vincent Jordy (4 November 2019[103] – present)

Notes

  1. ^ a b Georges Goyau. "Archdiocese of Tours." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. Retrieved: 7 May 2017.
  2. ^ Gallia christiana XIV, Instrumenta pp. 5–6.
  3. ^ P. Jaffe and S. Loewenfeld, Regesta pontificum Romanorum I (Leipzig 1885), p. 237, no. 2105: "Duo sunt tradita exemplaria, alterum ab altero discrepans, sed aequo modo suspecta."
  4. ^ Julius von Pflugk-Harttung (1879). Diplomatisch-historische Forschungen (in German). Berlin: Perthes. pp. 120–121.
  5. ^ Gallia christiana XIV, Instrumenta, pp. 39–46.
  6. ^ Louis George de Bréquigny (1846). Table chronologique des diplômes, chartes, titres et actes imprimés concernant l'Histoire de France (in French and Latin). Tome cinquième. Paris: L'imprimerie royale. p. 38. August Potthast, Regesta pontificum Romanorum I (Berlin 1874), p. 444 no. 5054. The printed texts have Iuellum, an incorrect expansion of J.; he was Archbishop Jean.
  7. ^ Gallia christiana XIV, p. 104. This is according to the chronicle of Abbot Guillaume of Andres, in: Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptorum Tomus XXIV, p. 768.
  8. ^ Louis Marie Prudhomme (1793). La république française en LXXXIV départemens: dictionnaire géographique et méthodique, destiné aux administrateurs, négocians, gens d'affaires, et à ceux qui étudient la géographie de la France ... (in French). Paris: L'Éditeur.
  9. ^ Tableau des évêques constitutionnels de France, de 1791 a 1801 (in French). Paris: chez Méquignon-Havard. 1827. p. 28.
  10. ^ Text of Civil Constitution of the Clergy (in English) Retrieved: 2016-09-02.
  11. ^ Ludovic Sciout (1872). Histoire de la constitution civile du clergé, 1790-1801 (in French). Tome I. Paris: Firmin Didot et Cie. pp. 234–238.
  12. ^ Conzié made his refusal in a letter of 11 February 1791, in reply to a letter from the members of the Directory of Tours of 25 January 1791. Arnault, pp. 190–192.
  13. ^ Arnault, pp. 205–209.
  14. ^ Paul Pisani (1907). Répertoire biographique de l'épiscopat constitutionnel (1791-1802) (in French). Paris: A. Picard et fils. pp. 107–110, 456.
  15. ^ Pisani, pp. 42–44.
  16. ^ Concordat, et recueil des bulles et brefs de N.S.P. le pape Pie VII, sur les affaires actuelles de l'église de France (in Latin and French). chez J.R. Vigneulle. 1802. pp. 24–43. (Latin, with French translation)
  17. ^ Diocèse de Tours, Hauts lieux spirituels, retrieved: 2017-05-07.
  18. ^ Catianus: Gregory of Tours reports that he served for fifty years. Duchesne (1910), p. 302 no. 1.
  19. ^ Verus was not present at the Council of Agde in 506, but was represented by a deacon named Leo. Duchesne, p. 305 no. 10. C. Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 214: Leo diaconus missus a domino meo Vero episcopo Toronice.
  20. ^ Licinius was present at the Council of Orléans in 511. Duchesne, p. 305 no. 11. C. De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnhout: Brepols 1963), pp. 13–15.
  21. ^ Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum Book X, 31, says that they came from Burgundy at the bidding of Queen Clotilde, having been driven out of their dioceses, and that they ruled conjointly at Tours for two years. At Historia Francorum Book III, 17, however, Gregory says that Theodorus and Proculus succeeded Bishop Leo (526). C. Chevalier (1871), pp. 261–264. Duchesne, p. 305 no. 12.
  22. ^ Duchesne, pp. 305–306 no. 14.
  23. ^ Duchesne, p. 306 no. 15.
  24. ^ Leo was bishop for six or seven months. Gallia christiana XIV, p. 18. Duchesne, p. 306 no. 16.
  25. ^ Francilio was a Senator of Tours, and had a wife named Clara. He was bishop for two months and six days (or two years and six months), and was poisoned on Christmas night. Gallia christiana XIV, p. 19. Duchesne, p. 306 no. 17.
  26. ^ Injuriosus attended the Council of Orange in 533, and the Council of Orange in 541. Duchesne, p. 306 no. 18. De Clercq, pp. 102, 142.
  27. ^ Baudinus had been (in the words of Gregory of Tours) domesticus and referendarius of King Chlothar I. Duchesne, p. 306 no. 19.
  28. ^ Martin Heinzelmann (2001). Gregory of Tours: History and Society in the Sixth Century. Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–34. ISBN 978-0-521-63174-7.
  29. ^ A letter of Pope Gregory I, dated July 596, requests Pelagius and Bishop Serenus of Marseille to assist Augustine in his mission to Britain. Gallia christiana XIV, p. 26. P. Jaffé-S. Loewenfeld, Regesta pontificum Romanorum I (Leipzig 1885), p. 174 no. 1435. Duchesne, p. 308 no. 23.
  30. ^ Leupacharius: Gallia christiana XIV, p. 26. Duchesne, p. 308 no. 24.
  31. ^ Agiricus: Gallia christiana XIV, p. 26. Duchesne, p. 308 no. 25.
  32. ^ Givaldus, Guvalachus: Gallia christiana XIV, p. 27. Duchesne, p. 308 no. 26.
  33. ^ Valatus is the same as Guvalacus or Gwalachus. There is no name between Gwalachus and Sigilaicus in the episcopal lists of Tours.
  34. ^ Sigilaicus was bishop for two years and nine months. Duchesne, p. 292.
  35. ^ Leobaldus was bishop for six years. Gallia christiana XIV, p. 27.
  36. ^ Medigisilus participated in the Council of Clichy on 27 September 627, and signed charters in 632 and 638. He was bishop for eleven years. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 27–28. Duchesne, p. 292, 308 no. 29. De Clercq, p. 296.
  37. ^ Latinus was present at the Council of Chalons on 25 October 650. Abbot Betto signed on his behalf. Duchesne, p. 308 no. 30. De Clercq, p. 309.
  38. ^ Rigobertus signed a diploma of Clovis II on 22 June 654. He sat for two years. Duchesne, p. 308, no. 32.
  39. ^ Amalric attended the Second Council of Soissons in April 853. He was also present at the Concilium apud Bonoilum (Bonneuil) on 24 August 855. J.-D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIV (Venice 1769), p. 989; Tomus XV (Venice 1770), p. 24. Duchesne, p. 311 no. 50.
  40. ^ Actardus had been transferred from the diocese of Nantes (attested 853-871). Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 42–43. Gams, p. 581 column 2. Duchesne, 312 no. 52.
  41. ^ Adalardus: Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 43–45.
  42. ^ Engebaldus (Engebault) was a son of Geoffrey II of Vendôme. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 87–89. Gams, p. 640 column 2, gives the dates 1147–1156.
  43. ^ Joscius is also called Jodocus, Joscionus, Joscelinus, and Jotho (Gotho). Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 89–92.
  44. ^ Geoffrey de la Lande had been Archdeacon of Paris. On 18 May 1207 Pope Innocent III ordered Archbishop Geoffroy to compel King Philip II of France to return the goods of the deceased Bishop Hugo of Auxerre, which he had seized as 'regalia'. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 99–100. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  45. ^ Jean de la Faye: Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 100–104. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  46. ^ François Du Chesne (1660). Histoire de tous les cardinaux François de naissance (in French). Tome I. Paris: Aux despens de l'Autheur. pp. 208–210. François Du Chesne (1660). Preuves de l'Histoire de tous les cardinaux François de naissance (in French). Paris: Aux despens de l'Autheur. p. 177. There is no other evidence for Cassard beyond the purported Will said to have been registered in a volume of the Chambre des Comptes of the Dauphiné. Du Chesne says (p. 209) he was created Cardinal of S. Martino in Monte by Gregory IX in 1227, but cf. Eubel, I, pp. 8 and 46.
  47. ^ Juhel de Mathefelon was transferred to the diocese of Reims on 20 March 1244. He died on 18 December 1250. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 104–108. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, pp. 419, 503.
  48. ^ Geoffrey Marcel: Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 109–110. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  49. ^ Bishop-elect Pierre de Lamballe received his temporalities from Queen Blanche of France in January 1252: Louis George Oudard Feudrix de Bréquigny (1850). Table chronologique des diplômes, chartes, titres et actes imprimés concernant l'Histoire de France (in Latin and French). Paris: Imprimerie royale. pp. 213, 215. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 110–111. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  50. ^ Vincent de Pirmil: Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 111–112. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  51. ^ Jean de Montsoreau: Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 112–113. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  52. ^ Olivier de Craon: Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 113–114. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  53. ^ Dain was elected on 20 December 1285, and set off to give his oath to the King; he sent two procurators to seek papal approval for his election. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 114–115. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  54. ^ Philippe was elected by compromise on 3 January 1291 and died without having been consecrated on 15 February. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 100–104. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  55. ^ Reginaldus had been Dean and Chancellor of the Chapter of S. Mauricius of Tours. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 115–116. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  56. ^ Gaufridus had been a Canon in the Cathedral of Tours. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 116–117. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  57. ^ Étienne: Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 117–118. Gams, p. 640. Eubel, I, p. 503.
  58. ^ Appointed by Pope Clement VII, Seguin was named Latin Patriarch of Antioch on 20 June 1380. Gallia christiana II, p. 120. Eubel, I, pp. 94, 503.
  59. ^ Gallia christiana II, pp. 120–121.
  60. ^ Gui had been Bishop of Verdun (1375–1381), and Bishop of Dol (1381–1382). He was transferred to the diocese of Castres by Clement VII on 8 October 1383, and then to Sens on 4 August 1385, and then to Reims on 27 May 1390. He died on 8 June 1409. Gallia christiana II, p. 121. Eubel, I, pp. 173, 225, 258, 419, 448, 531.
  61. ^ Eubel, I, 503.
  62. ^ Ameil de Breuil was provided by Benedict XIII. Gallia christiana II, pp. 122–125. Eubel, I, 503.
  63. ^ Jacques Gélu was confirmed by John XXIII. He was transferred to the diocese of Embrun on 30 July 1427 by Pope Martin V. Eubel, I, 503.
  64. ^ Philippe was created a cardinal by Antipope Felix V on 12 November 1440. Gallia christiana II, pp. 126–127. Eubel, I, 503; II, p. 10 no. 16; 258 note 1.
  65. ^ The canons of Tours were unable to agree upon a choice for Archbishop, and therefore they referred to matter to Pope Eugenius IV, who chose ('provided') Jean Bernard, a native of Tours and a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law). He made his formal entry on 27 May 1442. Gallia christiana II, pp. 127–129. Eubel, II, p. 258.
  66. ^ Gerard was transferred to the diocese of Valence and Die on 13 May 1468. Gallia christiana II, p. 130. Eubel, II, p. 258.
  67. ^ Hélie de Bourdeilles had been Bishop of Perigueux (1437–1466). Gallia christiana II, pp. 130–131. Eubel, II, pp. 215, 258.
  68. ^ Lenoncourt was transferred to the diocese of Reims on 28 March 1509. Gallia christiana II, p. 131. Eubel, II, p. 258; III, p. 284.
  69. ^ The Genoese Carlo del Carretto, the Marquis of Finarii, was Bishop of Cosenza (1489–1491). His brother Federico was Grand Master of the Order of S. John of Jerusalem. From 1503 Carretto was papal Nuncio to the King of France, having been appointed titular Archbishop of Thebes for the purpose. Carretto was named a cardinal by Pope Julius II on 1 December 1505, and in 1507 Cardinal Carretto became Archbishop of Reims (1507–1509). He participated in the Conclave of March 1513 which elected Giovanni de'Medici as Pope Leo X. In 1514, either on 29 April or 3 July, he was named Bishop of Cahors. He died in Rome on 15 August 1514. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 131–132. Eubel, III, pp. 11 no. 9; 160; 284; 321. Tiziana Bernardi, "Del Carretto, Carlo Domenico", Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani Volume 36 (1988), retrieved: 2017-05-08.
  70. ^ Brillac: Gallia christiana XIV, p. 132. Eubel, III, p. 321.
  71. ^ Fournier: Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 132–133. Eubel, III, p. 321.
  72. ^ De la Barre: Gallia christiana XIV, p. 133. Eubel, III, p. 321.
  73. ^ Georges d'Armagnac had previously been Bishop of Rodez (from 1530) and Administrator of the diocese of Vabres (from 1536). He was the French Ambassador to the Pope. He was named a cardinal on 19 December 1544. He never visited Tours. He died on 10 July 1585. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 133–134. Eubel, III, pp. 28 no. 51; 288 with note 4; 321.
  74. ^ Poncher had previously been Bishop of Bayonne (1532–1551); he was appointed when still below the minimum canonical age. Gallia christiana XIV, p. 134. Eubel, III, pp. 128, 321.
  75. ^ Farnese: Eubel, III, p. 321.
  76. ^ Simon de Maillé had previously been Bishop of Viviers (1550–1554). Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 134–136. Eubel, III, pp. 321, 336.
  77. ^ Guesle was a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law). He received the grant of the pallium on 11 March 1598. Gallia christiana XIV, p. 136. Eubel, III, p. 321. Gauchat, IV, p. 350 with note 2.
  78. ^ A native of Florence, Galagai was the brother of Leonora Galagai, the wife of Concino Concini. He received the grant of the pallium on 30 January 1617, but he was never consecrated a bishop. After Concini's murder on 24 April 1617, he fled. Gauchat, IV, p. 350 with note 3.
  79. ^ Eschaud had previously been Bishop of Boulogne (1598–1617). Gallia christiana XIV, p. 137. Jean, p. 422. Gauchat, IV, p. 350 with note 4.
  80. ^ Bouthillier was Bishop of Boulogne (1627–1632). He had been Coadjutor of Archbishop d'Eschaud since 1 September 1631. Gallia christiana XIV, pp. 137–138. Jean, p. 422. Gauchat, IV, pp. 117 with note 3; 350 with note 5.
  81. ^ Rosmadec had been Bishop of Vannes (1647–1671). Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 395 with note 3; 362 with note 4.
  82. ^ Gournay: Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 395 with note 4.
  83. ^ Though nominated by Louis XIV, Saint George never received his bulls of consecration or installation, due to the rupture in relations between Louis XIV and Innocent XI. Jean, p. 422.
  84. ^ A native of Montpellier, D'Hervault was a doctor of theology (Paris), and a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law) (Paris). He had Jansenist leanings. He had been Bishop of Condom (1693). He died in Paris on 9 July 1716. Jean, pp. 423–433. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 168 with note 5; 395 with note 5.
  85. ^ La Croix de Castries was nominated by the King to the throne of Tours in 1717, but his bulls were not immediately issued, due to his Jansenist connections, and he could not take possession. He was granted the pallium on 2 October 1719. He was released from the diocese of Tours and transferred to the diocese of Albi on 23 September 1722. He died on 15 April 1747. L.-V.-M.-J. Jacquet-Delahaye-Avrouin (1822). Du rétablissement des églises en France, à l'occasion de la réédification projetée de celles de Saint-Martin de Tours (in French). Paris: A. Égron. p. 68. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 75 with note 5; 395 with note 6.
  86. ^ Blouet had previously been Bishop of Toul (1705–1723). Jean, p. 423. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 395 with note 7.
  87. ^ Chapt de Rastignac had previously been Bishop of Tulle (1721–1724). He was nominated Bishop of Tours by King Louis XV on 26 October 1723, and approved by the newly elected Pope Benedict XIII on 27 September 1724. He died on 2 August 1750. Jean, p. 424. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 395 with note 8; 396.
  88. ^ Rosset de Fleury was a doctor of theology (Paris), and had been Vicar General of Paris, and then Vicar General of Chartres. He was nominated to Tours by King Louis XV on 27 December 1750, and approved (preconised) by Pope Benedict XIV on 17 May 1751. He was nominated to the diocese of Cambrai by King Louis XVI on 24 September 1774, and therefore resigned the diocese of Tours on 2 March 1775; his transfer to the diocese of Cambrai was approved by Pope Pius VI on 3 April 1775. Jean, p. 424. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 143 with note 3; 422 with note 2.
  89. ^ Conzié had been Bishop of Saint-Omer (1769–1775). He was nominated to the diocese of Tours by King Louis XVI on 18 December 1774, and approved by Pope Pius VI on 29 May 1775. He emigrated during the Revolution and died in Amsterdam on 8 May 1795. Jean, pp. 424–425. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 109 with note 4. 422 with note 3.
  90. ^ Boisgelin was a native of Rennes, a doctor of the Sorbonne, Archdeacon of Pontoise, Bishop of Lavaur (1764–1771), and Archbishop of Aix (1771). He was elected a member of the Académie Française on 15 January 1776. He opposed the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, and emigrated to England in 1792; he resigned in 1801, in accordance with the wishes of Pope Pius VII. He was then appointed Archbishop of tours on 16 April 1802, and named a cardinal on 17 January 1803. Napoleon decorated him with the cross of a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor. He died at Angervilliers, near Paris, on 24 August 1804. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., p. 630-631. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, pp. 92, 433. Frédéric de Berthier de Grandry (2010). Boisgelin: l'homme du Concordat, sa vie, son oeuvre & sa famille (in French). Paris: FBG. ISBN 978-2-9513699-6-2.
  91. ^ A native of Grenoble and a student of Saint-Sulpice, Barral was Conclavist of Cardinal de Luynes in 1774. He had previously been Bishop of Meaux (1802–1805). He was a staunch supporter of Napoleon, who used him in his negotiations with Pope Pius VII. He was Almoner of Empress Josephine. Barral resigned the diocese of Tours on 26 September 1815, having compromised himself by officiating at the Champ de Mai during the Hundred Days, and died on 6 June 1816. G. Ogier de Baulny, in: L' épiscopat français..., pp. 346–347. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., pp. 631–632.
  92. ^ Chilleau had been Bishop of Chalons-sur-Saône (1781), but had emigrated in 1792 and resided in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria. He refused to accept the Concordat of 1801 with Napoleon, and remained in exile until the return of the Bourbons. He resigned the diocese of Chalons in 1816. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., p. 632. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 136 with note 4.
  93. ^ Montblanc had already been Coadjutor of Tours and titular Bishop of Carthage since 12 August 1821. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., pp. 632–633.
  94. ^ A native of Langres, and Vicar General of Dijon, Morlot had been Bishop of Orléans (1839–1843). He was named a cardinal on 7 March 1853. He was named Archbishop of Paris on 19 March 1857 by Pope Pius IX. Anselme Tilloy (1863). La vie et la mort de son Éminence le Cardinal Morlot (in French). Paris: Bourgeois de Soye. T. Cochard, in: L' épiscopat français..., p. 431. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., p. 633. P. Pisani, in: L' épiscopat français..., pp. 461–463.
  95. ^ Guibert was transferred from the diocese of Viviers, the appointment being approved by Pope Pius IX on 19 March 1857; he was installed on 28 April. He was transferred to the diocese of Paris on 27 October 1871 and installed at Notre-Dame on 27 November. Pius IX named him a cardinal on 22 December 1873. He died on 8 July 1886. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., pp. 465–467, 634. Auguste Du Saussois (1887). Le cardinal Guibert (Joseph-Hippolyte) archevêque de Paris, précédemment: évêque de Viviers et archevêque de Tours, 1802-1886 (in French). Paris: chez l'auteur.
  96. ^ Fruchaud was transferred from the diocese of Limoges, the appointment being approved by Pope Pius IX on 27 October 1871; he was installed at Tours on 6 December. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., p. 634.
  97. ^ Colet was transferred from the diocese of Luçon by governmental decree of 25 November 1874, which was approved by Pope Leo XIII on 21 December. He was installed at Tours on 3 February 1875. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., p. 635.
  98. ^ Meignan had previously taught biblical exegesis at the Sorbonne, and had been Bishop of Arras (10 September 1882), where he was a friend of Alfred Loisy. He was nominated Archbishop of Tours by the French Government on 10 January 1884, and approved (preconised) on 25 March, and installed on 27 May. He was named a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII on 17 January 1893. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., pp. 636–637. Yves-Marie Hilaire (1977). Une Chrétienté au XIXe siècle ?: La vie religieuse des populations du diocèse d'Arras (1840-1914) (in French). Tome I. Villeneuve-d'Ascq: Presses Univ. Septentrion. pp. 671–684. ISBN 978-2-85939-073-0.
  99. ^ Renou had previously been Bishop of Amiens. He was approved by Leo XIII on 25 June 1896. and installed on 21 September. L. Bosseboeuf, in: L' épiscopat français..., p. 638.
  100. ^ After his retirement on 23 July 1997, and after he had passed the age of eighty, Honoré was named a cardinal on 21 February 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He was assigned the titular church of Santa Maria della Salute a Primavalle. He died in Tours on 28 February 2013.
  101. ^ Vingt-Trois was transferred to the diocese of Paris on 11 February 2005 by Pope John Paul II. He was named a cardinal by Pope Benedict XVI in the consistory of 24 November 2007, and assigned the titular church of San Luigi dei Francesi.
  102. ^ "Rinunce e Nomine, 26.10.2019" (Press release) (in Italian). Holy See Press Office. 26 October 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  103. ^ "Resignations and appointments, 04.11.2019" (Press release). Holy See Press Office. 26 October 2019. Retrieved 4 November 2019.

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