To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Archaeology of the Philippines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The archaeology of the Philippines is the study of past societies in the territory of the modern Republic of the Philippines, an island country in Southeast Asia, through material culture.

The history of the Philippines focuses on Spanish colonialism and how the Philippines became independent from both Spain and the United States. During the colonial times in the Philippines archaeology was not used as it is today, it mainly focused on ethnographic and linguistic studies. Archaeology was influenced greatly by H. Otley Beyer who taught anthropology in the Philippines in 1914. Beyer's teachings in the Philippines gained many students to follow in his footsteps into the field of archaeology.

After the Philippines gain their independence from America in 1946, many students of Beyer practiced archaeology all over the Philippines. A few of Beyer's students and colleagues who worked around the Philippines are Robert B. Fox, Alfredo Evangelista, and F. Landa Jocano. Their contributions helped the Philippines archaeology grow stronger when analyzing artifacts and archaeological sites.

There are many prominent sites throughout the Philippines and some famous discoveries that were found date back to various time periods. A few well known site in the Philippines are the Tabon Caves, Lapuz Lapuz Cave, and Singhapala. Additionally, some famous artifacts found in the Philippines are the Callao Man, Tabon Man, Kabayan Mummies of Benguet.

History

Colonial period

Very little archaeological work was carried out in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period, even though the Spaniards were interested in the people of the islands from an ethnographic and linguistic perspective. Explorers such as Fedor Jagor, Joseph Montano and Paul Ray, and Jose Rizal, occasionally reported visiting sites, but the only detailed investigation was carried out by French archaeologist Alfred Marche in 1881. Commissioned by the French government, Marche conducted systematic surveys of burial caves on two islands, accumulating a large collection of antiquities which is now held in the Musée de l'Homme in Paris.[1]

The most influential early figure in the archaeology of the Philippines was American anthropologist H. Otley Beyer. Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States in 1898, and the American colonial administration actively encouraged the anthropological study of the archipelago. Beyer was therefore invited to establish the University of the Philippines' anthropology department in 1914. Early surveys and collections were carried out in the 1920s by Beyer, Dean C. Worcester, and Carl Guthe. Various private collectors and amateur archaeologists also accumulated significant amounts of material, but Beyer lamented that "none of this work was very scientifically done".[1]

The first major archaeological project in the Philippines was the Rizal-Bulacan Archaeological Survey (1926–1930), prompted by the discovery of finds during the construction of the Novaliches Dam in Rizal Province. Beyer opened substantial excavations in the area of the dam, employing up to seventy workers a day for six months. He also conducted a five-year survey of the surrounding area, cataloguing 120 sites and nearly 500,000 artefacts. In 1932, Beyer assisted F. G. Roth in beginning a second major project, the Batangas Archaeological Survey, which involved surveys and excavation in the Cuenca region. He also collected material from a number of localities around the islands throughout the 1930s and early 1940s.[1]

American colonial archaeology in the Philippines came to an end in 1941 when the islands were occupied by the Japanese. Beyer was interned by the occupying forces, although he was allowed to continue his work at the university. During this time he compiled two synoptic papers, 'Outline review of Philippine archaeology by islands and provinces' (1947) and Philippine and East Asian Archaeology (1948), which laid the foundation for subsequent Philippine archaeology.[1]

Post-independence

The Philippines gained independence from the United States in the 1946, but Beyer continued at his post at the University of Philippines until 1954.[1] In 1949, he was joined by Wilhelm Solheim, who was known in the Philippines for finding various pottery at different archaeological sites. In the 1960s, Robert B. Fox did archaeological work in the Philippines and is most famous for his research in the Tabon Caves.[2] In 1965, Fox had found a pot from the late Neolithic Period called the Yawning Jarlet at his time at the Tabon Caves.[3]

Alfredo E. Evangelista was a student of Beyer, Solheim and Fox and had instantly fell in love with archaeology. In 1956, worked with Robert Fox excavating the Bato Caves in the Sorsogon Province and later on they would excavate along the coast of Cagraray and Bikol. One of Evangelista's famous discovery in the Philippines was the excavation in 1957 of a neolithic jar burial site in Nueva Ecija in Luzon. In 1960 he began to work with Robert Fox and Ray Santiago for the National Museum of the Philippines.[4] From the 1970s to early 1990s, Evangelista then began to work at the University of the Philippines in Quezon City and again later at the National Museum of the Philippines in Manila.[2]

In 1960, Alfredo Evangelista and F. Landa Jocano worked together and discovered the Oton death mask in San Antonio, Oton, Iloilo. Like Evangelista, Jocano he worked at the National Museum of the Philippines as well as the University of the Philippines. Inspired by Fox and Beyer, Jocano brought New World terminology by using previous data to the prehistory of the Philippines. After Evangelista retired from the National Museum of the Philippines in 1992 Jesus T. Peralta became the Director III. Prior to becoming Director III, he was part of the Archaeology Division at the National Museum of the Philippines in 1988.[2]

Karl L. Hutterer, who studied under Solheim, became an influence to Philippine archaeology. Hutterer taught students the socioeconomic and political complexity of doing research in the field of archaeology.[2] When showing the socioeconomic processes to students, he focused on showing the diversity with the various cultures around areas. An artifact that Hutterer has examined in a geometric stone tools.[5]

In the late 1970s, William A. Longacre went to northern Luzon to do research on enthoarchaeology in the Kallinga region. He later furthered his research in southern Luzon, studying how earthenware potteries were made. An artifact that Longacre help discover and date was the Calatagan Pot with inscription.[2] In 1992, he contributed dating the pot with an accelerated mass spectroscopy, but failed to gather sufficient data.[6] He later suggested using a different form of dating C-14 technique to get an accurate date of the inscription.[2]

Before the 1980s, archaeology in the Philippines focused more on culture and history. The main way that archaeologists studied archaeology was using an inductive approach. When searching for artifacts the National Museum focused on collecting prehistoric remains.[2]

Notable sites and discoveries

Stone Age

Palaeolithic

  • The earliest evidence of hominins living in the Philippines is the 700,000-year-old remains of a butchered rhinoceros in Kalinga Province in Luzon. Predating the existence of Homo sapiens by at least 400,000, the butchered rhinoceros and the stone tools around it point to a possible colonization of Homo erectus or another possible Homo the Denisovans.[7]
  • The 67,000-year-old Callao Man.[8][9] was found in Callao cave and, before the found remains of 700,000 year old rhinoceros, was the oldest human fossil in the Asia Pacific region.
  • The Tabon Caves have produced a number of archaeological finds, indicating it was occupied almost continuously between 50,000 and 9000 years ago. Notably, a collection of anatomically modern human remains known as the Tabon Man was for a long time the oldest known evidence of a human presence in the Philippines.[10]
  • Later findings shed light on the daily lives of hunter-gatherers occupying a rock shelter in Ille Caves, Palawan, Philippines. Located near the Tabon Caves, the Ille Caves rock shelter was occupied many times, but the oldest stratigraphic layer puts the first occupation of that rock shelter at c. 14,000 cal bp (calibrated years before present). This assessment was made based on the presence of charcoal, placing this site well into the Pleistocene.[11]

Neolithic

Metal Age

The Sa Huyun Culture was a culture in modern-day central and southern Vietnam that flourished between 1000 BC and 200 AD.[21][22] Archaeological sites from the culture have been discovered from the Mekong Delta to Quang Binh province in central Vietnam. The Sa Huynh people were most likely the predecessors of the Cham people, an Austronesian-speaking people and the founders of the kingdom of Champa.[23]: 211–217 
  • Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery (190 BC to 500 AD)– In 1991, the National Museum archaeological team discovered anthropomorphic secondary burial jars in Ayub Cave, Barangay Pinol, Maitum, Sarangani Province, Mindanao, Philippines, dating them to be from between 190 BC and 500 AD. The jars are commonly known today as Maitum jars. They are made of earthenware, and are characterized by their design that suggests human figures with complete or partial facial features of the first inhabitants in Mindanao. Furthermore, they give emphasis to the Filipinos’ popular belief of life after death.[24]
  • Sultan Kudarat Anthropomorphic Pottery (not yet carbon-dated) - In 2008, officials found a tricycle (common Philippine vehicle) carrying artifacts similar in shape with the Maitum Anthropomorphic Potteries, but are painted, and have clearer expressions. The shards were explicitly crafted, more expertly than those found in Sarangani in 1991. The looter afterwards presented forged documents of his ownership on the shards. He was afterwards arrested. The National Museum of the Philippines confirmed that the way the jar shards were made is new to Philippine archaeology, as no known ethnic group in the entire country is known to craft such precise pieces of burial jars. The museum confirmed that the jars may be the remnant artifacts of a lost tribe in the Philippines that may have gone extinct prior to colonization. The jars were found 'somewhere in Sultan Kudarat province' according to the reports, but the true location has not been determined as the caught looter is only a part of the chain which looted the artifacts from its original location. Other scholars speculate that the jars came from Maguindanao. In either case, looking for the original archaeological site of the jars was deemed as a difficult task as both Sultan Kudarat and Maguindanao are home to Muslim rebels fighting government forces, making it hard for scholars to enter the area and make an expedition. Funding on a possible expedition was also deemed as extremely limited. No expedition to locate the original archaeological site of the jars has been made up to present time. Research on the jars have also been hindered as expert findings can only be made once the location has been well-researched on, according to the National Museum.[25]

Early Historic Period (900–1521)

Architecture

Indigenous Architecture
  • Idjang- A triangle-shaped Citadel erected in Batanes Islands in the Philippines, made from limestone and wood.
  • Limestone tombs of Kamhantik is an excavated remains of a thousand-year-old village found in the jungles of Mount Maclayao in Sitio Kamhantik within the Buenavista Protected Landscape of Mulanay, Quezon, Philippines. It is composed of fifteen limestone coffins that can be dated back from the period of 10th to 14th century based on one of National Museum's top archaeologist "a complex archaeological site with both habitation and burial remains from the period of approximately 10th to the 14th century ... the first of its kind in the Philippines having carved limestone tombs."[26]
Islamic Architecture

Burial sites and grave artifacts

  • Oton death mask – Discovered in the 1960s by Alfredo Evanghilista and F. Landa Jocan, it consists of gold nose-disc and eye mask find in an ancient grave in Oton, Iloilo.[13] The Death Mask was used to cover the faces of the dead to inhibit evil spirits from entering the body of the deceased. This practice was brought over from China to the Philippines between the late 14th to 15th century.[31]
  • The Kabayan Mummies of Benguet also known as the Kabayan Mummies, Benguet Mummies, or Ibaloi Mummies, are a group of mummies found along the mountain slopes of Kabayan, a town in the northern part of the Philippines. They were made from as early as 2000 BC until the 16th century, when Spain colonized the Philippines. Today, they remain in natural caves and a museum in Kabayan.[32]

Clothing or Jewelry

  • Banton Colth-The Banton cloth is the earliest known warp ikat (tie-resist dyeing) textile in Southeast Asia. Estimated to be 400 years old, the burial cloth was found in a wooden coffin that also contained blue and white ceramics in Banton Island, Romblon. The shroud was woven from red, black and white abaca threads. At present, the people in Bontok, Mt. Province use a colorful burial cloth to wrap the dead.[33]
  • Lingling-o- Lingling-o are an "omega shaped"[34] type of pendant or amulet that has been associated with various indigenous cultures of the Philippines since the early metal age.[35] The earliest surviving examples of lingling-o, dating back to the metal age, were made out of Nephrite jade, but many later examples were made of shell, gold, copper, and wood;[35] the kind of material suggests differences in the social standing of its wearer.[35] Recent findings in the Northern Philippine province of Batanes, led by anthropologist Peter Bellwood in the early 2000s, have led to the discovery of an ancient goldsmith's shop that made the 20-centuries-old lingling-o, providing evidence of the indigenous Philippine manufacture of such artifacts as early as 2500 years ago.[34]
  • The Philippines's archaeological finds include many ancient gold artifacts.[36][37]

Currency

  • Piloncitos – the earliest form of precious metal based currency of the Philippines.[38] It is likely made of pure gold with a weight ranging between .5 grams to more or less than 3 grams a size of a corn kernel—and weigh from 0.09 to 2.65 grams of fine gold. Large Piloncitos weighing 2.65 grams approximate the weight of one mass. Piloncitos have been excavated from Mandaluyong, Bataan, the banks of the Pasig River, Batangas, Marinduque, Samar, Leyte and some areas in Mindanao.[39]
  • Gold ring currencies- The early Filipinos traded Piloncitos also along with Gold rings, which is gold ring-like ingots. These barter rings are bigger than doughnuts in size and are made of nearly pure gold.[40]

Documents, inscriptions, or seals

Iconography

Hindu-Buddhist

Although some 20th century historians believed that the various cultures of the Philippine archipelago first encountered Hindu and/or Buddhist beliefes as early as the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE,[48] more recent scholarship suggests that these cultural influences mostly filtered in during the 10th through the early 14th centuries. Present-day scholarship believes these religious and cultural influences mostly came through trade with Southeast Asian thassalocratic empires such as the Srivijaya and Majapahit, which had in turn had trade relationships with India.[48][49][50][51]

Scholars such as Milton Osborne emphasise that despite these beliefs being originally from India, they reached the Philippines through Southeast Asian cultures with Austronesian roots.[52]

Artifacts[verification needed] reflect the iconography of the Vajrayana Buddhism and its influences on the Philippines's early states.[53]

Ships

The balangay replica docked at CCP Harbor Manila after its South East Asian expedition.
The balangay replica docked at CCP Harbor Manila after its South East Asian expedition.

Utensils

Indigenous utensil artifacts

  • Calatagan Ritual pot – a clay pot contain Badlit inscriptions, The pot was probably also used for ceremonies to retrieve victims of bugkut, disappeared persons believed to have been abducted by dwellers of the spirit world. The paper provides a glossary of 26 Bisayan words that could be derived from the Calatagan Pot inscription.[65]

Tradeware artifacts

Porcelain tradeware

Porcelain tradeware from Vietnam, Taiwan, and China were so prevalent during the Philippines "late metal age" that early scholars of Philippine anthropology came to refer to the period as the Philippines' "Porcelain age." Before the discovery of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription in the early 1990s, anthropologist, the richness of historical clues which could be derived from these porcelain artifacts led scholars to use the term "protohistory."[48] The Iron Age consisted of a phase called the "Porcelain Age," and porcelain in this phase entered the Philippines around the nineteenth century A.D. along with "glazed stoneware" from Southeast Asia.[66]

  • The "Flying elephant of Lenna Shoal" plate is considered a remarkable example of Chinese tradeware, with only two extant examples known in the world today.[13]

Colonial (1521–1946)

Spanish colonial period

The Santo Niño de Cebú, one of the oldest Christian relics in the Philippines.
The Santo Niño de Cebú, one of the oldest Christian relics in the Philippines.
The attire of a Tagalog Maharlika nobility depicts in the Boxer Codex.
The attire of a Tagalog Maharlika nobility depicts in the Boxer Codex.
  • Boxer Codex – a manuscript written c. 1590,[78] which contains illustrations of ethnic groups in the Philippines at the time of their initial contact with the Spaniards. Aside from a description of, and historical allusions to what is now the Philippines and various other Far Eastern countries, the codex also contains seventy-five coloured drawings of the inhabitants of these regions and their distinctive costume.[79]
  • Doctrina Christiana- an early book on the Roman Catholic Catechism, written in 1593 by Fray Juan de Plasencia, and is believed to be one of the earliest printed books in the Philippines.[80] extant copies had been find ancient script translation along with the Spanish Latin content. Baybayin is widely used in the Philippines even before the Spaniards came.
  • Murillo Map also known as Carta hydrographica y chorographica de las Islas Filipinas – Map of the Philippine Islands published by Pedro Murillo Velarde in 1774, the earliest map so far it was drawn and engraved by the skilled Filipino artisans Francisco Suarez and Nicolas de la Cruz Bagay .[81]
  • Magellan Shrine
  • Fort Santiago is a citadel first built by Spanish conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi for the new established city of Manila in the Philippines. The defense fortress is part of the structures of the walled city of Manila referred to as Intramuros.
  • Fort Capul, Northern Samar – Founded in 1596 by the Jesuits, it the only town with a majority of the rare Inakbanon language speakers. The town became the focal transition between the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade from the 16th to 18th centuries. A fort town, much of the architecture of the town is based on protection against Moro raiders coming from as far as Mindanao.[82]
  • The Ruins of Old Tanauan church is located at the lake shore of Talisay in Batangas Province are remains of a church structure dating to the Spanish Colonial Period of the Philippines. It is the site of the first stone church of Tanauan, before the whole town relocated to its present location in 1754. Currently the ruins are within the property of Club Balai Isabel Resort.[83][84]
Ruins of the Cagsawa church.
Ruins of the Cagsawa church.
Calle Crisologo in Vigan at night.
Calle Crisologo in Vigan at night.
  • City of Vigan Located on the western coast of the large island of Luzon, facing the South China Sea, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site in that it is one of the few towns left in the Philippines whose old structures have mostly remained intact, and it is well known for its cobblestone streets and architecture of the Philippine colonial era which fuses Native Philippine and Oriental building designs and construction, with colonial Spanish architecture. Former Philippine president Elpidio Quirino, the sixth President of the Philippines, was born in Vigan, at the former location of the Provincial Jail (his father was a warden); he resided in the Syquia Mansion. In May 2015, Vigan City was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Beirut, Doha, Durban, Havana, Kuala Lumpur and La Paz.[88] New7Wonders Foundation president and founding member Bernard Weber led a ceremony held at St. Paul Cathedral where he handed a bronze plaque to Vigan Mayor Eva Grace Singson-Medina, signifying the heritage city's election as one of the world's wonder cities.[89]
  • Banaue Rice Terraces- Initially believed to pre-date the arrival of the Spanish colonizers, recent scholarship has led scholars to conclude that the Banaue rice terraces were constructed in the 1650s, an indigenous response to Spanish colonial rule in the lowlands.[90]

American colonial period

  • The El Fraile Island (originally known as Fort Drum), which nicknamed as "the concrete battleship," is a heavily fortified island situated at the mouth of Manila Bay in the Philippines, due south of Corregidor Island. The reinforced concrete fortress shaped like a battleship was built by the United States in 1909 as one of the harbor defenses at the wider South Channel entrance to the bay during the American colonial period. It was captured and occupied by the Japanese during World War II, and was recaptured by the U.S. after igniting petroleum and gasoline in the fort, leaving it permanently out of commission.[91]
  • The Malinta Tunnel is a tunnel complex built by the United States Army Corps of Engineers on the island of Corregidor in the Philippines. It was initially used as a bomb-proof storage and personnel bunker, but was later equipped as a 1,000-bed hospital.[92] The main tunnel, running east to west, is 831 feet (253 m) long, 24 feet (7.3 m) wide and 18 feet (5.5 m) high.[93] Branching off from this main shaft are 13 lateral tunnels on the north side and 11 lateral tunnels on the south side. Each lateral averaged 160 feet (49 m) in length and 15 feet (4.6 m) in width.[94]
  • The Pearl of Lao Tzu (also referred to as previously as Pearl of Allah) used to be the largest known pearl. The pearl was found in the Palawan sea, which surrounds the island of Palawan in the Philippines, and was found by a Filipino diver.[95] It is not considered a gemstone pearl, but is instead known as a "clam pearl" or "Tridacna pearl" from a giant clam. It measures 24 centimeters in diameter (9.45 inches) and weighs 6.4 kilograms (14.2 lb).[95]

Contemporary artifacts (1947 onwards)

  • Macliing Dulag's door - The University of the Philippines Baguio's Museo Kordilyera has preserved the door of Kalinga protest leader Macliing Dulag's home, still ridden with bulletholes after the 4th Infantry Division of the Philippine Army opened fire on the house on 24 April 1980, killing Macliing Dulag and wounding a companion.[96]
  • Chapter 3 of The Archaeology of Central Philippines, "The Kalanay Cave Site, Masbate, Philippines," describes the site and Solheim's excavations in 1951 and 1953. It describes a small burial cave that contained a large amount of pottery, a few stone and iron tools, a few other artifacts, and some fragmentary skeletal remains.[97]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Evangelista, Alfredo E. (1969). "The Philippines: Archaeology in the Philippines to 1950". Asian Perspectives. 12: 97–104. JSTOR 42929065.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Dizon, Eusebio Z. (1994). "A Decade of Archaeological Research in the Philippines, 1982-1992". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 22 (3): 197–222. ISSN 0115-0243. JSTOR 29792159.
  3. ^ "Philippine Archeological Treasures, Part 1". www.filipino-association.org. Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  4. ^ Ii, Wilhelm G. Solheim (2009). "Alfredo E. Evangelista: 1926-2008". Hukay. 14. ISSN 0119-173X.
  5. ^ Hutterer, Karl L.; Allen, Jim; Arutiunov, S. A.; Bayard, D. T.; Bhattacharya, D. K.; Bronson, Bennet; Chlenov, M. A.; Donkin, R. A.; Ellen, Roy F.; Harris, David R.; Hayden, Brian (1976). "An Evolutionary Approach to the Southeast Asian Cultural Sequence [and Comments and Reply]". Current Anthropology. 17 (2): 221–242. doi:10.1086/201711. ISSN 0011-3204. JSTOR 2741534. S2CID 145732661.
  6. ^ BARRETTO-TESORO, GRACE (2013). "The Meanings of Objects Calatagan and Archaeological Research in the Philippines". Philippine Studies: Historical & Ethnographic Viewpoints. 61 (3): 263–296. doi:10.1353/phs.2013.0016. ISSN 2244-1093. JSTOR 42634764. S2CID 54620533.
  7. ^ "700,000-Year-Old Stone Tools Point to Mysterious Human Relative". 2018-05-02.
  8. ^ Valmero, Anna (August 5, 2010). "Callao man could be 'oldest' human in Asia Pacific, says Filipino archaeologist". Yahoo! Southeast Asia, loqal.ph. Archived from the original on July 13, 2012. Retrieved 2010-08-05.
  9. ^ Severino, Howie G. (August 1, 2010). Researchers discover fossil of human older than Tabon Man Archived 2010-08-04 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "The Tabon Cave Complex and all of Lipuun". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. 16 May 2006. Retrieved 1 February 2009.
  11. ^ Lewis, Helen; Paz, Victor; Lara, Myra; Barton, Huw; Piper, Philip; Ochoa, Janine; Vitales, Timothy; Carlos, A. Jane; Higham, Tom (June 2008). "Terminal Pleistocene to mid-Holocene occupation and an early cremation burial at Ille Cave, Palawan, Philippines". Antiquity. 82 (316): 318–335. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00096836. ISSN 0003-598X.
  12. ^ a b "Angono Petroglyphs". UNESCO. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  13. ^ a b c "15 Most Intense Archaeological Discoveries in Philippine History". 2018-07-03.
  14. ^ "15 Most Intense Archaeological Discoveries in Philippine History". Filipikknow. 2018-07-03.
  15. ^ "Collection". www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  16. ^ Scott, William (1984). Prehispanic Source Material. p. 17.
  17. ^ Bellwood, Peter (2011). Pathos of Origin. pp. 31–41.
  18. ^ "Museum of the Filipino People – Archaeological Treasures (Kaban ng Lahi)". National Museum of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
  19. ^ Solheim, William (1969). "Prehistoric Archaeology in Eastern Mainland Southeast Asia and the Philippines". Asian Perspectives. 3: 97–108.
  20. ^ Miksic, John N. (2003). Earthenware in Southeast Asia: Proceedings of the Singapore Symposium on Premodern Southeast Asian Earthenwares. Singapore: Singapore University Press, National University of Singapore.
  21. ^ John N. Miksic, Geok Yian Goh, Sue O Connor – Rethinking Cultural Resource Management in Southeast Asia 2011 Page 251 "This site dates from the fifth to first century BCE and it is one of the earliest sites of the Sa Huỳnh culture in Thu Bồn Valley (Reinecke et al. 2002, 153–216); 2) Lai Nghi is a prehistoric cemetery richly equipped with iron tools and weapons, ..."
  22. ^ Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts (Bảo tàng mỹ thuật Việt Nam) 2000 "Right from the early history – before and after the Christian era – over twenty centuries from now, there was a cultural exchange among three major Centres Z Đông Sơn culture in the North, Sa Huỳnh culture in Central and south-eastern Nam Bộ ..."
  23. ^ Higham, C., 2014, Early Mainland Southeast Asia, Bangkok: River Books Co., Ltd., ISBN 9786167339443
  24. ^ Dizon, E. (1996). Faces from Maitum: The archaeological excavation of Ayub Cave. Manila: National Museum of the Philippines. pp. xi–xii, 51–53, 56–59, 73, 78–82.
  25. ^ "Stolen artefacts point to lost Philippines tribe". 2008-10-24.
  26. ^ Kaznowska, Helena (2012-09-20). "1,000-year-old village found in Philippines". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
  27. ^ Madale, Nagasura (October 6, 2003). "A Look at Philippine Mosques". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Archived from the original on September 7, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
  28. ^ MINDANAW: Oldest mosque needs repair
  29. ^ "Resolution No. 4, s. 1998 Declaring the Sheik Karimol Makhdum Mosque in Tubig-Indangan, Simunul, Taw-Tawi, as a National Historical Landmark" (PDF). National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2014.
  30. ^ "Resolution No. 4, s. 1998 Declaring the Sheik Karimol Makhdum Mosque in Tubig-Indangan, Simunul, Taw-Tawi, as a National Historical Landmark". National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
  31. ^ "Gold Death-Mask".
  32. ^ Ang, Walter. "The Mummy – that Brendan Fraser didn't see". Philippine Daily Inquirer. pp. E4.
  33. ^ "Collection". www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  34. ^ a b Zafra, Jessica (2008-04-26). "Art Exhibit: Philippines' 'Gold of Ancestors'". Newsweek. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  35. ^ a b c "National Museum Collections: Ling-ling O". Official Website National Museum of the Philippines (Beta Website). Archived from the original on 2011-11-11. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  36. ^ Jesus T. Peralta, "Prehistoric Gold Ornaments CB Philippines," Arts of Asia, 1981, 4:54–60.
  37. ^ Art Exhibit: Philippines' 'Gold of Ancestors' in Newsweek.
  38. ^ "PILONCITOS: The treasure of Philippine numismatic".
  39. ^ "'Piloncitos' and the 'Philippine golden age' | Inquirer Opinion". 30 August 2011.
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-15. Retrieved 2017-08-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  41. ^ "The Butuan Silver Strip". July 24, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24.
  42. ^ "Muddied stones reveal ancient scripts | Inquirer News". 3 July 2014.
  43. ^ "Ticao stones" (PDF). heritage.elizaga.net. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  44. ^ Archives, University of Santo Tomas, archived from the original on May 24, 2013, retrieved June 17, 2012
  45. ^ "UST collection of ancient scripts in 'baybayin' syllabary shown to public", Inquirer, 2012-01-15, retrieved June 17, 2012
  46. ^ UST Baybayin collection shown to public, Baybayin, retrieved June 18, 2012[permanent dead link]
  47. ^ "Collection". www.nationalmuseum.gov.ph. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  48. ^ a b c Jocano, F. Landa (2001). Filipino Prehistory: Rediscovering Precolonial Heritage. Quezon City: Punlad Research House, Inc. ISBN 971-622-006-5.
  49. ^ Scott, William Henry (1994). Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN 971-550-135-4.
  50. ^ Jocano, Felipe Jr. (2012-08-07). Wiley, Mark (ed.). A Question of Origins. Arnis: Reflections on the History and Development of Filipino Martial Arts. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4629-0742-7.
  51. ^ Churchill, Malcolm H. (1977). "Indian Penetration of Pre-Spanish Philippines" (PDF). Asian Studies. Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines: University of the Philippines Asian Center. 15.
  52. ^ Osborne, Milton (2004). Southeast Asia: An Introductory History (Ninth ed.). Australia: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-448-5.
  53. ^ Laszlo Legeza, "Tantric Elements in the Philippines PreHispanic Gold Arts," Arts of Asia, 1988, 4:129–136.
  54. ^ a b c "Prespanish Philippines" (PDF). www.asj.upd.edu.ph. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  55. ^ "tribhanga". Archived from the original on 2009-01-15. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
  56. ^ "Francisco Buddhist" (PDF). www.asj.upd.edu.ph. Retrieved 2020-02-24.
  57. ^ Agusan Gold Image only in the Philippines Archived 2012-06-27 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ Agusan Image Documents, Agusan-Surigao Historical Archives.
  59. ^ Anna T. N. Bennett (2009), Gold in early Southeast Asia, ArcheoSciences, Volume 33, pp 99–107
  60. ^ Dang V.T. and Vu, Q.H., 1977. The excavation at Giong Ca Vo site. Journal of Southeast Asian Archaeology 17: 30–37
  61. ^ "Philippinefiestas.com". www.philippinefiestas.com.
  62. ^ Junker, Laura Lee (2000). Raiding, Trading, and Feasting: The Political Economy of Philippine Chiefdoms. Ateneo de Manila University Press. pp. 74, 130. ISBN 971-550-347-0.
  63. ^ Sakuma, S. (1989) "Prohibition of Overseas Trade and its Influence of International Relations in the Early Reign of the Ming Dynasty" Journal of East-West Maritime Relations, vol. 1, pp. 31–46.
  64. ^ Cayron, J. (2006) "Stringing the Past: An Archaeological Understanding of Early Southeast Asian Glass Bead Trade" The University of the Philippines Press.
  65. ^ "The Calatagan Pot: A National Treasure with Bisayan Inscription". The Journal of History. 57 (1): 1. February 24, 2011 – via ejournals.ph.
  66. ^ Solheim, Wilhelm G. (1953). "Philippine Archaeology". Archaeology. 6 (3): 154–158. JSTOR 41663156.
  67. ^ "Magellan's Cross in downtown Cebu City | Cebu Living". Archived from the original on 2006-06-21. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
  68. ^ "Magellans Cross Cebu,Magellans Cross Cebu Philippines". Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 2017-08-25.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  69. ^ Ballesteros, Nick. "Magellan's Cross in Cebu".
  70. ^ Bautista, Julius (2006). "The Rebellion and the Icon: Holy Revolutions in the Philippines". Asian Journal of Social Science. Brill Academic Publishers. 34 (2): 291–310. doi:10.1163/156853106777371166.
  71. ^ Sally Ann Ness (2016). Body, Movement, and Culture: Kinesthetic and Visual Symbolism in a Philippine Community. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 71–73. ISBN 978-1-5128-1822-2.
  72. ^ Damiana L. Eugenio (2007). Philippine Folk Literature: An Anthology. The University of the Philippines Press. pp. xxvii, 226–228. ISBN 978-971-542-536-0.
  73. ^ Jan van Harssel; Richard H Jackson; Lloyd E. Hudman (2014). National Geographic Learning's Visual Geography of Travel and Tourism. Cengage. p. 504. ISBN 978-1-133-95126-1.
  74. ^ Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. pp. 405–406. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.
  75. ^ Sison, Antonio D. (2015). "Afflictive Apparitions: The Folk Catholic Imaginary in Philippine Cinema". Material Religion. Routledge. 11 (4): 421–442. doi:10.1080/17432200.2015.1103474. S2CID 192961308.
  76. ^ a b John Lyden (2009). The Routledge Companion to Religion and Film. Routledge. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-135-22065-5.
  77. ^ a b c J. Gordon Melton (2011). Religious Celebrations: An Encyclopedia of Holidays, Festivals, Solemn Observances, and Spiritual Commemorations. ABC-CLIO. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-1-59884-206-7.
  78. ^ "Lilly Library, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (U.S.A.), Catalogue Record of the Boxer Codex".
  79. ^ Roces 1977, p. 1003.
  80. ^ Lessing J. Rosenwald (1593). "Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection". Library of Congress. World Digital Library. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  81. ^ "We Have the Mysterious Map that Proves the West Philippine Sea is Ours". Esquiremag.ph.
  82. ^ Labro, Vicente S. (19 August 2011). "Ancient fortress church of Capul, Northern Samar". newsinfo.inquirer.net.
  83. ^ Hargrove, Thomas R. (1991). The Mysteries of Taal: A Philippine Volcano and Lake, Her Sea Life and Lost Towns. Manila: Bookmark Publishing. ISBN 971-5690-46-7.
  84. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2017-09-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  85. ^ CP David (September 17, 2014). "What kinds of volcanic eruption should we worry about?". GMA News. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  86. ^ John Mark Escandor (July 3, 2014). "1814 Mayon Volcano eruption emits lesson on handling challenge of destruction". Balita. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  87. ^ "ITB Berlin". Messe Berlin. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
  88. ^ Tejada, Ariel Paolo (9 May 2015). "Vigan declared 'Wonder City'". The Philippine STAR. Manila. Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
  89. ^ "Vigan named as one of the New7Wonders | EDITORIAL INSIDER". www.editorialinsider.com.
  90. ^ Ranada, Pia. "Ifugao Rice Terraces may be younger than we think". Rappler. Retrieved 2017-12-27.
  91. ^ U.S. Army (1916). "United States Military Reservations, National Cemeteries, and Military Parks", pg. 344. Government Printing Office, Washington.
  92. ^ "Corregidor:Malinta Tunnel". Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  93. ^ Whitman, Paul. "Corregidor Then and Now: A Battlefield Revisited". Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  94. ^ "CorregidorIsland.com". www.hugedomains.com.
  95. ^ a b Wilburn Dowell Cobb (November 1939). "The Pearl of Allah". Natural History.
  96. ^ Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. Macli-ing Dulag: Kalinga Chief, Defender of the Cordillera Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 201
  97. ^ Thiel, Barbara (2005-11-21). "The Archaeology of Central Philippine, A Study Chiefly of the Iron Age and Its Relationships (review)". Asian Perspectives. 44 (2): 392–395. doi:10.1353/asi.2005.0033. ISSN 1535-8283. S2CID 161963233.

External links

This page was last edited on 21 September 2021, at 04:11
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.