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Apollo 11 goodwill messages

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The silicon disc with goodwill messages left on the Moon by Apollo 11 astronauts
The silicon disc with goodwill messages left on the Moon by Apollo 11 astronauts

The Apollo 11 goodwill messages are statements from leaders of 73 countries around the world on a disc about the size of a 50-cent piece made of silicon that was left on the Moon in 1969 by the Apollo 11 astronauts.

The disc also carried names of the leadership of the Congress, the four committees of the House and Senate responsible for legislation related to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and NASA's top management, including past administrators and deputy administrators.

At the top of the disc is the inscription: "Goodwill messages from around the world brought to the Moon by the astronauts of Apollo 11." Around the rim is the statement: "From Planet Earth – July 1969". The collected letters were given to the GCA Corp in Burlington MA which used a reduction camera to make a negative photomask containing all the letters plus an inscription around its edge at its final size. This mask was given to Sprague Electric Company of North Adams, Massachusetts which imaged it onto a silicon wafer and etched the pattern into the wafer. NASA head Thomas O. Paine proposed the idea to the U.S. State Department, and corresponded with world leaders to solicit their messages. These were enshrined by being photographed and reduced to 1/200 scale ultra microfiche silicon etching. The disc rests in an aluminum case on the Moon's Sea of Tranquility.[1]

The disc was in a package in Buzz Aldrin's suit shoulder pocket along with some other memorial items. He was reminded about the package by Neil Armstrong while ascending the ladder of the Lunar Module Eagle to finish their EVA. He then dropped it to the surface.[2] Later Houston requested and received confirmation they had placed it.[3]

Countries represented in the messages

State Signed by
 Afghanistan HM Mohammed Zahir Shah
King of Afghanistan
 Argentina HE Juan Carlos Onganía
President of Argentina
 Australia Rt. Hon. John Gorton
Prime Minister of Australia
 Belgium HM Baudouin I
King of the Belgians
 Brazil HE Artur da Costa e Silva
President of Brazil
 Canada Rt. Hon. Pierre Trudeau
Prime Minister of Canada
 Chad HE François Tombalbaye
President of Chad
 Chile HE Eduardo Frei Montalva
President of Chile
 China[a] HE Chiang Kai-shek
President of the Republic of China (Taiwan)
 Colombia HE Carlos Lleras Restrepo
President of Colombia
 Congo-Kinshasa HE Joseph-Desiré Mobutu
President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Costa Rica HE José Joaquín Trejos Fernández
President of Costa Rica
 Cyprus HE Makarios III
President of Cyprus
 Dahomey HE Émile Derlin Zinsou
President of Dahomey
 Denmark HM Frederick IX
King of Denmark
 Dominican Republic HE Joaquin Balaguer
President of the Dominican Republic
 Ecuador HE José María Velasco Ibarra
President of Ecuador
Estonia[b] Ernst Jaakson
Consul General of Estonia to the United States
 Ethiopia HIM Haile Selassie I
Emperor of Ethiopia
 Ghana Akwasi Afrifa
Head of state of Ghana
 Greece Georgios Zoitakis
Regent of Greece[c]
 Guyana Hon. Forbes Burnham
Prime Minister of Guyana
 Iceland HE Kristjan Eldjarn
President of Iceland
 India HE Indira Gandhi
Prime Minister of India
 Iran HIM Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Shah of Iran[4]
 Ireland HE Éamon de Valera
President of Ireland
 Israel HE Zalman Shazar
President of Israel
 Italy HE Giuseppe Saragat
President of Italy
 Ivory Coast HE Félix Houphouët-Boigny
President of Ivory Coast
 Jamaica Most Hon. Hugh Shearer
Prime Minister of Jamaica
 Japan HE Eisaku Satō
Prime Minister of Japan
 Kenya HE Jomo Kenyatta
President of Kenya
 Laos HM Sisavang Vatthana
King of Laos
Latvia[b] Anatols Dinbergs
Ambassador of Latvia to the United States
 Lebanon HE Charles Helou
President of Lebanon
 Lesotho Rt. Hon. Leabua Jonathan
Prime Minister of Lesotho
 Liberia HE William Tubman
President of Liberia
 Madagascar HE Philibert Tsiranana
President of Madagascar
 Malaysia HM Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin Shah
Yang di-Pertuan Agong
 Mali HE Moussa Traoré
President of Mali
 Malta Hon. Giorgio Borg Olivier
Prime Minister of Malta
 Mauritius Rt. Hon. Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
Prime Minister of Mauritius
 Mexico Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
President of Mexico
 Morocco HM Hassan II
King of Morocco
 Netherlands HM Juliana
Queen of the Netherlands
 New Zealand Rt. Hon. Keith Holyoake
Prime Minister of New Zealand
 Nicaragua Anastasio Somoza Debayle
President of Nicaragua
 Norway HM Olav V
King of Norway
 Pakistan HE Yahya Khan
President of Pakistan
 Panama Bolívar Urrutia Parrilla
President of Panama
 Peru HE Juan Velasco Alvarado
President of Peru
 Philippines HE Ferdinand Marcos
President of the Philippines
 Poland Jerzy Michałowski
Ambassador of Poland to the United States
 Portugal HE Américo Tomás
President of Portugal
 Romania Nicolae Ceaușescu
President of Romania
 Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor
President of Senegal
 Sierra Leone Siaka Stevens
Prime Minister of Sierra Leone
 South Africa Hon. Jacobus Johannes Fouché
State President of South Africa
 South Korea HE Park Chung-hee
President of the Republic of Korea
 South Vietnam HE Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
President of the Republic of Vietnam
 Swaziland HM Sobhuza II
King of Swaziland
 Togo Gnassingbé Eyadéma
President of Togo
 Trinidad and Tobago Rt. Hon. Eric Williams
Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago
 Tunisia HE Habib Bourguiba
President of Tunisia
 Turkey Cevdet Sunay
President of Turkey
 United Kingdom HM Elizabeth II
Queen of the United Kingdom[d]
 Upper Volta Sangoulé Lamizana
President of Upper Volta
 Uruguay Jorge Pacheco Areco
President of Uruguay
  Vatican City HH Paul VI
Pope of the Holy See
 Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito
President of Yugoslavia
 Zambia Kenneth Kaunda
President of Zambia
  1. ^ The U.S. maintained relations with the Republic of China as "China" instead of the People's Republic of China.
  2. ^ a b The US government did not recognize the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states.
  3. ^ Regent for King Constantine II
  4. ^ Also as Queen of Australia, Barbados, Canada, Ceylon, Fiji, the Gambia, Guyana, Jamaica, Malta, Mauritius, New Zealand, Rhodesia, Sierra Leone and Trinidad and Tobago.

See also


  1. ^ "Apollo 11 Goodwill Messages" (PDF). NASA. July 13, 1969. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  2. ^ Jones, Eric M. (November 12, 2017). "Apollo 11 Surface Journal:EASEP Deployment and Closeout". 111:36:38: NASA. Retrieved July 8, 2019.CS1 maint: location (link)
  3. ^ Jones, Eric M. (October 28, 2017). "Apollo 11 Surface Journal:Trying to Rest". 114:52:28: NASA. Retrieved July 8, 2019.CS1 maint: location (link)
  4. ^ Rahman, Tahir (2008). We came in peace for all mankind : the untold story of the Apollo 11 silicon disk (1st ed.). Overland Park, Kan.: Leathers Pub. ISBN 9781585974412.

External links

This page was last edited on 1 June 2021, at 15:42
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