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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Antibes
Commune
October 2006 view of Antibes by the Mediterranean
October 2006 view of Antibes by the Mediterranean
Coat of arms of Antibes

Coat of arms
Antibes is located in France
Antibes
Antibes
Location within Provence-A.-C.d'A. region
Antibes is located in Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Antibes
Antibes
Coordinates: 43°34′51″N 7°07′26″E / 43.5808°N 7.1239°E / 43.5808; 7.1239
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Alpes-Maritimes
Arrondissement Grasse
Canton Antibes-1
Antibes-2
Antibes-3
Intercommunality CA Sophia Antipolis
Government
 • Mayor (2014-2020) Jean Léonetti
Area1 26.48 km2 (10.22 sq mi)
Population (2015)2 74,875
 • Density 2,800/km2 (7,300/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
INSEE/Postal code 06004 /06600
Elevation 0–163 m (0–535 ft)
(avg. 9 m or 30 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Antibes (/ɒnˈtb/, French: [ɑ̃tib]; Provençal Occitan: Antíbol) is a Mediterranean resort in the Alpes-Maritimes department of southeastern France, on the Côte d'Azur between Cannes and Nice.

The town of Juan-les-Pins is in the commune of Antibes and the Sophia Antipolis technology park is northwest of it.

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Transcription

We are taking you to the wonderful seaside town of Antibes in the south of France. It's along the shores of Provence. This entire stroll through the village of Antibes only takes a couple of hours into this pedestrian zone of the Old Town of Antibes. And stroll about for an hour or two, maybe sit at a café, grab some lunch. It's such a small town, you're probably not spending the night in Antibes – you certainly could, there are some small hotels here but more likely you're using a bigger city as a home base such as Nice, which is what we prefer. On this trip we’re actually staying overnight in the city of Nice for four nights actually. it's just 20 km away from Antibes, with very frequent train service. You have easy access from the Nice train station to many points along the coastline and to get from Nice to Antibes by train only takes about 20 minutes, so that's very convenient. The trains run very frequently, usually two or three every hour, so it's a short wait. The trains are very comfortable and as long as you're avoiding rush hour they are generally not crowded, and there's beautiful scenery out the window as well. And Antibes is a significant town, so the trains, a lot of trains do stop here. Upon arriving you'll see the Antibes station is right in town, and then it's a short walk from the Antibes train station to get into the village proper. Just walk straight out of the train station two blocks along Avenue de la Libération to the marina, and continue along Avenue de Verdun past the marina to a gate in the city wall. That will lead you into the old town, which is a small area just several hundred yards long and wide, but wonderful to explore and riddled with dozens of tiny lanes. As usual we will be sharing tips about how to get the most out of your visit. Mega yachts – all pleasure crafts and fishing boats and in the distance you see a fortress, that's Fort Carré. It looks like it's on an island from here, but it's a peninsula. We're going to walk along the water for about a quarter-mile and then we'll go that away into the Old Town. Typical of all wealthy Riviera coastal town, the marina is just filled with beautiful yachts – there's sailboats and motorboats and some of them are moored here permanently, others are just passing through. Before diving into the old town is kind of nice to walk out to the shoreline just around the bend to this observation terrace – get a beautiful view looking out on the sea. Antibes was once a fortified village like most of the other towns in the south of France, with the original wall running along the shore. It's a medieval fortified town still yet. It's a fascinating town with a great history that goes back two and a half thousand years at least. We'll be spending quite a bit of time here in the program walking through the little lanes and showing you the markets, the shoreline, the old buildings and the people. The map gives you a quick idea of the route were taking walking through the little lanes into the main square, down a lovely shopping pedestrian lane, circling back over to the Picasso Museum and then back through the little lanes again — kind of a circular route to see things twice or 3 times even in some cases, and then out to the train station. Anytime you're entering an ancient seaside village through a massive archway in the old stonewall you know you're in for some beautiful historic sites, coming up, as we will soon see. When you first get inside the walls of the old town you'll find there's still some automobile traffic, there's some busy streets, there's cars going by, but just continue. Even here is very interesting and lovely, the cars are not going very fast, but keep walking and within a couple more blocks you will finally get to the pedestrian-only zone. If you walk straight a few blocks you will find peaceful residential neighborhood of narrow pedestrian alleys where you might get a little lost. It's just a couple of narrow lanes lined with lush plants that provide a little breather before plunging back into the commercial district. Turn left to rue Aubernon which will lead you into the heart of the old section and quickly to the Cours Massena, the main food market. Notice the arches in several side alleys linking the buildings together to help support each other as if holding hands. We will be getting into the busy part of the old town with its shops and beautiful squares in just a little while, but first we like to start out in these quiet little alleys – old bricks covered with colorful ivy and there are a few shops, a few restaurants, and a residential feeling to this initial neighborhood. You'll walk by some open doors and you're welcome to have a peek inside – here's a carpenter workshop fascinating with all his tools. This is a charming neighborhood, very quiet and it's a pedestrian zone even for the houses, so these people walk to get to their house. But it's fun to get off the beaten track now and then to see how people live in the residential areas. At the center of the old town you will find the Place Nationale. It is the place to go if you want to sit down and have a drink, or you can have a nice meal at one of the many restaurants around the Place. It's always a place for people-watching, for the rendezvous, to hang out for a while, to sit down and rest, recharge. And the rest of the old town is immediately all around it – within about four blocks you've got all of the sights to see. And some days the Place Nationale is the host to the flea market. You can rummage around here, maybe look for some clothing bargains, get some knickknacks, find some local curios, or just do some more people-watching. You'll find that the locals are quite friendly. Hello, bonjour. And some days the Place Nationale is the host to the flea market. You can rummage around here, maybe look for some clothing bargains, get some knickknacks, find some local curios, or just do some more people-watching. You'll find that the locals are quite friendly. 18C Because Place Nationale is right at the center of the old town you'll find that a variety of fascinating streets lead off from it in all directions -- some of them are quite narrow just for pedestrians and others are little wider such as the Rue de la République. One of the nicest pedestrian streets you'll find in the center just a block off Place Nationale is Rue James Close. This narrow pedestrian route is lined with boutiques and restaurants that are so cute you just might want to drop anchor at a sidewalk café and sample the local grinds such as socca. One of the regional food treats the south of France is socca, which is a crêpe and yet it's made from chickpea flour, so it's really hearty and tasty, it's good for you, it's a nutritious snack. It's not junk food by any means and it's really different than the standard crêpe which is made from flour, wheat flour. This is really quite a special thing. Of course you can have different toppings on it or just have it plain, there so much flavor in the chickpea you don't need any special toppings, you don't need any sugar or jam or anything, just plain socca is really a satisfying treat, and it’s especially found in the Ligurian area, anywhere from Nice around the coastline into Italy and down to Pisa. These few blocks in the center are really some of the sweetest in the entire Riviera. And this very old shopping street is kind of a forerunner of today's modern shopping malls – the streets have always been too narrow for cars so it's been a pedestrian zone from the beginning. Walking along on rue James Close is almost like strolling through an outdoor museum. The shop fronts are so interesting. You don't find the big chain stores here, they're all little boutiques – they've got antiques, clothing, furnishings and artworks. Well lucky us we happened to be visiting just as the Beaujolais nouveau was being released. It's that annual event and happens in the fall, and what happens generally is the wine shops will offer free tastings of the Beaujolais nouveau. They'll set up the barrel out front, and you’ll notice that even the shop owners get in the spirit of the day and joins you in a drink. It's really a friendly and festive atmosphere when they're giving away wine, and so of course you want to join in the spirit of the event and participate and perhaps even buy a bottle for later on. Or maybe you'll get a takeout sandwich from one of the small convenience stores here and sit down on a step and watch the people walk past from your own little sidewalk perch. That's a very economical way to eat. You know even in expensive towns such as along the French Riviera you can always find a takeout sandwich place and get an inexpensive meal that is going to cost you under €5 and get a soft drink to go with it, find a place to sit and enjoy very inexpensive meal. Of course you do want to have some good foods on your travels as well but often at lunch you’re just moving along, you don't have a lot of time and you just want to grab something quick and simple. As you wander enough of these little lanes you're bound to run into some unique moments such as this proud artist shooting a little video demo of his works, and intriguing little lanes and tunnels to lure you along. Rue James Close will lead you to the main pedestrian shopping street of town, Rue de la République, another fascinating route from walking. By now you're beginning to get the picture of the good life in Europe. It's walking, it's the promenade, it's the cafés, the pastry shops, it's the food markets. It's all the things that we don't have in most American places unfortunately, we're a little behind the times. You know just that experience of walking around, seeing your friends, having a chat, having a coffee, that's a big part of life here. And from these central streets around the main square it's quite easy to walk over a couple of blocks to the famous food market, the Cours Massena. Another lovely pedestrian lane leading to the market is Rue Sade with more shops restaurants and bars. The market is very easy to find in this small old town, it's just a few blocks from the main square. It's a covered produce market. In here you'll find piles and piles of local fruits and vegetables – there's the greens, there's the tomatoes, lots of potatoes, plenty of locals out. Of course the south of France is famous for its food markets and this is one of the best and especially convenient because it's open every day – in the mornings it opens from about 6 AM and goes strong until about 1 PM. In the off-season it closes on Mondays – the high season being from June 1 to September 1, it's open seven days a week, and it's just a lot of fun. Olives are the heart of the Mediterranean cuisine and come in a wide variety of sizes, shapes, colors and textures, and many different kinds of olive oils and tapenades to go with it, and a favorite is tapenade made from crushed olives. Tapenade, try some of this. You’ve had tapenade before of course, it is so good. Of course the merchants are there to sell you things but they also give away free samples, black, green and yellow, three different olives -- they all speak some English so you can very easily communicate have a great time with them. It's very satisfying to be dealing directly with the farmers and the people who are making these food products. It's a good deal for them and you're getting a good price as well and jars of tapenade are easy to pack and you can bring those home no problem.l The olive tree was first planted in the area by the Greeks 2500 years ago and it's been thriving ever since, as has the other produce, with the sunny climate, mild temperatures and the stony soil, a perfect combination for agriculture. You probably are not cooking food on your vacation and you just wandered into the market to have a look and take a few pictures maybe, and you will be tempted to purchase some of the fruits, there's nuts, there's other kinds of snack foods, cranberries, and there's cafés around the market stalls as well, so it just makes the perfect spot to wander, take in the aromas, talk to some locals and get some good food. You might pick up some fresh fruits as a snack but even if you're not purchasing anything it's always a delight to wander through a local food market, especially when you're in Provence. A wide variety of fresh and locally grown herbs will really delight your senses, the odor is so light and wonderful. They also have plenty of spices here, piles and piles of colorful spices, some of them brought in from Africa. And good news the market is open every day in the summer time starting from as early as 6 AM and generally going till about 1 PM, and the rest of the year it's open every day except Mondays. So this is a very regular market that you're sure to catch, in such a beautiful outdoor setting; semi-covered, you've got a roof overhead with the open air and lots of locals streaming around, there's flowers for sale, colors everywhere. It's just a great spot to visit and to take a lot of pictures….laughter… And then in the afternoon the same covered market hall becomes a craft market with the same kind of hours. So whether here in the morning or later in the afternoon there's always something to see. There are several clothing markets in town located in different places around the village depending on the day, so you should be able find it. They happen most every day and usually they run from 7 o'clock in the morning till 1 o'clock in the afternoon. It's a little down-market but it's fun to browse and fun to check out the locals getting their goods. Just one block over from the food market you'll find the oldest part of Antibes with the Cathedral and an old palace now the Picasso Museum and some peaceful residential pedestrian lanes. We're going to take you on an extensive walking tour throughout this area. The oldest existing structures stand on the highest point of the rock facing the sea. And here we find some parts of the cathedral of the thirteenth century, and two towers above them. One of the oldest buildings in town is the Church of the Immaculate Conception. This is a medieval church that was first built from the 12th century. It's believed to be on the side of a much earlier Greek temple and perhaps some stones from the ancient Romans were used in its construction. It had been the town Cathedral in the early days and it's highly decorated inside with some artworks from the Renaissance and the Baroque periods, with the Romanesque style architecture on the interior reflecting its medieval heritage. It's a beautiful place to stop in and sit down and have a rest. There is no admission charge to the church and it’s open throughout the day plus there are comfortable benches. You can just sit down and rest here cool off a little bit and enjoy the scenic surroundings. With the beautiful paintings and sculpture it's like an art museum and for the religious visitor a great place to say a prayer. And next door there is a large Picasso Museum in the Grimaldi Palace here in the center where the artist had a studio that's now incorporated into the museum. And today a large group of well-behaved school kids was visiting the museum. Antibes was famous as a home for artists in the 20th century, Picasso in particular, who lived here in 1946 and spent most of his later life elsewhere in Provence. Picasso donated 22 of his paintings to the museum which also has works by other important artists of the modern movement. This Grimaldi Castle was first inhabited in 1385 by that noble family from Monaco, the Grimaldi's, who actually ruled over a very large area here along the shores of Provence and inland. It's believed that earlier, this was the Greek center of the ancient Greek city about 2 1/2 thousand years ago. Antibes was first founded by the Greeks and then later built up by the Romans and this was their center. There are a handful of other museums and many art galleries in Antibes is well. That pretty well covers a lot of the main attractions of Antibes but there is always more to see -- there is this residential neighborhood right beyond the museum that's worth a little stroll. It's quite easy to find this small residential neighborhood – you just keep walking past the Picasso Museum and you're going to go right into it – two parallel streets and a few little side connecting alleys, and frankly it's not a really exciting place to visit. I wouldn't put it at the top of the list of things to see in Antibes, but if you've got two hours at least to look around the town, you will certainly have time for this little detour. You could just take 10-15 minutes for this kind of a wander – it's fun to see how the locals live. This cat’s having a bit of a limp here but he has no trouble scaling right up this rocky staircase. t's easy to find your way out of this small residential neighborhood because just a few blocks over you have returned to the little commercial district of the old town, with the beautiful streets lined with the shops in the cafés. They’ll look familiar but there are a whole number of streets that you might not have seen yet, so please just go wander around some more and even if you're going down the same street again it’ll look different the 2nd or 3rd time around Inevitably you'll return again to the main pedestrian shopping lane, the Rue de la République, and it is always worth a look. It's a little bit more modern than the narrow lanes of the old town with lots of great shops. The street is always busy with pedestrians, mostly locals out for a stroll and the odd scooter but there are no cars allowed. You can see this sense of community and relations gets well-established in a small town like Antibes with these extended families and friends. You’re going to find that the locals are quite friendly even if they don’t speak much English…in French.. We are winding down our visit – we’ve seen the great highlights of this beautiful town and were heading towards the train station, but don't leave yet we have lots more to show you. And maybe you'd like to stop and get some gelato. You know there's some Italian influence still here yet, of course you can find gelato all over the world. It comes out of Italy naturally but this whole southern coastline of the Riviera had been Italian until 150 years ago. If you only had 2 or 3 hours you could see most of what we've shown you in this episode about Antibes walking around, there's a lot to see, but if you have a little more time you could just keep walking. And so let's go back into the old town, give us 5 more minutes were going to show you some more. As we continue enjoying the beautiful scenes of Antibes I'm going to fill you in on a lot of the history of this area. So we're going to be wandering through the town, we will be revisiting a few of the streets and markets that we've shown you earlier in the program and as we go you'll learn how this place came to be. The area has been controlled for over thousands of years by many different competing cultures who imposed their own political and trading systems for the control of Mediterranean commerce. Now no doubt there were prehistoric fishermen and farmers who were living in this area for thousands of years. But the written history begins about 2 1/2 thousand years ago starting with a group called the Phoceians who came in from Marseille. Ultimately they were an ancient Greek culture and they constructed here in Antibes a frontier fortress to protect them from the aggressive Ligurian tribes of Genoa to the east. A proof of its early Greek origin has been established with the discovery of some stones inscribed with archaic Greek characters. Of course hardly any traces remain of the Greek town. Antipolus was the name of the area at the time. They were then followed by Phoenicians, Romans and Gauls, Carthaginians and later Teutonic tribes, Franks, Saracens, Spanish and then Italians – it became a very strong Italian culture for hundreds of years, and then finally, the French. And now we have a constant international invasion by tourists. Well since the days of the Greeks Antibes has been a frontier fortress. Ruins of the fortifications of succeeding centuries show that the town has always been on the same site, on the coast east of the Cape, looking towards Nice. This seaport has had an almost uninterrupted existence since the fourth or fifth century before Christ, continuously inhabited. The ancient Greek wanderers from antiquity found on these western shores some natural features that were quite similar to their own native land back in Greece -- the same kind of picturesque mountain scenery, the fertile valleys that were wonderful for growing olives and grapes, a fine climate, and varied coast-lines of those sharp projections and deep recesses just like along the shores of Greece. Well after establishing a colony at Masilia, which is modern-day Marseilles, these Greek ancestors proceeded from there to found Nice, and then Antibes. There can be no doubt that in the time of the Romans the town had aqueducts, baths, theatres, you know, features typical of a Roman city with its many public edifices. It was, indeed, famous for the beauty of its monuments. It possessed a highly efficient school of navigation. And traces of Roman graves are still occasionally found, as well as carved stones, inscriptions, mosaics, and coins. It was formerly the headquarters of the army during the Roman occupation. The later history of the town of Antibes is a very stirring one. It was destroyed by the Goths in 473, that was part of the fall of Rome, the entire Roman Empire fell apart, conquered largely by the Goth invaders. And it shared the same fate at the hands of the Lombards a hundred years later in 578. The Saracens held possession of it for many years during the seventh century. They were the Muslim invaders from northern Africa and the East. In 1522 Antibes was taken by the Constable Bourbon, the French influence, and in 1536 it was sacked by Charles V of Spain. The Duke of Savoy seized it in 1707, and forty years later it was bombarded by the English, and in 1813 by the Austrians. You can see it’s such a desirable piece of land everybody was fighting over it. Only after Napoleon III siezed the district of Nice as part payment for French intervention in the Italian war of liberation was that familiar term "French Riviera" gradually extended to include the coast as far west as Antibes. What was added to France under Napoleon III then lost its previous Italian character. People here had been speaking Italian and largely identifying with the main Italian society, but after Napoleon the Third everything switched to French, it took a while. When done with your visit to Antibes it's easy to find the train station if that's how your departing, and you don't have to walk back exactly the way you came along the marina. You can do an interesting stroll from that Place Nationale over to Place Gen. de Gaulle and then you turn right and walk five blocks along Avenue Robert Soleau back to the train station. It's quite easy and there are things to see along this route, which brings you into the modern part of Antibes. And now we really are departing Antibes, taking our train back to Nice. The train service along the Riviera is really fantastic -- the trains come every 15 to 25 minutes depending on time of day and it just takes 25 minutes to go from Antibes back to Nice by train. Now here’s a suggestion on your ticket purchase: you can buy a one day pass that's only currently €15 per person and that's good for unlimited travel on the rail for one day in the Riviera region. That's a good bargain. It also makes it a lot easier at the station, you don't have to be hassling buying tickets every time you getting on the train. Typical of the French – they'll bring their dogs everywhere, on the train, in the restaurant, it's part of the family. That wraps up our visit to Antibes. You can see it's one of the great towns of the French Riviera. Of course there are many great places to visit down here in the south of France – you got Cannes and the great city of Nice, Monaco, Vence, Villefrance, St-Paul-de-Vence and others all of which we've covered in our series of movies about the Mediterranean, so be sure to take a look. The train service along the Riviera is really fantastic -- the trains come every 15 to 25 minutes depending on time of day and it just takes 25 minutes to go from Antibes back to Nice by train. Now here’s a suggestion on your ticket purchase: you can buy a one day pass that's only currently €15 per person and that's good for unlimited travel on the rail for one day in the Riviera region. That's a good bargain. It also makes it a lot easier at the station, you don't have to be hassling buying tickets every time you getting on the train. Typical of the French – they'll bring their dogs everywhere, on the train, in the restaurant, it's part of the family. It takes less than half hour to get from Antibes back to Nice and it's a scenic ride along the shoreline for the most part. You get beautiful views of the blue Mediterranean. You'll find it staying in Nice is a perfect solution for seeing the Riviera because there are many hotels in Nice, there's a lot to see in Nice, as we’ve shown you in other programs, and it's so easy to get around by train and also by public bus. You can see all the little towns and villages of the Riviera very easily. The Nice train station is right in town and within a few blocks are on the main boulevard so you don't waste any time. We have many more movies to show you about the Riviera and Provence in our thousand-movie collection of the great sight of Europe -- take a look.

Contents

History

Origins

Traces of occupation dating back to the early Iron Age have been found[1] in the areas of the castle and cathedral. Remains beneath the Holy Spirit Chapel show there was an indigenous community with ties with Mediterranean populations, including the Etruscans, as evidenced by the presence of numerous underwater amphorae and wrecks off Antibes.[2] However, most trade was with the Greek world, via the Phocaeans of Marseille.

Colony of Marseille

Antibes was founded by Phocaeans from Massilia.[3][4] As a Greek colony (and later Roman) settlement, it was named Antipolis (Greek: Ἀντίπολις, Antípolis, lit. "Cross-City") from its position close to Nice (anc. Nikaia).

Current research suggests that Antipolis was founded relatively late (4th century BC), to benefit from the protection of Marseille with its trade routes along the coast and strongholds like Olbia at Hyères, and trading posts such as Antipolis itself and later Nikaia; it is mentioned by Strabo.[5]

The exact location of the Greek city is not well known. Given Greek colonial practices, it is likely that it was set at the foot of the rock of Antibes in today's old city.[6] Traces of occupation in the Hellenistic period have been identified around the castle and the church (former cathedral). The goods unearthed during these excavations show the dominance of imported products of the Marseilles region, associated with Campanian and indigenous ceramics.

Early in the second century BC the Ligurian Deceates and Oxybiens tribes launched repeated attacks against Nikaia and Antipolis. The Greeks of Marseille appealed to Rome as they had already done a few years earlier against the federation of Salyens. In 154 BC the consul Quintus Opimius defeated the Décéates and Oxybiens and took Aegythna from the Décéates.

Roman Antipolis

Rome gradually increased its hold over the Mediterranean coast. In 43 BC, Antipolis was officially incorporated in the propraetorial (senatorial from 27 BC) province of Narbonesian Gaul, in which it remained for the next 500 years. Antipolis grew into the largest town in the region and a main entry point into Gaul. Roman artifacts such as aqueducts, fortified walls, and amphoræ can still be seen today.

Aqueducts

Fontveille Aqueduct; section of underground vault
Fontveille Aqueduct; section of underground vault
Bouillide aqueduct
Bouillide aqueduct

The city was supplied with water by two aqueducts. The Fontvieille aqueduct rises in Biot and eventually joins the coast below the RN7 and the railway track at the Fort Carré. It was discovered and restored in the 18th century by the Chevalier d'Aguillon for supplying the modern city.

The aqueduct called the Bouillide or Clausonnes rises near the town of Valbonne. Monumental remains of aqueduct bridges are located in the neighbourhood of Fugaret, in the forest of Valmasque and near the town of Vallauris.

Bouillide Aqueduct
Bouillide Aqueduct

Theatre and amphitheatre

Like most Roman towns Antipolis possessed these buildings for shows and entertainment. A Roman theatre is attested by the tombstone of the child "Septentrion". The inscription says "he danced and was popular on the stage of the theatre" . The theatre was located, like the amphitheatre, between Rue de la République and Rue de Fersen, near the Porte Royale. The back wall is positioned substantially next to Rue Fourmillère. A radial wall was found on the right side of the bus station. A plan of the theatre made in the 16th century is in the Marciana National Library of Venice.

The remains of the amphitheatre were still visible at the end of the 17th century during the restructuring of the fortifications of the city. A concentric oval was still visible in many plans of the seventeenth century and in a map of Antibes from the early nineteenth century. These remains are now covered by the College of Fersen.

Town houses or Villas

Excavations in the old town have discovered well-preserved houses showing some luxury. Among them, the most monumental are those in the rectory garden of rue Clemenceau. These show a comparable level to that of the Gallo-Roman domus such as those of Saint-Romain-en-Gal. Large parts of the floor mosaic are organised around a courtyard with a marble fountain. The building dates from the late third century, although parts date from the end of the Hellenistic era or the end of the Roman Republic. Another house paved with porphyry and green stone was excavated between rue des Palmiers and the rue de la Blancherie. The finds at the Antibes Museum of Archaeology suggests the main occupation between the 2nd and 4th century. Finds from the end of the Hellenistic era and the end of the Roman Republic is present on both sites.

Antipolis in late antiquity

Antipolis became the seat of a bishopric in the 5th century.[5] After the disintegration of the Western Roman Empire, various barbarian tribes seized Antibes. This resulted in destruction and a long period of instability. In the 10th century, Antibes found a protector in Seigneur Rodoart, who built extensive fortified walls around the town and a castle in which to live. For the next 200 years, the town experienced a period of renewal. Prosperity was short-lived, as the whole region fell into disarray for several centuries. The inhabitants of Antibes stayed behind their strong city walls as a succession of wars and epidemics ravaged the countryside. In the 1244, Antibes's bishop moved his see to Grasse.[7] By the end of the 15th century, the region was under the protection and control of King Louis XI of France. Relative stability returned, but the small port of Antibes fell into obscurity.

Modern era

Aerial view of Antibes, 2012
Aerial view of Antibes, 2012

From around the middle of the 19th century the Antibes area regained its popularity, as wealthy people from around Europe discovered its natural beauty and built luxurious homes there. It was transferred from its former department of Var to the new one of Alpes Maritimes in 1860.[3] The harbor was again used for a "considerable" fishing industry and the area exported dried fruit, salt fish, and oil.[3]

By the First World War, it had been connected by rail with Nice and most of its fortifications had been demolished to make way for new residential districts.[7] In 1926, the old Château Grimaldi in Antibes was bought by the local municipality and later restored for use as a museum. Pablo Picasso came to the town in 1946, having visited his friend and fellow painter Gerald Murphy and his wife Sara there in 1923, and was invited to stay in the castle. During his six-month stay, Picasso painted and drew, as well as crafting ceramics and tapestries. When he departed, Picasso left a number of his works to the municipality. The castle has since become the Picasso Museum.

Culture

Conservation

On 25 May 1999, the town was the first in the départment to sign the State Environment Charter, which pledges to actively conserve the natural environment.

Sports

Sport is an important part of the local culture; the town hosts the National Training Centre for basketball. The Jean Bunoz Sports Hall hosted several games of the FIBA EuroBasket 1999. The city is home to Olympique Antibes, a professional basketball team of France's top division LNB Pro A, which plays its home games at the Azur Arena Antibes.

Music

There is a jazz Festival, Jazz à Juan, in July.

Sights

Beaches

Plage de la Gravette, as seen from the city's walls
Plage de la Gravette, as seen from the city's walls
The rocky beaches of Antibes
The rocky beaches of Antibes
Aerial view
Aerial view

There are 48 beaches along the 25 km (16 miles) of coastline that surround Antibes and Juan les Pins.

Museums

Archaeology Museum 
This museum sits atop the Promenade Amiral de Grasse in the old Bastion St Andre, a 17th-century fortress. The museum's collection focuses on the classical history of Antibes. Many artifacts, sculptures and amphorae found in local digs and shipwrecks from the harbour are displayed here. The views of the sea and mountains from the promenade are spectacular.
Naval Museum of Napoleon 
Housed in a 17th-century stone fort and tower, this museum presents a collection of Napoleonic memorabilia, paintings and naval models. Several wall paintings show historic moments in Napoleon's reign and there are also pieces of his clothing including one of the hats he wore.
Picasso Museum 
This museum houses one of the world's greatest Picasso collections: 24 paintings, 44 drawings, 32 lithographs, 11 oils on paper, 80 pieces of ceramics, two sculptures and five tapestries.
La Tour Museum 
This small museum in the centre of town brings the contemporary history of Antibes to life through its exhibit of costumes, tools, photographs and other objects used by the local people.
Absinthe Museum 
The Absinthe Museum is located in a basement in the Roman foundations of Old Antibes. It is dedicated to the manufacture and appreciation of this green liqueur.

Parks and gardens

The Exflora Park 
The Exflora Park is a five-hectare (12 acres) garden open to the public. Next to the large olive grove, there are different styles of Mediterranean gardens, from ancient Rome to the exuberant Riviera of the 19th century. Fountains and ponds stretch along the terrace, making a waterway 500 metres (1,600 ft) long. Antibes is renowned for rose production, and rose bushes line the path leading to the sea. The luxuriance of the exotic garden and palm grove is reminiscent of the belle époque, when English gardeners succeeded in planting flowers that bloom in winter, the season when the aristocracy visited the Côte d'Azur.
A little further on is the Théâtre de Verdure, inspired by Italian gardens, and a panoramic viewpoint with a view of the sea and the Iles des Lerins. In the style of Provençal gardens of the 18th century, there is a maze with sculpted hedges. Further on, Islamic gardens are featured, with an orange grove where the ground is patterned with terracotta irrigation pipes similar to those in the celebrated Seville Cathedral in Spain. The vegetable gardens and orchards in the Arsat are planted in hollows as in Morocco to protect them from the sun and maximise shadow and humidity. A representation of a Moroccan house pays homage to the painter Majorelle, creator of the blue garden in Marrakesh. In another area, the winter garden contains plants that flower in winter, such as mimosa and camellias.
The Eilenroc Gardens 
Villa Eilenroc was built on a rock in the middle of a virtual desert. The area was transformed into a garden through the patience and talent of Jacques Greber, landscape architect and consultant to the Great Exhibition in New York City in 1939. He was commissioned by Mr Beaumont to create this luxuriant park of 11 hectares (27 acres).
The gardens with all their luxuriant vegetation lie thirty metres above the sea with a view across the bay of the Cap. Planted with traditional Mediterranean species such as marine and parasol pines, Alep and Canary pines, cypress, oaks, olive trees, arbutus, lavender, thyme, rosemary, eucalyptus, ficus etc., as well as three kilometres (1.9 miles) of pittosporum hedges, a whole part of the park has been created with plants found in the Antibes area in 1920.
Thuret Park 
In 1857, Gustave Thuret discovered the Cap d'Antibes and bought five hectares (12 acres) of land where he built a villa and began the creation of a park. Bequeathed to the state by his heirs, the Jardin botanique de la Villa Thuret is now managed by the INRA (National Institute of Agronomic Research). The collection of trees and exotic plants, and the rich earth, provide many opportunities for learning, and the cross-fertilisation of plant species that grow on the Mediterranean coast.
Marineland 
In 1970, Roland de la Poype created this animal exhibition park in Antibes. First, it was a small oceanarium with a few pools and animals, but now it is one of the biggest in the world and receives more than 1,200,000 visitors per year. It is the only French sea park featuring two cetacean species: killer whales and dolphins.

Garoupe Lighthouse

Garoupe Lighthouse.
Garoupe Lighthouse.

The old lighthouse of Antibes provides one of the best views in the region from its lofty hilltop. To get here, you must walk about one kilometre up the Chemin de Calvaire from the Plage de la Salis. It makes for a nice half-day stroll.

Church of the Immaculate Conception

Church of the Immaculate Conception.
Church of the Immaculate Conception.

The central church in Antibes was first built in the 11th century with stones used from earlier Roman structures. Its current façade was constructed in the 18th century and blends Latin classical symmetry and religious fantasy. The interior houses some impressive pieces such as a Baroque altarpiece and life-sized wooden carving of Christ's death from 1447.

Hôtel du Cap-Eden Roc

This villa, set in "a forest" at the tip of the Cap d'Antibes peninsula, re-creates a nineteenth-century château. Since 1870 the glamorous white-walled Hotel du Cap on the French Riviera has been one of the most storied and luxurious resorts in the world. Guests who flocked there included Marlene Dietrich, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor and Winston Churchill. Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton conducted an affair and honeymooned there.

Ports

There are many yachting harbours which provide moorings for a range of ships ranging from fishing vessels to full sized yachts.

  • Port Vauban: The largest yachting harbour in Europe, with more than 2,000 moorings, can accommodate craft of more than 100 metres. This old port was the heart of the ancient Greek city of Antipolis and has a long and colourful history which includes Ligurians, Romans and Crusaders on their way to the Holy Land. Today, it is the largest marina in Europe, serving both local fishing boats and luxury yachts.
  • Port Galice: 542 moorings
  • Port de la Salis: 233 moorings
  • Port du Croûton: 390 moorings
  • Port de l'Olivette: Situated in the sheltered cove of the same name, this is a harbour for sailors and their wooden fishing boats who enjoy the old marine, provencal traditions.
The view of Antibes
The view of Antibes
The view of the Gulf of Antibes
The view of the Gulf of Antibes

Theatre and music

The Théâtre Antibea, Théâtre des Heures Bleues and Café Théâtre la Scène sur Mer all offer a variety of performances from orchestra music to dramatic plays. Music of all types, from live jazz to DJs spinning techno, can be found in the bars and nightclubs and there are a number of festivals and special outdoor concerts during the summer. Jazz is still the speciality around here, and the Juan les Pins Jazz Festival is one of the best in the world.

M83 (an electronic band) hails from Antibes.

Festivals

Le Nomade, by Jaume Plensa, Bastion St-Jaume, Antibes
Le Nomade, by Jaume Plensa, Bastion St-Jaume, Antibes

Antibes and Juan les Pins host a number of festivals, mainly during the summer months. There's not much in the way of traditional cultural festivals in Antibes; most of the festivals focus on music and contemporary activities.

  • Jazz à Juan remains one of the top jazz festivals in the world. Since its inception in 1960, it has attracted many famous Jazz artists each year to play outdoors. (July).
  • Antibes Yacht Show
  • The Antique Show of Antibes attracts thousands of collectors for two weeks in April. It's one of the largest shows of its kind in France (April).
  • Voiles d'Antibes is one of the world's biggest gatherings of old teak and brass sailing vessels. They converge on the port for one of the most regal regattas in the Mediterranean (June).
  • The Festival of Saint Peter is the annual celebration of the patron saint of fishermen. A colourful procession through the town is followed by all the local fishermen adorning their boats and floating along the coast (June).
  • The Festival of Sacred Music takes place in Antibes Cathedral, which has renowned acoustics. Sacred music is the theme of this popular festival, which attracts huge crowds each year (January).

Climate

Antibes enjoys a Mediterranean climate.

Climate data for Antibes (France) 1981–2006 averages, extremes 1949–2006
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.8
(67.6)
24.4
(75.9)
23.5
(74.3)
27.0
(80.6)
31.9
(89.4)
32.8
(91)
36.4
(97.5)
36.5
(97.7)
33.4
(92.1)
29.4
(84.9)
24.6
(76.3)
22.0
(71.6)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
12.8
(55)
15.1
(59.2)
17.2
(63)
21.5
(70.7)
25.4
(77.7)
28.7
(83.7)
28.8
(83.8)
25.0
(77)
20.4
(68.7)
15.9
(60.6)
13.2
(55.8)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.0
(48.2)
9.3
(48.7)
11.4
(52.5)
13.4
(56.1)
17.5
(63.5)
21.2
(70.2)
24.3
(75.7)
24.5
(76.1)
21.0
(69.8)
17.0
(62.6)
12.7
(54.9)
10.1
(50.2)
16.0
(60.8)
Average low °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
5.9
(42.6)
7.7
(45.9)
9.7
(49.5)
13.6
(56.5)
17.0
(62.6)
19.9
(67.8)
20.2
(68.4)
17.0
(62.6)
13.6
(56.5)
9.5
(49.1)
6.9
(44.4)
12.3
(54.1)
Record low °C (°F) −6.9
(19.6)
−7.0
(19.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
2.9
(37.2)
4.8
(40.6)
8.0
(46.4)
10.5
(50.9)
13.0
(55.4)
7.2
(45)
4.8
(40.6)
−0.2
(31.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
−7.0
(19.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 72.1
(2.839)
47.5
(1.87)
44.6
(1.756)
70.3
(2.768)
49.0
(1.929)
29.5
(1.161)
10.4
(0.409)
25.1
(0.988)
72.1
(2.839)
117.0
(4.606)
104.3
(4.106)
95.6
(3.764)
737.5
(29.035)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.0 4.8 4.8 7.1 5.3 3.5 1.6 2.4 4.9 7.5 7.6 6.7 62.3
Average relative humidity (%) 74 75 75 76 78 78 76 76 78 77 76 74 76.1
Source #1: Météo France[8]
Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity 1961–1990)[9]

Shopping

  • Marché Provençal[10]

Transport

The Gare d'Antibes is the railway station serving the town, offering connections to Nice, Cannes, Marseille, Paris and several other destinations. This railway station is in the centre of town. There is another railway station, Juan les Pins. The nearest airport is Nice Côte d'Azur Airport and Cannes Airport.

Personalities

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Antibes is twinned with:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Patrice Arcelin, Antibes (A.-M.). Chapelle du Saint-Esprit. In : Guyon (J.), Heijmans (M.) éd. – D’un monde à l’autre. Naissance d’une Chrétienté en Provence (IVe-VIe siècle). Arles, 2001, p. 179 (catalogue d’exposition du musée de l’Arles antique)
  2. ^ [Exposition. Marseille, musée d'histoire de Marseille. 2002-2003] Les Étrusques en mer : épaves d'Antibes à Marseille / sous la dir. de Luc Long, Patrice Pomey, Jean-Christophe Sourisseau. - Marseille : Musées de Marseille ; Aix-en-Provence : Edisud, 2002. p 139
  3. ^ a b c EB (1878).
  4. ^ Freely, John, The western shores of Turkey: discovering the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts, p. 91 .
  5. ^ a b  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainCoolidge, William Augustus Brevoort (1911). "Antibes". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 120–121. 
  6. ^ Voyage en Massalie. 100 ans d'archéologie en Gaule du Sud. Marseille/Aix-en-Provence, musées de Marseille/Edisud, 1990, p. 142-143 (catalogue d'exposition, Marseille).
  7. ^ a b Coolidge 1911.
  8. ^ "Antibes–Garoupe (06)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 30 March 2018. 
  9. ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Antibes - La Garoupe (06) - altitude 82m" (in French). Infoclimat. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2018. 
  10. ^ Goldberg, Lina (24 February 2013). "10 of the world's best fresh markets". CNN Travel. Retrieved 24 February 2013. 
  11. ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net/. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 

References

External links

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