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Anne Henrietta Martin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anne Henrietta Martin
Anne Henrietta Martin in 1916
Anne Henrietta Martin in 1916
Anne Henrietta Martin in 1916
Born(1875-09-30)September 30, 1875
Empire City, Reno, Nevada
DiedApril 15, 1951(1951-04-15) (aged 75)
Carmel, California
Pen nameAnne O'Hara
OccupationSuffragist, pacifist, author
LanguageEnglish
NationalityAmerican
CitizenshipAmerican
EducationBishop Whitaker's School for Girls
Alma materUniversity of Nevada
RelativesWilliam O'Hara Martin, Louise Stadtmuller Martin

Anne Henrietta Martin (September 30, 1875 in Empire City, Reno, Nevada – April 15, 1951 in Carmel, California) (pseudonym, Anne O'Hara; nickname, Little Governor Anne) was a suffragist, pacifist, and author from the state of Nevada.[1] Her main achievement was taking charge of the state legislation that gave women of Nevada the right to vote. She was the first head of the department of history of the University of Nevada (1897-1901) And was active in the suffrage movement in England in 1909-1911, working with Emmeline Pankhurst. She was president of the Nevada equal franchise society in 1912, and the first national chairman of the National Woman's Party in 1916. She was the first woman to run for the United States Senate; She lost twice, in 1918 and 1920.[2][3]

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Transcription

In the ocean’s depths, two titans wage battle: the sperm whale and the colossal squid. Sperm whales use echolocation to hunt these squid for food, but even against this gigantic animal, squid can put up an impressive fight. Scientists know this because on the bodies of washed-up whales, they frequently find huge, round suction scars, emblazoned there by large, grasping tentacles. Ranging in size from this giant’s impressive 14 meters to the 2.5 centimeters of the southern pygmy squid, these creatures fall into the group of animals known as cephalopods. There are about 500 squid species worldwide, and they live in all the world’s oceans, making them a reliable food source for whales, dolphins, sharks, seabirds, fish, and even other squid. Indeed, squid themselves are fearsome ocean predators. But their most extraordinary adaptations are those that have evolved to help them thwart their predators. Squid, which can be found mainly in estuarine, deep-sea, and open-water habitats, often swim together in shoals. Being out in the open without anywhere to hide makes them vulnerable, so as a first line of defense, they rely on large, well-developed eyes. In the colossal squid, these are the size of dinner plates, the largest known eyes in the animal kingdom. When it’s dark or the water is murky, however, squid rely on a secondary sensory system, made from thousands of tiny hair cells that are only about twelve microns long and run along their heads and arms. Each of these hair cells is attached to axons in the nervous system. Swimming animals create a wake, so when the hairs on the squid’s body detect this motion, they send a signal to the brain, which helps it determine the direction of the water’s flow. This way, a squid can sense an oncoming predator in even the dimmest waters. Aware of the threat, a squid can then mask itself from a predator. Squid skin contains thousands of tiny organs called chromatophores, each made of black, brown, red or yellow pigments and ringed in muscle. Reflecting cells beneath the chromatophores mirror the squid’s surroundings, enabling it to blend in. So, when the muscles contract, the color of the pigment is exposed, whereas when the muscles relax the colors are hidden. Each of these chromatophores is under the individual control of the squid’s nervous system, so while some expand, others remain contracted. That enables countershading, where the underside of the squid is lighter than the top, to eliminate a silhouette that a predator might spy from below. Some predators, however, like the whales and dolphins, get around this ruse by using sound waves to detect a squid’s camouflaged form. Not to be outfoxed, the squid still has two more tricks up its sleeve. The first involves ink, produced inside its mantle. Squid ink is made mostly of mucus and melanin, which produces its dark coloring. When squid eject the ink, they either use it to make a large smokescreen that completely blocks the predator’s view or a blob that roughly mimics the size and shape of the squid. This creates a phantom form, called a pseudomorph, that tricks the predator into thinking it’s the real squid. As a final touch, squid rely on jet propulsion to rapidly shoot away from their hunters, reaching speeds of up to 25 miles per hour and moving meters away in mere seconds. This makes them Earth’s fastest invertebrates. Some squid species have also developed unique adaptive behaviors. The deep-sea vampire squid, when startled, uses its webbed arms to make a cape it hides behind. The tiny bobtail, on the other hand, tosses sand over its body as it burrows away from prying eyes. The Pacific flying squid uses jet propulsion for another purpose: to launch itself right out of the water. Squids’ inventive adaptations have allowed them to proliferate for over 500 million years. Even now, we’re still uncovering new species. And as we do, we’re bound to discover even more about how these stealthy cephalopods have mastered survival in the deep and unforgiving sea.

Contents

Early years

Martin was the daughter of William O'Hara Martin, of Irish descent, who served as a Nevada State Senator,[1] and her mother, Louise Stadtmuller Martin, was Bavarian. She attended Bishop Whitaker's School for Girls in Reno. Anne attended the University of Nevada (1891-1894), where she earned a degree in History. She earned a second B.A. in 1896 and an M.A. in History in 1897 from Stanford University.

Career

In 1897, Martin established the University of Nevada's department of history. After two years in the department, she left to study at Columbia University, Chase's Art School, University of London, and University of Leipzig; but returned to the department in 1901–1903.[2] During her leave from the university, Martin recommended the Board of Regents replace her with Jeanne Wier, a friend of hers from Stanford who was just finishing her degree.[4]

Martin returned from Europe in 1901 to attend her father's funeral. Her father's death gave her a revelation, "suddenly made a feminist of me! . . . I found that I stood alone in my family against a man-controlled world." Martin traveled in Europe and Asia and experienced the women's revolution in England between 1909 and 1911, she became a Fabian Socialist, and wrote short stories and political articles, occasionally under the pen name of Anne O'Hara. Martin was arrested in 1910 over an issue of trying to enfranchise British women. Her friend from Stanford, Lou Henry Hoover, sent husband, Herbert Hoover, to pay Martin's bail, but Frederick Pethick-Lawrence had already taken care of that.[1]

After returning to Nevada in the fall of 1911, she became president of the Nevada Equal Franchise Society in February 1912 and organized a campaign over sparsely populated deserts that convinced male voters to enfranchise women on November 3, 1914. This success led to her representation of the national movement as a speaker and executive committee member of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and the Congressional Union. Martin helped organize voting women in the West in 1916 to challenge Democrats. She was one of the Silent Sentinels, National Woman's Party women who picketed for suffrage in front of the White House on July 14, 1917; as a result, she was sentenced to Occoquan Workhouse, but was pardoned less than a week later by President Woodrow Wilson.

In 1918, representing Nevada, Martin was the first American woman to run for the US Senate.[2][3] Martin's campaigns focused on illuminating how women could act as a positive influence in the political world. Her platforms focused on providing better working conditions for men and women and nationalization of railroads and public utilities alienated women suffragists. Between her 1918 and 1920 campaigns Martin wrote a series of articles and essays and in these essays Martin urges women to form autonomous political organizations.

Martin moved to Carmel, California in 1921, and recuperated from a heart attack in 1930.[1] In the 1940s, she received an honorary Doctorate of Laws from the University of Nevada (1945); and wrote two articles for the Encyclopædia Britannica (Josephine Butler, 1944 edition; and White Slavery, 1948 edition). Martin died in Carmel in 1951.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Van Valkenburgh, Holly. "Anne Henrietta Martin". University of Nevada, Reno. Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  2. ^ a b Capace, Nancy (2001). Encyclopedia of Nevada. North American Book Dist LLC. pp. 126–129. ISBN 978-0-403-09611-4. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
  3. ^ Anderson, Kathryn. "Anne Henrietta Martin." American National Biography Online. N.p., Feb. 2000. Web. 1 Mar. 2014. <http://www.anb.org.jerome.stjohns.edu:81/articles/15/15-00444.html?a=1&f=Anne%20Henrietta%20Martin&g=f&n=Anne%20Henrietta%20Martin&ia=-at&ib=-bib&d=10&ss=0&q=1>.
  4. ^ Chung, Su Kim. (2015). "We Seek to Be Patient": Jeanne Wier and the Nevada Historical Society, 1904–1950. UCLA: Information Studies 045A. Retrieved from: http://escholarship.org/uc/item/51d75576 p. 72

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 23 November 2018, at 18:05
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