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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anka year (Odia: ଅଙ୍କ Aṅka) system is a unique regnal year system used in the state of Odisha, India and was instituted by the rulers of the Eastern Ganga dynasty for dating their reigns. It had a number of features that mark the regnal year different from that actual duration of the year elapsed during the reign. The system still survives today and is used in the Odia calendar (panji) to mark the titular regnal year of the King of Puri which is currently held by Gajapati Maharaja Dibyasingha Deva IV of the Eastern Gangas of Puri, whose title carries the legacy of the historical ruling monarchs of Odisha.[1][2][3][4]

Description

The Anka system, also denoted as the Odisha style of dating refers to a special system of counting used only in Odisha which is written along with the name of the King of Puri accompanied by a simple calculation which yields the regnal year of the king. The Anka years were so popular in the Odia-speaking tracts that not only it was used in official records but also by the authors in their works and in the horoscopes prepared by the astrologers. Additional information are also provided on the lunar or solar date besides the King's Anka with the Odia calendar following the Purnimanta system of month naming.[5]

Features

  • The Anka system always starts on the Odia fiscal new year called Sunia which falls on the 12th day of the bright fortnight of the month Bhadra (August-September) known as Bhādra Sukḷa Dwādasi. If the king accedes the throne for a few days before this date, then the first year of his reign would then just be a few days long.
  • Coins were minted on the date of the new year and hence the first coins were given the Anka year 2, the number 1 was not used.
  • All years ending in 6 were skipped. As in the Anka year 5 was followed by Anka year 7, Anka year 15 was followed by Anka year 17 and so on.
  • All years ending in 0 were also skipped, except for the Anka year 10.

Hence no Anka years exist for 1, 6, 16, 20, 26, 30, 36, 40, 46, 50, 56 and so on.

Regnal and Anka year Timeline

Timeline of actual Regnal year and Anka year (shown till regnal year 30)
Regnal year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
Anka year 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17 18 19 21 22 23 24 25 27 28 29 31 32 33 34 35 37

Anka year of the current titular Gajapati Maharaja

Regnal & Anka year of Gajapati king of Puri
(titular reign since 7 July 1970)
Gregorian year Regnal year Odia year Anka year
2021 CE 50 ୧୪୨୮ ଉତ୍କଳାବ୍ଦ
1428 Utkaḷābda
୬୩ ଅଙ୍କ
63

List of Anka year for monarchs of the ruling dynasties

Eastern Ganga dynasty

Ruler Reign Regnal year duration Anka year duration
Anantavarman Vajrahasta III 1038-1070 32 41
Rajaraja Devendravarman I 1070-1078 8 11
Anantavarman Chodaganga 1078-1147 69 87
Kamarnava II 1147-1157 10 13
Raghava 1157-1170 13 17
Rajaraja II 1170-1190 20 25
Anivankabhima II 1190-1197 7 10
Rajaraja III 1197-1211 14 17
Anangabhima Deva III 1211-1235 24 31
Narasingha Deva I 1238-1263 26 33
Bhanudeva I 1264-1279 15 19
Narasimhadeva II 1279-1306 27 34
Bhanudeva II 1306-1328 22 28
Narasimhadeva III 1328-1352 24 31
Bhanudeva III 1352-1378 26 33
Narasimhadeva IV 1378-1414 36 45
Bhanudeva IV 1414-1434 20 25

Suryavamsa (Routray) dynasty

Ruler Reign Regnal year duration Anka year duration
Kapilendra Deva[6] 1434–1470 36 44
Purushottama Deva 1470–1497 27 33
Prataparudra Deva 1497–1540 43 53
Kalua Deva 1540–1541 2 3
Kakharua Deva 1541 1 2

Bhoi dynasty (1st reign)

Ruler Reign Regnal year duration Anka year duration
Govinda Vidyadhara 1541–1548 7 9
Chakrapratapa 1548–1557 9 11
Narasimha Jena 1557–1558 1 2
Raghuram Chhotaraya 1558–1560 2 3

Chalukya dynasty

Ruler Reign Regnal year duration Anka year duration
Mukunda Deva 1560-68 8 10

Bhoi dynasty (2nd reign)

Ruler Reign Regnal year duration Anka year duration Notes
Ramachandra Deva I (Abhinav Indradyumna)[7] 1568-1600 32 39 founder of Khurda kingdom
Purusottam Deva 1600–1621 21 25
Narasingha Deva 1621–1647 26 32
Balabhadra Deva 1647–1657 10 12
Mukunda Deva I 1657–1689 32 39
Dibyasingha Deva I 1689–1716 27 33
Harekrushna Deva 1716–1720 4 5
Gopinath Deva 1720–1727 7 9
Ramachandra Deva II 1727–1736 9 11
Birakesari Deva I (Bhagirathi Deva)[8][9] 1736–1793 57 71
Dibyasingha Deva II 1793–1798 5 7
Mukundeva Deva II 1798–1817 19 23 Puri zamindari in 1804
Ramchandra Deva III 1817–1854 37 45
Birakesari Deva II 1854–1859 5 7

Eastern Ganga dynasty (Puri branch)

Ruler Reign Regnal year duration Anka year duration Notes
Dibyasingha Deva III 1859–1882 23 28
Mukundeva Deva III 1882–1926 44 54
Ramchandra Deva IV 1926–1956 30 37 Titular since 1947(Indian independence)
Birakisore Deva III 1956–1970 14 17
Dibyasingha Deva IV 1970–current 50 63

References

  1. ^ Tripathi, Kunjabihari (1962). The Evolution of Oriya Language and Script. Utkal University. Retrieved 23 March 2021. Note on Regnal and Anka Year
  2. ^ Pankaj Tandon (2012), Tentative Attributions of some Gold Fanams of the Eastern Gangas, BU, retrieved 25 January 2021
  3. ^ Pankaj Tandon (2018), Coins of the Eastern Gangas ruler Anantavarman Chodaganga, BU, retrieved 25 January 2021
  4. ^ Panda, Shishir Kumar (2008), "Gajapati Kingship and the Cult of Jagannatha: A Study on the Chhamu Chitaus (Royal Letters)", Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Indian History Congress, 69: 226, JSTOR 44147183
  5. ^ Griffiths, Arlo (2003), "The Orissa Manuscripts of the Paippalāda Saṃhitā", Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, Harrassowitz Verlag, 153 (2): 338, JSTOR 43382061, The Dating system found in the Manuscripts
  6. ^ Tripathi, K.B. (1956), "THE 19TH ANKA YEAR INSCRIPTION OF KAPILESWARADEVA OF THE PURI—JAGANNATHA TEMPLE" (PDF), Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Indian History Congress, 19: 251–253, JSTOR 44140844
  7. ^ Brundaban Mishra (3 January 2015), KINGDOM AT THE CROSSROADS: GEOPOLITICS OF KHURDA KINGDOM IN EARLY MODERN ORISSA, Journal of South Asian Studies
  8. ^ Hermann Kulke (1974), "Kings without a kingdom: The rajas of Khurda and the Jagannatha cult", South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies Vol 4, 4: 60-77, doi:10.1080/00856407408730688
  9. ^ Hermann Kulke (1974), KINGS WITHOUT A KINGDOM: THE RAJAS OF KHURDA AND THE JAGANNATHA CULT (PDF), South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies Vol 4, p. 60-77
This page was last edited on 1 June 2021, at 08:28
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