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Angels in Judaism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In Judaism, angels (Hebrew: מַלְאָךְmal’akh, plural: מלאכים mal’akhim) are supernatural beings that appear throughout the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), rabbinic literature, apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, and traditional Jewish liturgy. They are categorized in different hierarchies and act as messengers of God, angelic envoys, or general agents of God.

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  • Dr Maurice Mizrahi - Angels in Judaism (Vayera)
  • Angels and Demons (Part 1)
  • Rabbi Dr Moshe Freedman: What are Angels?
  • Kabbalah: Angels and Demons - Rabbi Menachem Wolf, Spiritgrow Josef Kryss Center
  • 9 Types of Angels | What the Stuff?!

Transcription

Dr Maurice M. Mizrahi B"H D'var Torah on Vayera Angels in Judaism In this week's Torah portion, Vayera, angels are all over the place: -First, an angel comes to Hagar to help her in the desert: The angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven. [Gen. 21:17] -Then, two angels come to destroy the city of Sodom: And the two angels came to Sodom in the evening. [Gen. 19:1] -Then, an angel stops Abraham from sacrificing his son Isaac And the angel of the Lord called [Abraham] from heaven, and said: "Abraham, Abraham... Do not lay your hand on the lad..." [Gen. 22:11-12] Angels appear frequently in the Torah. Here are two more examples from the Book of Genesis alone: -Jacob, with God beside him, sees a ladder leading up to heaven, with angels going up and down on it nonstop. [Gen. 28:12] Was that an ancient reporting system? -Jacob struggles with an angel all night and prevails, then gets his name changed to Israel, meaning "He who struggles with God": [Gen. 32:25-31] And [the angel] said: "Your name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel; because you fought with God and with men, and prevailed." [Gen. 32:29] So let's talk about the Jewish view of angels. What are they? What is their role? Well, the Hebrew word for angel is "mal'akh", from the root lamed-alef-khaf, meaning "to send". So mal'akh means "He who is sent". An angel is therefore an emissary -- someone God sends to perform a task. Note, in passing, that "mal'akh" does not have the same root as "melekh", meaning "king" -- the root of "king" is mem-lamed-khaf. Angels are more knowledgeable and more powerful than people, but have no independent will. They just carry out orders from God. Because they are just emissaries of God, there are angels for everything, for whatever God has in mind to do. The Talmud and Midrash mention angels for prayer, for hail, for rain, for anger, for Gehinnom, for birth and pregnancy, for the sea [Bava Batra 74b; Ex. R. 15:22; 24:2], even for lust [Gen. R. 85:8]! There are also guardian angels for entire groups and for special people, even evil ones. The Persians had one, named Dubiel [Yoma 77a]. Edom had one [Mak. 12a]. King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had one, named Kal [Ex. R. 21:5]. In fact, all kings have one. There is even an angel for the entire universe, Metatron, also called Sar, meaning Prince [Ex. R. 17:4; Ḥul. 60a]. These guardian angels plead on behalf of their charges. For example, in the Midrash, God summons the guardian angels of all the nations to discuss the enslavement of the Israelites in Egypt. The angel Gabriel, upon orders from Michael, produces a portion of the wall the Israelites have been forced to build for the Egyptians. It is found to contain the body of an Israelite child. So God punishes first the guardian angel of Egypt, then the Egyptians themselves [Yalkut Ex. 243]. This, of course, raises questions. Why was the angel punished if he has no will of his own? And if angels can argue cases and sway God, why is it wrong to pray to them? Because it is: Jews must pray only to God. Angels are also not all eternal. The Midrash says that: Every day God creates a legion of angels. They sing before Him and disappear. [Gen. R. 78:1] The exact limits of angels are not always clearly defined. Judaism teaches that there is NO intermediary between people and God. So the rabbis tried hard to counter the people's belief in the power of angels, which they considered a form of idolatry. Yet the rabbis were not above using people's belief in the intercession of angels to get them to use only Hebrew in prayer! The Talmud says that The angels don't understand Aramaic [Shabbat 12b, Sotah 33a], the implication being that, if you want the angels to listen to you, pray in Hebrew. That is why most prayers are now in Hebrew. Aramaic is found only in the Gemara, parts of the Zohar, and a few prayers, such as the Kaddish, Kol Nidrei, Ha Lachma, Chad Gadya, Echad Mi Yodea, and some others. Perhaps the best-known and feared angel in Jewish lore is the Angel of Death, the Mal'akh ha-mavet. He just picks up people when God decrees their time is up. In the Talmud, he is known as Ha-Satan, "the Adversary"; or Samael; or the yetzer ha-ra', the evil inclination. [Bava Batra 16a]. He may goad God into ordering certain actions, as in the Book of Job. [Job 1]. He can be delayed from accomplishing his mission by prayer, study, or charity; or fooled, such as by changing the name of dying people; or moved to compassion. He is either not very bright or is always welcoming good excuses to avoid accomplishing his dark mission. If angels are God's staff, there must be a chief of staff. Seven archangels head the world of angels. They carry out tasks of special significance for world history. They are: -Gabriel, meaning "God's strength". He is in charge of heaven. -Michael, meaning "Who is like God?" He watches over Israel. -Raphael, meaning "God's healer". He watches the spirits of humans. -Uriel, meaning "God's light". He leads the angelic host and guards the underworld, Sheol. -Raguel, meaning "God's friend". He is in charge of justice and harmony. -Sariel, meaning "God's command". He has special tasks. For example, he was sent to receive the soul of Moses, and Moses owed all his knowledge to him. He also told Jacob the meaning of the ladder he dreamed. -Jeremiel, meaning "God's mercy". He reviews people's lives with them after they have died, and sometimes before. There are also groups of angels: The cherubim, the seraphim, the ofanim, the chayyot hakodesh, which we invoke when we sing El Adon, the Song of Creation, on Shabbat morning. A very popular song featuring angels, which has fueled some controversy, is Shalom Alechem. It is sung before the Shabbat Eve meal. It says: Shalom alechem mal'achei ha-sharet -- Peace to you, O ministering angels Boachem leshalom -- come in peace Barchuni leshalom -- bless me with peace Tzetchem leshalom -- depart in peace. It was composed in the 17th century by kabbalists in Tzfat, Israel. Its origin is in the Talmud: It was taught: R. Yosei, son of R. Yehudah, said: Two ministering angels accompany man on Shabbat eve from the synagogue to his home, one good and one evil. And when he arrives home and finds the lamp burning, the table laid and the [bed] covered with a spread, the good angel exclaims, "May it be so on another Shabbat [also]," and the evil angel unwillingly responds "Amen". But if not [if everything is in disorder and gloomy], the evil angel exclaims, "May it be so on another Shabbat [also]," and the good angel unwillingly responds, "Amen". [Shabbat 119b] The song welcomes these two angels. The controversy was raised by the Vilna Gaon and Rav Yaakov Emden, in the 18th century. The song says "Bless me with peace, O angels of peace". But angels cannot bless. Only God can. Many commentators wishing to retain the song have suggested ways around the controversy: -One said it's an expression of hope, not a request. -Another said it's an expression of humility. Although we know only God can grant the blessing, we dare not address God directly [Teshuvot Mahari Beruna 275] -Or, we are asking God to have the angels bring our prayers before Him, as they are supposed to do. [Teshuvot Shemesh uTzedakah OC 23] -Or, angels are allowed to do a few simple things on their own, so we can ask them. [Rav Sherira Gaon] -Or, we are not praying to the angel but to God, to ask that He send us His angel to do what we ask the angel to do. [Abravanel, Rosh Amanah 12] -Or, it's a command, not a request: "Bless me" means "Do the job you were sent to do." [Rav Shlomo Zalmen Auerbach] -A disciple of the Vilna Gaon said: In singing ...malachei Elyon, mimelech malchei ham'lachim, that is: ...messengers of the Most High, from the Supreme King of Kings, do NOT pause between "Elyon" and "MiMelech", to make it clear that the Mal'achei Elyon are emissaries from God, and not a higher power on their own. [Siddur Avodat Yisrael, disciple of the Vilna Gaon] Note that the angels in the song are enjoined to leave at the end, before the meal begins, because angels do not eat, and people find it distasteful to be watched as they eat by those who do not eat. Still, some Jews won't sing that line. Prominent commentators fought against the frequent appearance of angels in Jewish liturgy, and tried hard to exclude them. Their basis is simple: One does not petition angels: -The Rambam said that angels simply denote natural and psychic forces -- not divine beings. [Comm. on Sanh. 10] -Rabbi Yosef Kimchi, from 12th century Spain and France, said: True penitence does not stand in need of intervention by the saints. Feigned penitence will not be helped by either the dead or the saints, by man or angel. [Sefer ha-Berit in Milḥemet Ḥovah, p. 33a] -Isaac Abrabanel, from 15th-century Spain, decried all appeals to angels [Rosh Amanah 12] -Yom-Tov Lipmann-Muhlhausen from 15th century Europe, said: Our sages rejected any intermediation between man and the Creator. Appeals to intermediaries lead to devilry and idolatry" [Sefer ha-Niẓẓaḥon, no. 132] -Some rabbis just changed the text of the liturgy to avoid the implication of pleading with angels for their intervention. ["Netivot Olam," Netiv ha-Avodah, ch. 12, by *Judah Loew b. Bezalel of Prague; Ḥatam Sofer, OḤ, no. 166]. -Others, however, said these passages do not contradict pure monotheism. [Shibbolei ha-Leket, no. 282 and others] In conclusion, we can say that angels are at the margin of Judaism. People frequently like to refer to them and ask them things, but most rabbis do not. So rabbis carefully monitor all references to them to minimize their role. Shabbat shalom.

Contents

Etymology

Hebrew mal’akh (מַלְאָךְ) is the standard word for "messenger", both human and divine, in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), though it is rarely used for human messengers in Modern Hebrew[1] as the latter is usually denoted by the term shaliyah (שליח). In the King James Bible, the noun mal’akh is rendered "angel" 111 times, "messenger" 98 times, "ambassadors" 4 times.[2] The noun derives from the verbal consonantal root l-’-k (ל-א-ך), meaning specifically "to send with a message" and with time was substituted with more applicable sh-l-h.[3] In Biblical Hebrew this root is attested only in this noun and in the noun "Mel’akah" (מְלָאכָה), meaning "work", "occupation" or "craftsmanship".

The morphological structure of the word mal’akh suggests that it is the maqtal form of the root denoting the tool or the mean of performing it.[4] The term Mal'akh therefore simply means the one who is sent, often translated as "messenger" when applied to humans; for instance, Mal’akh is the root of the name of the prophet Malachi, whose name means "my messenger". In modern Hebrew, mal’akh is the general word for "angel"; it is also the word for "angel" in Arabic (malak ملاك), Aramaic and Ethiopic.

In the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible)

The Tanakh reports that angels appeared to each of the Patriarchs, to Moses, Joshua, and numerous other figures. They appear to Hagar in Genesis 16:9, to Lot in Genesis 19:1, and to Abraham in Genesis 22:11, they ascend and descend Jacob's Ladder in Genesis 28:12 and appear to Jacob again in Genesis 31:11–13. God promises to send one to Moses in Exodus 33:2, and sends one to stand in the way of Balaam in Numbers 22:31.

Isaiah speaks of mal’ak panav, "the angel of the presence" ("In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he bore them, and carried them all the days of old") (Isaiah 63:9).

The Book of Psalms says "For his angels will charge for you, to protect you in all your ways" (Psalms 91:11).

Angel of God and the origins of angels

The figure of "the angel of God" (Heb. מלאך יהוה) has been perceived by generations of exegetes and interpreters as theologically troublesome due to its obscure and perplexing identity. Yet, mal’akh YHVH seems to conceal the answer in regards to the origins of the idea of angels as heavenly commissioners. Almost every appearance of this figure in the Tanakh complies to the following pattern:

  1. the narration introduces the angel of God;
  2. it behaves as if he was a deity e.g. promising bewildering fertility (e.g. Genesis 21:18), annihilating the whole army with a single blow (e.g. 2 Kings 19:32-36) or merely delivering a speech where he presents himself as God (e.g. Exodus 3:2-4);
  3. the interlocutors of this figure address and revere him in a way reserved exclusively to deity.

As such, the incident leaves the reader with the question whether it was an angel or a deity who had just appeared.[5]

There is a wide array of explanations striving to elucidate this confusion. The most widespread theological ones try to deal with the problem by introducing additional concepts: the angel might be an earthly manifestation of God, some kind of God’s avatar. The different answer comes from the cultural studies which argue that the ancient commissioners during their proclamations used the first person point of view and spoke as if they had been the consigner himself. Both approaches however resort to additional theoretical concepts retroactively introduced to the source text itself.

Angels and healing from impurity

There are instances in the Bible where angels have the ability to heal an individual from impurity. For example, in the book of Isaiah, Isaiah ascends into heaven and sees angels praising the Lord. Their voices were so powerful that they make the pivots on the thresholds shake and filled the temple with smoke. (Isaiah 6: 3-4) All of this power made Isaiah feel unworthy and unclean so he cried out, "Woe is me! I am lost, for I am a man of unclean lips, and I live among a people of unclean lips; yet my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts!" (Isaiah 6:5) Then one of the angels flew to Isaiah and touched his mouth with a live coal that “had been taken from the altar with a pair of tongs.” Once the angel had touched Isaiah’s lips with the coal, he then said, “Now that this has touched your lips, your guilt has departed and your sin is blotted out.” (Isaiah 6: 6-7)[6]

In the Book of Zechariah, Joshua was standing before the angel of the Lord, Satan, and God. (Zechariah 3:3) He was “dressed in filthy clothes” when standing before them. The angel then commanded him to take off his filthy clothing and gave him “festal apparel” and a clean turban to put on. At the removal of Zechariah’s filthy clothing, the angel proclaimed, “See, I have taken your guilt away from you.” (Zechariah 3: 4-5) Thus, the removal of Joshua's filthy clothing was like healing him from his guilt.[7]

Angels and prayer

In the Book of Zechariah, Zechariah hears from the Lord that He had been angry with his ancestors due to their evil deeds.[8] He promised them that if they “return[ed] to [Him], [He] would return to [them].” Then the angel of the Lord prayed to the Lord and said, “O Lord of hosts, how long will you withhold mercy from Jerusalem and the cities of Judah, with which you have been angry these seventy years?” Thus, the angel of the Lord prayed to God in order to petition for the people (Zechariah 1:12).[9]

Angels as warriors

In the Bible there are some references to angels acting as warriors, the protectors of all that is good. One of these references is The Book of Daniel which contains four apocalyptic visions. However, in Daniel 10:13, it makes reference to a sort of battle between the prince of the kingdom of Persia and the speaker whom we[who?] believe is Gabriel. Here Gabriel tells Daniel that the chief of princes, Michael, helped him in the opposition he was facing from the prince of the kingdom of Persia. Thus, both angels are acting as warriors for the good against the bad opposition from the prince of the kingdom of Persia. In addition, in Daniel 12:1, the speaker, Gabriel says that the angel Michael is the protector of the Israelite people and is a great prince.[10]

Angels as messengers

In many passages from the Tanakh, angels are utilized as messengers; indeed, there is no specific Hebrew equivalent for the English word “angel”. Angels seem to have the appearance of ordinary humans; they are typically men and (unlike seraphim), have no wings. The presence of an angelic messenger versus a human messenger must be determined by the context of the passage.[11]

Regardless, messenger angels are a highly important part of preserving and strengthening the link, as well as necessary distance, of God to humans. The nature of the knowledge that angelic messengers carry is always heavenly; that is to say, it is divine, and only by being sanctioned by God can it be transmitted to humans, and only for necessary reasons. When an angel transmits knowledge from God, his own identity is effaced by that of his Lord; that is, he speaks directly for God.[12]

Examples of this role can be seen in numerous famous passages from the Old Testament, including the three mysterious men in the story of Abraham and the destruction of Sodom in Genesis 18:1-19:23, as well as the angel who informs Samson’s mother of the nature of the baby she carries in Judges 13:3-5. In these examples, the angels are disguised, their identities unimportant in relation to the heavenly magnitude of the knowledge they possess; they are entirely defined by their jobs.[12]

Angels as teachers in Jewish apocalyptic literature

Angels in the roles of teachers become especially important in Jewish apocalyptic literature, in such books as Daniel, Zechariah, and 4 Ezra, which feature enigmatic and terrifying prophetic visions experienced by unknowing humans who need heavenly guidance to understand what they have witnessed; no longer does prophecy come with full or immediate understanding.[13] Rather, a type of commentary or explanation of the vision is provided through the figure of an interpreting angel, whose teachings dispel the ignorance of the prophet and allow him to better understand, and thus better propagate, the knowledge of the end times that his vision contains.[14]

Such knowledge of the apocalypse had both heavenly and earthly implications, and assumed a great deal of importance to the oppressed people of Israel at the time, who needed explanations for why God would let them go through so much hardship; thus, the knowledge was “good.”[15] Because of the bizarre features of the visions contained in such apocalyptic literature, interpreting angels assume the roles of teachers rather than just messengers; instead of just conveying information, they must explain it.[14]

As teachers, they convey the full might and authority of heaven, while being able to comfort their distressed human charges in a more relatable way than if the prophets were directly spoken to by God. Thus, angels as teachers function as relatable interpreters and testaments to God’s power, while also increasing His transcendence.[14] Most of all, they were important in establishing human prophets in their proper role as comforters, with “good” knowledge, to the people of Israel.

In 4 Ezra, the interpreting or teaching angel is Uriel. When Ezra expresses his distress about issues that would be similarly preoccupying Jews of his time—namely, why God would allow His chosen people to suffer under the oppression of the Gentiles—Uriel is sent from heaven by God to help relieve his ignorance. In the passage, Ezra argues with Uriel about matters of justice in a way that he never could with God; however, the angel argues back with a series of riddles that eventually show Ezra the misguidedness of his thinking (4 Ezra 3:1-4:21). Importantly, Uriel does not simply transmit information or “speak at” Ezra; the two are engaged in an animated dialogue that reflects that of a teacher and a student, with the former guiding the latter to a realization.[14] Ezra could never argue with God the way he argues with Uriel; however, this argument and its accompanying emotional catharsis is partially what leads him to discover the truth and main message of the passage on his own.

In Daniel, angels also assume the roles of interpreters and teachers, notably in their abilities to explain visions concerning the eschaton, and help human prophets unknot knowledge from it. In Daniel, it is the archangel Gabriel who is sent down from heaven by God to explain Daniel’s perplexing visions and help relieve some of his distress (Daniel 8:16-17). In Daniel 7-12, the good knowledge that is transmitted to Daniel and thus to the rest of the population, is that the earthly events that have been so oppressing the Jewish people are being mirrored in heaven, and that justice will eventually reign in the form of a final battle pitting the armies of heaven against evil forces, which will be vanquished.[16]

However, Daniel is only aware of this information due to the assistance of Gabriel, who teaches him the correct interpretation of his vision, and encouraging him when he falters (Daniel 8:15-27). This role of angels is mirrored in Zechariah, where angelic interpretation and teaching is necessary to unravel the bizarre visions that the prophet witnesses. In the passage, the angel literally walks through Zechariah’s visions with him, explaining and teaching him as they go along so that Zechariah properly understands God’s intended meaning (Zechariah 1:9-5:11).[11]


In rabbinic literature

As a subcategory of heavenly beings, mal’akim occupy the sixth rank of ten in Maimonides' Jewish angelic hierarchy.

Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael

The Talmud names four angels who would later be known as archangels, surrounding God's throne:

As the Holy One blessed be He created four winds (directions) and four banners (for Israel's army), so also did He make four angels to surround His Throne—Michael, Gabriel, Uriel and Raphael. Michael is on its right, corresponding to the tribe of Reuben; Uriel on its left, corresponding to the tribe of Dan, which was located in the north; Gabriel in front, corresponding to the tribe of Judah as well as Moses and Aaron who were in the east; and Raphael in the rear, corresponding to the tribe of Ephraim which was in the west.[17]

Angelic hierarchy

Maimonides

Maimonides, in his Mishneh Torah, counted ten ranks of angels in the Jewish angelic hierarchy, beginning from the highest:[18]

Rank Angelic Class Notes
1 Chayot Ha Kodesh[19] See Ezekiel 1 and Ezekiel 10
2 Ophanim See Ezekiel 1 and Ezekiel 10
3 Erelim See Isaiah 33:7
4 Hashmallim See Ezekiel 1:4
5 Seraphim See Isaiah 6
6 Malakim Messengers, angels
7 Elohim "Godly beings"
8 Bene Elohim "Sons of Godly beings"
9 Cherubim See Hagigah 13b
10 Ishim "manlike beings", see Genesis 18:2 Daniel 10:5

Zohar

The Zohar, in Exodus 43a, also lists ten ranks of angels, beginning from the highest:[citation needed]

Rank Angelic Class
1 Malakim
2 Erelim
3 Seraphim
4 Chayot
5 Ophanim
6 Hashmallim
7 Elim
8 Elohim
9 Bene Elohim
10 Ishim

Maseket Atzilut

Jacob Nazir, in his Maseket Atzilut, also listed ten ranks of angels, beginning from the highest:[citation needed]

Rank Angelic Class
1 Seraphim
2 Ophanim
3 Cherubim
4 Shinanim
5 Tarshishim
6 Ishim
7 Hashmallim
8 Malakim
9 Bene Elohim
10 Erelim

Berit Menuchah

Abraham ben Isaac of Granada, in his Berit Menuchah, also listed ten ranks of angels, beginning from the highest:[citation needed]

Rank Angelic Class
1 Seraphim
2 Ophanim
3 Cherubim
4 Shinanim
5 Tarshishim
6 Hashmallim
7 Malakim
8 Bene Elohim
9 Ishim
10 Erelim

Reshit Chochmah

Eliyahu de Vidas, in his Reshit Chochmah, also listed ten ranks of angels, beginning from the highest:[citation needed]

Rank Angelic Class
1 Chayot Ha Kodesh
2 Ophanim
3 Seraphim
4 Cherubim
5 Erelim
6 Tarshishim
7 Hashmallim
8 Elim
9 Malakim
10 Ishim

In Kabbalah

Kabbalah describes the angels at length. Angels are described in Kabbalah literature as forces that send information, feelings, between mankind and the God of Israel. They are analogized to atoms, wavelengths or channels that help God in his creation, and it is therefore, reasoned that they should not be worshipped, prayed to, nor invoked. They are not physical in nature but spiritual beings, like spiritual atoms. Therefore, the Kabbalah reasons, when they appear in the Hebrew Bible their description is from the viewpoint of the person that received the vision or prophesy or occurrence, which will be anthropomorphic. However, they are not material beings but are likened to a single emotion, feeling, or material, controlled by God for his purpose of creation.[20]

In Jewish liturgy

On returning home from services on Friday night, the eve of Shabbat, or at the dinner-table before dinner Friday night, it is customary in Orthodox Judaism and Conservative Judaism to greet ones guardian angels (Angels of Service or Ministering Angels) with a traditional hymn beginning with[21]

שלום עליכם מלאכי השרת
Peace be unto you, Malachai HaSharet (Angels of Service)
מלאכי עליון
Angels of the Most High
ממלך מלכי המלכים
From the King of the kings of kings
הקדוש ברוך הוא
The Holy One Blessed Be He

Before going to sleep, many Jews recite a traditional prayer naming four archangels, "To my right Michael and to my left Gabriel, in front of me Uriel and behind me Raphael, and over my head God's Shekhinah ["the presence of God"]."[22]

On the Jewish holiday of Simchat Torah, it is customary to call all the boys (in some synagogues, all the children) to the Torah reading and for the whole congregation to recite a verse from Jacob's blessing to Ephraim and Manasheh (Manassas).[23]

May the angel who redeems me from all evil, bless the children, and let my name be named in them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac, and let them flourish like fish for multitude in the midst of the land (Genesis 48:16)

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford Hebrew-English Dictionary
  2. ^ "Strong's Lexicon". Blueletterbible.org. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  3. ^ D.N. Freedman; B.E. Willoughby (1973). Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Alten Testament. Stuttgart. pp. 897–904. 
  4. ^ Kosior, Wojciech. "The Angel in the Hebrew Bible from the Statistic and Hermeneutic Perspectives. Some Remarks on the Interpolation Theory". “The Polish Journal of Biblical Research”, Vol. 12, No. 1 (23), pp. 55-70. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  5. ^ Kosior, Wojciech. "The Angel in the Hebrew Bible from the Statistic and Hermeneutic Perspectives. Some Remarks on the Interpolation Theory". “The Polish Journal of Biblical Research”, Vol. 12, No. 1 (23), pp. 59-60. Retrieved 22 November 2013. 
  6. ^ Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Marc Z.; Newsom, Carol A.; Perkins, Pheme, eds. (2010). The new Oxford annotated Bible : New Revised Standard Version : with the Apocrypha : an ecumenical study Bible (Fully rev. 4th ed.). Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. pp. Isaiah 6: 1–7. ISBN 9780195289558. 
  7. ^ Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Marc Z.; Newsom, Carol A.; Perkins, Pheme, eds. (2010). The new Oxford annotated Bible : New Revised Standard Version : with the Apocrypha : an ecumenical study Bible (Fully rev. 4th ed.). Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. pp. Zechariah 3: 1–5. ISBN 9780195289558. 
  8. ^ "Sinai Scholars Society Launched at Chabad at UCF". Retrieved Oct 8, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Chabad of Southeast Morris County offers course in Talmudic ethics". Retrieved Oct 8, 2014. 
  10. ^ Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Marc Z.; Newsom, Carol A.; Perkins, Pheme, eds. (2010). The new Oxford annotated Bible : New Revised Standard Version : with the Apocrypha : an ecumenical study Bible (Fully rev. 4th ed.). Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. pp. Daniel 10 & 12. ISBN 9780195289558. 
  11. ^ a b Erik Eynikel, “The Angel in Samson’s Birth Narrative,” in Angels: The Concept Of Celestial Beings-Origins, Development And Reception, ed. Friedrich V. Reiterer et al. (Walter de Gruyter: Berlin, 2007), 117
  12. ^ a b Erik Eynikel, “The Angel in Samson’s Birth Narrative,” in Angels: The Concept Of Celestial Beings-Origins, Development And Reception, ed. Friedrich V. Reiterer et al. (Walter de Gruyter: Berlin, 2007), 110-121
  13. ^ Karin Shöpflin, “God’s Interpreter” in Angels: The Concept Of Celestial Beings, ed. Friedrich V Reiterer, Tobias Nicklas, and Karin Schopflin (Berlin: de Gruyter, 2007), 198
  14. ^ a b c d George W.E. Nickelsburg. Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005), 270
  15. ^ George W.E. Nickelsburg. Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005), 298-302
  16. ^ George W.E. Nickelsburg. Jewish Literature between the Bible and the Mishnah (Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005), 271
  17. ^ (Numbers Rabbah 2:10). See http://jhom.com/topics/angels/talmud_fourangels.htm Archived 2012-08-31 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ Davidson, Gustav (1994). Dictionary of Angels: Including the Fallen Angels. Free Press. p. 336. ISBN 978-0029070529. 
  19. ^ "Torah and Torts..." Retrieved Oct 8, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Angels the true story". Angels the true story. Kabbalah Online. Retrieved 7 May 2012. 
  21. ^ See any siddur (Jewish prayer book) with Friday night prayers
  22. ^ See any siddur (Jewish prayer book), Kriyat Shema She'al Hamitah, (קריאת שמע שעל המיטה, Reading of the Shema before retiring to sleep)
  23. ^ "What to Expect at Simchat Torah Services". www.chabad.org. Retrieved 13 April 2018. 

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