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Angeles City
City of Angeles
From top, left to right: City skyline, Holy Rosary Parish Church, Clark Freeport Zone (Main Gate), City Hall, Bayanihan Park
Flag of Angeles City
Official seal of Angeles City
Kapampangan: "Sulagpo Ta Na!"
Anthem: Himno ning Angeles (Angeles Hymn)
Map of Central Luzon with Angeles City highlighted
Map of Central Luzon with Angeles City highlighted
Angeles City is located in Philippines
Angeles City
Angeles City
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 15°08′50″N 120°35′05″E / 15.147181°N 120.584733°E / 15.147181; 120.584733
RegionCentral Luzon
ProvincePampanga (geographically only)
District  1st district
Chartered8 December 1829
Cityhood1 January 1964
Highly urbanized city13 October 1986
Barangays33 (see Barangays)
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorCarmelo G. Lazatin Jr.
 • Vice MayorMaria Vicenta V. Cabigting
 • RepresentativeCarmelo B. Lazatin II
 • Councilors
  • Atty. Arvin Suller
  • Danilo Lacson
  • Joseph Ponce
  • Joan Crystal Aguas
  • Alfie Bonifacio
  • Thelma Indiongco
  • Marino Bañola
  • Amos Rivera
  • Jesus Sangil
  • Raco Del Rosario
 • Electorate198,777 voters (2019)
 • Total60.27 km2 (23.27 sq mi)
146 m (479 ft)
Highest elevation
604 m (1,982 ft)
Lowest elevation
32 m (105 ft)
 (2020 census) [3]
 • Total462,928
 • Density7,700/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
 • Households
DemonymsAngeleños (Male)
Angeleñas (Female)
 • Income class1st city income class
 • Poverty incidence6.70% (2015)[4]
 • Revenue₱2,606,215,537.60 (2020)
 • Assets₱6,732,463,813.01 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱2,158,062,011.65 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱2,151,818,398.58 (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityAngeles Electric Corporation (AEC)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
IDD:area code+63 (0)45
Native languagesKapampangan

Angeles City (locally [ˈaŋhɛlɛs]), officially the City of Angeles (Kapampangan: Lakanbalen ning Angeles; Filipino: Lungsod ng Angeles), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the Central Luzon region of the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 462,928 people. [3]

While Angeles City is politically independent from the province of Pampanga, it is usually grouped with it for statistical purposes.


The name Ángeles is derived from the Spanish El Pueblo de los Ángeles ("The Town of the Angels") in honour of its patron saints, Los Santos Ángeles Custodios (Holy Guardian Angels), and the name of its founder, Don Ángel Pantaleón de Miranda.


Spanish period

In 1796, the gobernadorcillo or town head of San Fernando, Don Ángel Pantaleón de Miranda, and his wife, Doña Rosalía de Jesús, along with some followers, staked out a new settlement, which they named Culiát because of the abundance of vines (Gnetum indicum)[5] of that name in the area. The new settlers cleared the woodland and cultivated the area for rice and sugar farming. Don Ángel built his first house with light materials at the northwest corner of the intersection of Sapang Balen and the road going towards the town of Porac. It was later donated to the Catholic Church and became a cemetery called "Campo Santong Matua" (today the site of Nepomuceno Coliseum).[6]

On 12 May 1812, the new settlers tried to make Culiat a self-governing town but the friars resisted the move, led by Fray José Pometa. Ten years later, on 11 February 1822, Don Ángel filed a petition for the township of Culiat to secede from San Fernando, but it was denied. This was followed by another petition within the same year, jointly signed by Don Ángel, his son-in-law, Mariano Henson, and the latter's father, Severino Henson. He donated 35 hectares for the construction of the first Catholic church, a convent and a primary school while Doña Agustina Henson de Nepomuceno, the niece of who would become the first gobernadorcillo of Angeles in 1830, Don Ciriaco de Miranda, gave land for the new public market. Don Ángel paid the complete amount required by law just for the secession of Culiat from San Fernando. There were only 160 taxpayers then but the law required that it should have at least 500 taxpayers.[7]

Located some 10 miles (16 km) north of Pampanga's capital, Culiat became a barrio of San Fernando for 33 years and on 8 December 1829, became a separate municipality. The newly-autonomous town was renamed "El Pueblo de los Ángeles" in honor of its patron saints, the Holy Angels, and the name of its founder, Don Ángel, coinciding with the rise of new barrios such as Santo Cristo (as the población or town proper), Cutcut, Pampang and Pulong Anunas. The progressive barrios developed some new industries like a sugar mill and a wine distillery. The transition of Angeles from a jungle clearing to a barrio, to a town and finally to a city took 168 years and in all that time, it survived locusts' infestations, wars, epidemics, volcanic eruptions and typhoons to become one of the fast rising towns in the country. When it received its first official municipal charter, the town contained some 661 people, 151 houses and an area of 38.65 km2.[8][9]

On 17 March 1899, General Emilio Aguinaldo transferred the seat of the First Philippine Republic to Angeles. It then became the site of celebrations for the first anniversary of Philippine independence, which was proclaimed a year earlier in Kawit, Cavite. Events included a parade, led by the youngest ever Filipino generals, Gregorio del Pilar and Manuel Tinio, with General Aguinaldo viewing the proceedings from the Pamintuan Residence, which was the Presidential Palace from May to July 1899 (and later was the Central Bank of the Philippines office in Central Luzon, before its ownership passed to the National Historical Commission of the Philippines). Aguinaldo's sojourn was short, however, for in July of this same year he transferred his government to the province of Tarlac following Angeles' occupation by the American forces.[10]

American period

On 10 August 1899, U.S. forces began the attack on Angeles confident in capturing it in a few days. However, the Filipino Army defending the town refused to give in so easily and fiercely fought back and for three months, they battled the Americans in and around the town. It was only after the battle on 5 November 1899 that the town finally fell into American hands. The Battle of Angeles was considered to be the longest in the history of the Filipino-American War in Pampanga. This led to the establishment of an American camp in Barrio Talimundoc (in what is now Lourdes Sur), located next to the railroad station, in order to establish control over the central plains of Luzon. In January 1900, General Frederick D. Grant organized the first U.S. Civil Government in Angeles by appointing an alcalde or municipal mayor, beginning American rule over Angeles.[11]

In 1902, the United States Army studied relocating their post from Barrio Talimundoc to a fertile plain in Barrio Sapang Bato, which supposedly had better grass for their horses. A year after that, U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt signed an executive order on 1 September, establishing 7,700 acres (31 km2) of land in Sapang Bato as Fort Stotsenburg (which later would expand to 156,204 acres (632.14 km2) in 1908 to become Clark Air Base). It was centered on what would in later years become Clark Air Base's parade ground.[12]

The Americans quickly commandeered Holy Rosary Parish Church and converted it into an army hospital, with the choir loft served as a dental clinic. The convento, which now houses Holy Family Academy, was the barracks for medical officers and enlisted men. The sacristy was the only portion where Angeleños could hear Mass. When the Americans finally vacated the church in 1904 and relocated to Fort Stotsenburg, parish priest Rev. Vicente Lapus listed a total of US$638 for portions of the church destroyed, looted church items and treasures, and arrears on rentals.

World War II

Hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Japan attacked the Philippines, targeting the American military presence, as well as the Philippine Army, and taking over the civilian government. During the Japanese occupation in the country, 57,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war passed the town of Angeles. They were forced to join the Bataan Death March, going to Camp O'Donnell in Capas, Tarlac. Angeleños showed their sympathy by handing them food, milk, boiled eggs, rice cakes, cigarettes, and water. Angeleños followed them up to the train station in Dau railway station in Mabalacat to give moral and spiritual support, and even helped the escapees.

War historians considered the bombing of Fort Stotsenburg on 8 December 1941 at 12:30 p.m. as one of the most destructive air raids in World War II, because almost all the American war planes were wrecked on the ground. In thirty minutes, the air might of America in the Far East was completely destroyed.

On the early morning of New Year's Day 1942, the first Japanese troops entered Angeles; they would occupy it until January 1945. During the Japanese invasion, another type of local government was set up on 22 January 1942. During the Japanese occupation, Clark Air Base then became a major center for staging Japanese air operations. Japanese aircraft flying out of Clark participated in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, considered to be the largest naval battle of the Second World War and possibly the largest naval battle in history.[13][14]

Clark Air Base was recaptured by the Americans in January 1945, after three months of fierce fighting in the Philippines. After three years of atrocities committed by Japanese forces, the town and the rest of the Philippines were finally liberated by the combined United States and Philippine Commonwealth troops in 1945. The building of the general headquarters of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and Philippine Constabulary was situated in Angeles from January 1945 to June 1946, during and after World War II.

Independence and cityhood

After World War II, the Philippines gained independence from the United States on 4 July 1946, but then would be tied to a neo-colonial relationship. The "Treaty of General Relations" signed on independence day itself signified the Americans' withdrawal and surrender of possession, control and sovereignty over the Philippines, except the use of their bases. It was followed by the Philippine-American Military Bases Agreement on 14 March 1947, allowing the U.S. to maintain territorial integrity and sovereignty over Clark Air Base and Subic Naval Base for the next 44 years. Clark occupied 63,103 hectares and served as the tactical operational U.S. air force installation in the entire Southeast Asian region that had the capacity to accommodate the U.S. military transport planes, which served the entire Western Pacific.

Through the years, although Fort Stotsenburg continued to expand to become what is now known as Clark Air Base, Angeles, despite its proximity to the American camp, did not progress fast and remained fairly small until the end of World War II. It was finally inaugurated on 1 January 1964 as a chartered city under Republic Act No. 3700 and then it entered a period of tremendous growth that has resulted in its present position as the "Premier City in Central Luzon." It was then Mayor Rafael del Rosario's brainchild that Angeles became a city. He gained the distinction of being the last municipal mayor of Angeles. He was assisted in the preparation of the City Chapter by Attorney Enrique Tayag, a prominent resident of the town. Congresswoman Juanita L. Nepomuceno of the first district of Pampanga sponsored the bill in Congress, which was approved by then President Diosdado Macapagal, the ninth Philippine president and a native of the province of Pampanga.[15]

Mount Pinatubo eruption and Angeles today

Collapsed hangars at the Clark Air Base after the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo
Collapsed hangars at the Clark Air Base after the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo

On 15 June 1991, Angeles was affected by the cataclysmic eruption of nearby Mount Pinatubo, with up to 60,000 people being evacuated from the city. It was the second-largest volcanic eruption of the twentieth century and, by far, the largest eruption to affect a densely populated area. The province of Pampanga, Clark specifically, were badly hit and the agricultural lands, as well as other businesses, were covered by tons of lahar.[16] There were no casualties reported inside Clark two days from the initial eruption because the 18,000 personnel and their families were transported to Guam and the Subic Naval Base in Zambales.

The eruption of Mount Pinatubo forced the leadership of the U.S. to prematurely abandon its military installation at Clark Air Base. This is in addition to the voting by the Philippine Senate in 1991 to no longer extend the Laurel–Langley Agreement, which allowed the presence of U.S. military forces on Philippine territory, thus ending the long chapter of Filipino-American relations in the history of Angeles. The U.S. military never returned to Clark, turning over the damaged base to the Philippine government on 26 November 1991[17][18][19]

MacArthur Highway at Angeles, the neighboring city San Fernando is southbound of the highway.
MacArthur Highway at Angeles, the neighboring city San Fernando is southbound of the highway.

In 1993, cleanup and removal of volcanic ash deposits began. The former base re-emerged as Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ) approved by then President Fidel V. Ramos on 3 April of the same year. The airfield infrastructure was improved and destined to be the premiere airport in the country in the next five years and one of the most modern in Asia.[20] The creation of CSEZ has helped to offset the loss of income and jobs previously generated by the presence of the U.S. base. Today, Angeles and Clark together form the hub for business, industry, aviation and tourism, as well as the entertainment and gaming center of Central Luzon.[21]

Among the draws for tourists is the local dish sisig which according to the Center for Kapampangan Studies, originated in this Angeles and has been on the menu since the 1730s. Pampanga is well known as the culinary center of the Philippines.[22][23][24]

In 2018, Angeles applied to be a UNESCO Creative City, while it also applied sisig into the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage. The applications are currently being processed by UNESCO.[25]


It is bordered by Mabalacat to the north, Mexico to the east, San Fernando to the southeast, Bacolor to the south, and Porac to the southwest and west. Though the city administers itself autonomously from Pampanga, it is the province's commercial and financial hub.

Angeles is served by the Clark International Airport in Clark Freeport Zone.[26][21][27]

Angeles is 83 kilometres (52 mi) from Manila and 17 kilometres (11 mi) from the provincial capital, San Fernando.


Climate data for Clark Air Base, Angeles City
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.5
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.3
Average low °C (°F) 20.5
Record low °C (°F) 15.8
Average rainfall mm (inches) 17.4
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3 3 4 7 15 18 22 24 21 12 8 6 143
Average relative humidity (%) 70 68 66 65 73 80 84 86 85 78 75 72 75
Source: PAGASA[28][29]

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Angeles has a tropical savanna climate that borders on a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Aw/Am). Angeles experiences two distinct seasons: a dry season from November through April, with a wet season from May through October. From 1953 to 1991, the mean daily low was 22.6 °C and the mean daily high was 31.3 °C, with June being warmest and January and February being the coolest. The average annual rainfall is 2026.8 mm. Typhoons tend to approach from the east during the summer and fall. Many damaging storms struck the city, including Typhoon Irma on 28 November 1974 (generally considered to be the strongest one); Typhoon Rita on 27 October 1978; Typhoon Irma (the name was reused) on 24 November 1981; Typhoon Ruby on 25 October 1988; and Typhoon Yunya on 15 June 1991 which coincided with the Mount Pinatubo blast. In July 1972, Central Luzon experienced a month of nearly continuous rain, resulting in ±2,440 millimetres (96 in) falling on the plain around Angeles.


Angeles is divided into 33 barangays.

Political map of Angeles
Political map of Angeles
Barangay Population
(2010) [30]
(2015) [31]
Agapito del Rosario 2,313 3,230
Anunas 15,213 20,911
Balibago 32,291 40,087
Capaya 8,280 8,870
Claro M. Recto 4,741 3,981
Cuayan 4,852 10,363
Cutcut 21,601 27,843
Cutud 16,531 23,177
Lourdes North West 10,450 9,896
Lourdes Sur (Talimundoc) 4,772 4,797
Lourdes Sur East 4,656 4,741
Malabanias 23,034 33,174
Margot 3,606 5,239
Mining 2,492 3,186
Pampang 16,198 20,419
Pandan 14,901 20,598
Pulung Maragul 14,750 18,067
Pulungbulu 11,237 12,198
Pulung Cacutud 18,413 23,891
Salapungan 6,102 5,443
San Jose 4,785 5,579
San Nicolas 2,778 3,424
Santa Teresita 8,263 8,402
Santa Trinidad 4,980 5,036
Santo Cristo 4,443 4,222
Santo Domingo 14,378 17,693
Santo Rosario (Poblacion) 3,515 4,902
Sapalibutad 8,854 12,698
Sapangbato 9,910 10,965
Tabun 5,663 10,914
Virgen Delos Remedios 1,634 1,651
Amsic 7,736 14,379
Ninoy Aquino (Marisol) 12,964 11,658


Korea Town of Angeles
Korea Town of Angeles

Anunas is the barangay that houses the city's Koreatown, a chain of Korean establishments along the Fil-Am Friendship Highway. Anunas is also identified as one of the growth centers of the city, focusing on light industries such as woodcarving and rattan craft.[32]

Balibago and Malabanias

Malabañas skyline
Malabañas skyline

Balibago is the main entertainment district of Angeles. It contains Casino Filipino Angeles and the famous Fields Avenue tourist belt. The city's biggest mall, SM City Clark, is also situated in Barangay Malabañas.

Pampang and San Nicolas

These two barangays form the main public market district of the city. The Pampang Wet Market, San Nicolas Market, Friday Flea Market (locally referred to as Apu), Jumbo Jenra Angeles, Puregold Angeles, and the Angeles Slaughterhouse are found here. The Pampang Wet Market is the largest and most frequented wet market in the province of Pampanga. It also attracts people from nearby towns. Ospital Ning Angeles (ONA),City College of Angeles, Angeles City National High School are located in Pampang.

Pulung Maragul

Pulung Maragul is the barangay that houses the city's government complex, which includes the Angeles City Hall, the Angeles City Hall of Justice, and other government buildings. It is also the location of the Angeles Exit of the North Luzon Expressway and Marquee Mall, Ayala's first mall in Central Luzon. Marquee Place and Marquee Residences later rose in Pulung Maragul as well, next to the mall.

Santo Rosario

Santo Rosario is the poblacion. It is home to most of Angeles' heritage and historical structures such as the Holy Rosary Parish Church, Pamintuan Mansion which is privately owned by Maverick Pamintuan, Bale Herencia, and Museo ning Angeles (former City Hall building). Holy Angel University, Central Luzon's largest university in terms of population,[33] is also located here. Plans of declaring the barangay or parts of it a heritage zone are ongoing.[34]


Sapangbato is the largest barangay in Angeles in terms of territory, with a total land area of 104,694 sq. meters and a population of 11,262. Located northwest of Angeles near Clark Freeport Zone, it is identified as the barangay in Angeles with the highest elevation of 750 feet above sea level. It is home to Fort Stotsenburg, also known as the Parade Grounds of Clark., member of the hip hop group The Black Eyed Peas, hails from Sapangbato. The famous Puning Hot Springs of Barangay Inararo in Porac are accessed through Sitio Target in Sapangbato.


Population census of Angeles City
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 10,646—    
1918 17,948+3.54%
1939 26,027+1.79%
1948 37,558+4.16%
1960 75,900+6.04%
1970 134,544+5.88%
1975 151,164+2.36%
1980 188,834+4.55%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1990 236,686+2.28%
1995 234,011−0.21%
2000 263,971+2.62%
2007 317,398+2.57%
2010 326,336+1.02%
2015 411,634+4.52%
2020 462,928+2.34%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[31][30][35][36]


The majority of the population of Angeles is Catholic.[citation needed] At least two major festivals associated with the Catholic faith are held in October in the city. Commemorating the victory of the Spanish fleet over the Dutch Navy in 1646, the La Naval Fiesta is celebrated in honor of the Our Lady of La Naval de Manila with adherents believing that her intercession was instrumental to the Spaniards' naval victory.[37] The Apu Fiesta involves devotees from all over Pampanga making a visit to the Apu shrine to venerate the image of Jesus Christ lying in the sepulchre which is believed to be miraculous by believers.[38]

Expatriate and immigrant community

Owing to the presence of the nearby U.S. Clark Air Force Base and consequent Freeport Zone,[39] many Americans chose to permanently settle in the area, particularly in the Balibago district, and thus Angeles became home to a large colony of expatriates. During the American colonial period (1898–1946), more than 800,000 Americans were born in the Philippines, and a large concentration of Filipino mestizos or Filipinos with American ancestry were located in this city.[40][41][42]


Being home of the former Clark Air Base (once the largest United States military facility outside the continental United States), it was significantly affected by the fallout from the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. The economy of Angeles was heavily dependent on the American base at that time.[8]

In 1993, a full cleanup and removal of volcanic ash deposits began and the former U.S. base was transformed into the Clark Special Economic Zone (CSEZ).[20] The creation of CSEZ has helped to offset the loss of income and jobs previously generated by the presence of the U.S. base in the city. Today, Angeles and Clark form the hub for business, industry, aviation, and tourism in the Philippines as well as a leisure, fitness, entertainment and gaming center of Central Luzon.[49]

Angeles is home to an emerging technology industry. Its economy is based also on tourism and gambling. Fields Avenue forms the hub of the night life industry focused in Angeles.[50] With close proximity to an international airport in Clark Freeport, Angeles is visited by foreigners all year round.[51]

Al-fresco restaurants at the backside of Marquee Mall
Al-fresco restaurants at the backside of Marquee Mall

In the 2000s, the local government of Angeles rebranded the Fields Avenue tourist belt as a high-end destination with fine restaurants and luxury hotels and casinos[52][53] The finishing of roads, such as the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway, has improved trade and transport.[21][54][55] The project connects the industrial, transport and business hubs of Pampanga, Zambales, Bataan and Tarlac. The project is crucial to bolstering growth in Central Luzon.[56][57]

The city has cottage industries producing rattan furniture, coconuts, and charcoal briquettes. It also has many thriving export businesses in handicrafts, metal crafts, toys, houseware and garments.[58] Apart from the Clark Freeport Zone, industrial areas include the Angeles Livelihood Village and the Angeles City Industrial Estate.[59]

Call centers present are e-Telecare,[60] CyberCity, Sutherland and IRMC. Other American IT industries are major employers as well.[61] The establishment of a number of shopping malls also fueled the city's economy, including SM City Clark, Robinsons Angeles, Jenra Grand Mall, Nepo Mall, Saver's Mall and the Marquee Mall, next to City Hall.[62][63]

Angeles City houses numerous restaurants that are usually located near the malls and mostly in Nepo Quad which was newly renovated to cater the heightened needs of the population.


Preparing for the Octoberfest 2009 along McArthur Highway in Balibago district
Preparing for the Octoberfest 2009 along McArthur Highway in Balibago district

The city hosts a street party called the Tigtigan Terakan keng Dalan (lit.'Music and Dancing on the Streets') every October which features musical performances from both amateur and better-known OPM bands.[64]

The Sisig Festival, locally known as the Sadsaran Qng Angeles, festivities dedicated to the Kapmpangan dish, sisig, used to be held every December.[65] It was halted in 2008 following the death of Lucia Cunanan, who was known for promoting the dish. The festival was revived as a one-day fiesta in April 2017 in association with the Department of Tourism.


Angeles Heritage District featuring Museo ning Angeles and Santo Rosario Church
Angeles Heritage District featuring Museo ning Angeles and Santo Rosario Church

Angeles is promoted as a gastronomy tourist destination and is billed as the "culinary capital" of the Philippines. The city is known as a hub for Kampampangan cuisine as well as for its pork sisig.[66][67] The city also has numerous historically and culturally significant tourist destinations including the Pamintuan Mansion, a heritage house which hosts a history and social studies museum, and the Holy Rosary Church, which is recognized by the National Museum of the Philippines as an Important Cultural Property. Angeles is also situated within the perimeter of the Clark Freeport Zone.[68]

Sex tourism

A consequence of the presence of U.S. bases in the country is the prostitution industry in the city. Since the early days of Clark Air Base, Fields Avenue in Balibago district is an area frequently visited by the U.S. servicemen, has been known as a center for prostitution and sex tourism.[69][70][71][72][73] A BBC article characterized it as "the centre of the Philippines sex industry" and dubbed it "Sin City."[74] Elsewhere and in later years, Philippine travel publications have described it as the "Entertainment Capital of Central Luzon", "The Filipino Las Vegas", and "Entertainment City."[75][76]


Tertiary and higher education

Notable people

Sister cities

Angeles has the following sister cities:


  1. ^ City of Angeles |  (DILG)
  2. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 May 2021. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  3. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "Region III (Central Luzon)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  4. ^; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  5. ^ Pavia, Joey (11 October 2014). "Angeles's 'culiat' vines: Then vanishing, now nurtured | Joey Pavia". BusinessMirror. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  6. ^ Angeles City | Philippines Travel Guide Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "General Tourist info Angeles City – Philippines". Archived from the original on 17 July 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Tourist information and services on Angeles City Philippines". Tourist Center. Tourist Center Corporation Philippines. Archived from the original on 15 October 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
  9. ^ Camiling, Alejandro S.; Camiling, Teresita Z. "Towns and Barangays of Pampanga". Andro's Kapampangan Page. Andro Camiling. Archived from the original on 18 June 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007. ... per the Year 2000 Census
  10. ^ "Punch-drunk to fitness". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
  11. ^ Angeles City History Pt. 2 (American Period) | Angeles City Bars | Angeles City Hotels | Forums | Photos | Videos Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ "Clark Air Base History". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  13. ^ Morison, Samuel E. (1956). "Leyte, June 1944 – January 1945". History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. XII. Boston: Little & Brown.
  14. ^ Woodward, C. Vann (1947). The Battle for Leyte Gulf. New York: Macmillan.
  15. ^ "Efren Reyes most Angeles City citizen nowadays". Clarkton Hotel Angeles City Philippines. Clarkton Hotels Inc. Philippines. Archived from the original on 28 November 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
  16. ^ "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, Fact Sheet 113-97". Retrieved 14 July 2009.
  17. ^ "Mount Pinatubo Eruption: The Volcanic Eruption of 1991 that Cooled the Planet". About Geography. 9 March 2001. Retrieved 7 February 2007.
  18. ^ "Clark Air Base". John Pike. Archived from the original on 12 August 2007. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
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