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Andrey Bogolyubsky

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

St. Andrei Bogolyubsky
Andrey Bogolubskii.jpg
Icon of St. Andrei Bogolyubsky
Venerated inEastern Orthodox Church
Major shrineDormition cathedral, Vladimir
FeastJune 30, July 4 (burial)
AttributesClothed as a Russian Grand Prince, holding a three-bar cross in his right hand

Andrei I Yuryevich, commonly known under his sobriquet Andrei the Pious (Russian: Андрей Боголюбский) (c. 1111 – June 28, 1174), was Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal from 1157 till his death. His reign saw a complete decline of Kiev's rule over northeastern Rus, and the rise of Vladimir as the new capital city. Andrei was known in the West as Scythian Caesar, and is beatified as a saint in the Russian Orthodox Church.

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Transcription

The first forerunner of a state, which was in the territories of East Slavs was named, “Rus,” and was established by the Viking clan called the “Rus,” in the 9th century. Rich culture, and prosperous trade with the Byzantine Empire, made it the dominant ruler of, what is today, Western Russia. Varangians Life in Rus was focused around its long rivers. The Dnieper, Don, Volga and Volkhov rivers were the trading routes that connected Scandinavia with Constantinople and Baghdad. The Varangians established control over these territories. They came to rule the Slavs, and gradually mixed with them. Kievan Rus A legend, written in the Primary Chronicle, says that in the middle of the 9th century, Slavic and Finno-Ugric tribes of Northern Russia tired of fighting each other and invited the Varangians to rule over them. In 862, the Varangian, Prince Rurik, established the “Rurik Dynasty,” in Novgorod that ruled over Russia for 700 years. Rurik’s successor, Oleg, founded the Kievan Rus state in 882 by connecting Novgorod with Kiev, and making the latter his new capital. The following rulers, Igor I, his widow, Olga, and son, Svyatoslav I, extended their dominance in what is now Southern Russia, fighting Byzantium, Pechenegs, and Polovtsy. The reign of Yaroslav the Wise, in the first half of the 11th century, was the highlight of Kievan power. Yaroslav enlarged the state, built fortifications, introduced a code of law, and promoted culture. Decline The fragmentation of the Kievan state, which followed, was only temporarily halted by Vladimir II (Vladimir Monomakh) at the beginning of the 12th century. After the rule of Yuri Dolgorukiy, in the later part of the 12th century, the importance of Kiev declined. His son, Andrey Bogolyubsky, raided Kiev. Thereafter, the Vladimir-Suzdal principality, and the Novgorod Republic became the most important states in Russian territory.

Contents

Life

Grand Prince St. Andrei Bogolyubsky, by Viktor Vasnetsov
Grand Prince St. Andrei Bogolyubsky, by Viktor Vasnetsov

He was the son of Yuri Dolgoruki,[1] who proclaimed Andrei a prince in Vyshhorod (near Kiev). His mother was a Polovtsian (Cuman) princess, khan Aepa's/Ayepa's daughter.

Andrei left Vyshhorod in 1155 and moved to Vladimir. Promoting development of feudal relations, he relied on a team and on Vladimir’s townspeople; he connected to trading-craft business of Rostov and Suzdal. After his father’s death (1157), he became Knyaz (prince) of Vladimir, Rostov and Suzdal.

Andrey Bogolyubsky tried to unite Rus' lands under his authority. From 1159 he persistently struggled for submission of Novgorod to his authority and conducted a complex military and diplomatic game in South Rus. In 1162, Andrey Bogolyubsky sent an embassy to Constantinople, lobbying for a separate metropolitan see in Vladimir. In 1169 his troops sacked Kiev, devastating it as never before.[2][3] After plundering the city,[4] stealing much religious artwork, which included the Byzantine "Mother of God" icon.[5] Andrei appointed his brother Gleb as prince of Kiev, in an attempt to unify his lands with Kiev.[6] Following his brother's death in 1171, Andrei became embroiled in a two-year war to maintain control over Kiev, which ended in his defeat.[6]

Andrei achieved the right to receive a tribute from the population of the Northern Dvina land. Becoming "ruler of all Suzdal land", Andrei Bogolyubsky transferred his capital to Vladimir, strengthened it and constructed the magnificent Assumption Cathedral,[1] the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl,[7] and other churches and monasteries. Under his leadership Vladimir was much enlarged, and fortifications were built around the city.[8]

At the same time the castle Bogolyubovo was built next to Vladimir, and was a favorite residence of his.[8] In fact he received his nickname "Bogolyubsky" in honor of this place. It was he who brought the Theotokos of Vladimir to the city whose name it now bears. During Andrei Bogolyubsky’s reign Vladimir-Suzdal principality attained significant power and was the strongest among the Rus' principalities.

Amplification of princely authority and conflict with outstanding boyars was the cause of a plot against Andrei Bogolyubsky, as a result of which he was killed on the night of June 28 to June 29, 1174.[5] Twenty of his disgruntled retainers burst into his chambers and slew Andrei in his bed.[5] His silver-inlaid war axe can now be viewed at the State Historical Museum in Moscow.

His son, Yuri Bogolyubsky, was the first husband of Queen Tamar of Georgia. An ancient icon, Theotokos of Bogolyubovo, is associated with him.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b William Craft Brumfield, Landmarks of Russian Architect, (Routledge, 2013), 1-2.
  2. ^ Plokhy, Serhii (2006), The Origins of the Slavic Nations (PDF), Cambridge University Press, p. 42, archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-03-29
  3. ^ Janet Martin, Treasure of the Land of Darkness: The Fur Trade and Its Significance for Medieval Russia, (Cambridge University Press, 1986), 127.
  4. ^ "Russian Rulers: Andrey Yurievich Bogolyubsky", Russia the Great, retrieved 2007-08-07
  5. ^ a b c Janet Martin, Medieval Russia:980-1584, (Cambridge University Press, 1996), 100.
  6. ^ a b The Contest for the "Kievan Succession" (1155-1175): The Religious-Ecclesiastical Dimension, Jaroslaw Pelenski, Harvard Ukrainian Studies, Vol. 12/13, Proceedings of the International Congress Commemorating the Millennium of Christianity in Rus'-Ukraine (1988/1989), 776.
  7. ^ Dmitriĭ Olegovich Shvidkovskiĭ, Russian Architecture and the West, (Yale University Press, 2007), 36.
  8. ^ a b Janet Martin, Medieval Russia:980-1584, 84.

References

  • Martin, Janet L.B. Medieval Russia, 1995

External links

Preceded by
Yury Dolgoruky
Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal Succeeded by
Michael I
This page was last edited on 26 June 2018, at 23:32
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