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Anarchism in Japan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anarchism in Japan dates to the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The anarchist movement was influenced by World War I and World War II, in which Japan played a major role. The anarchist movement in Japan can be divided into three phases: from 1906–1911, from 1912–1936 and from 1945–present day.

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  • ✪ The Great Treason Incident - Anarchism in Japan
  • ✪ Asian Anarchists | Stuff That I Find Interesting
  • ✪ Anarchism and Japan's Anti-Nuclear Movement (Part 1)
  • ✪ 【SANRIZUKA 1985】Japanese Students Defeat Riot Police
  • ✪ Alternate History: What If Korea Became Anarchist?


hello and welcome to the history of Japan podcast episode 81 the great treason incident picture the setting a small room in Nagano Prefecture in 1910 home to one Miyashita Takichi a lumber mill employee the date is May 20th and outside the police are lining up to prepare to raid the place they break in and begin to search only to find exactly what they feared would be their parts to produce a bomb this confirms their worst fears it's exactly as they suspected someone is plotting to kill the Meiji Emperor the raid on Miyashita’s home was the climax of an investigation which came at one of the most unsettled points in japan's national history only five years earlier crowds had rejoiced in the streets of victory over russia but that rejoicing had been short-lived the military had done an excellent job at keeping a lid on just how hard things had been going in Manchuria and as a result the majority of Japanese were simply not aware of how much they had sacrificed for victory in particular they had no good explanation for the fact that their country's debt was not being wiped out with a massive war indemnity the Japanese had in fact decided their position was not good enough to demand one from Russia for the fact that their country was not indexing everything up to the Amur River in northern Manchuria same reason and for the fact that rice prices were spiking inexplicably military requisitioning was driving up the prices but most people assumed it was just war profiteering the result were riots that started in the Hibiya district of Tokyo but spread across Japan's big urban centers and in which eventually over 1 million people participated for the Meiji leadership this was some of their worst nightmares they were dangerously close it seemed to losing control of the masses you see perhaps because some of their first experiences abroad really coincided with the high-water marks of the European left the Paris Commune for example or the steady rise of the German Socialist Party or the early days of the British Labour Party the leaders of Meiji Japan were always very worried about the threat of leftist ideologies like Marxism anarchism or socialism they worried the Japanese industrialization would naturally bring these same problems to Japanese shores in part that fear actually spurred these leaders to be more progressive than they otherwise would have been borrowing from the PlayBook of Otto von Bismarck who did the exact same thing in Imperial Germany the Meiji leadership led by Ito Hirobumi Yamagata Aritomo and the fiscal expert of the bunch Matsukata Masayoshi decided to implement several reforms to preempt a lot of the issues socialists traditionally drew support from in particular they arranged for the passage of factory acts regulating working conditions and hours in the 1880s at which point Japan had less than 50 factories across the entire country the idea basically being will need these laws eventually so we might as well have them now this kind of system is referred to as a social monarchy in essence the monarchy provides reforms normally associated with socialist parties in a sort of paternalistic way designed to attach the people more directly to their ruler who cares clearly so deeply for their well-being despite their best attempts to keep a lid on things however the radical left began to gain strength in the early 20th century and that scared the hell out of the Meiji leadership it's kind of hard for those of us born at the tail end of the Cold War to really grasp because we tend to think of ideologies like anarchism or socialism as that finger slightly stoned French from college won't shut up about but at the time these were really potent ideologies that scared a lot of establishment people because of their potential for forcing radical change this was particularly true of anarchism which as an ideology had motivated a wave of assassinations in Europe in America during the latter half of the 19th century Tsar alexander ii in russia in 1881 President of the Republic of France Marie François Sadi Carnot in 1894 Empress Elisabeth of Austria Hungary in 1898 incidentally her corset was laced so tight that after she was stabbed she didn't start to bleed seriously until it was taken off and President William McKinley of the United States in 1901 and those are just the highest-profile ones there were plenty more thus the Meiji oligarchs decided to complement the old velvet glove with a little bit of the old iron fist if playing nice didn't work well how about a little good old repression the first targets of their wrath were organizations like the Japan Socialist Party which was first formed in 1901 and then shut down by the police within and I am not kidding three hours of its formation also in the crosshairs was an organization called the Heimin-Sha the commoners association which produced a newspaper called the Heimin Shimbun the commoners newspaper its editor a young intellectual named Kōtoku Shūsui had produced in that paper among other things the first partial Japanese language translation of the Communist Manifesto as well as the works of Russian anarchist Peter Kropotkin the heimin Shimbun was also shut down in 1905 Kōtoku by the way is both a fascinating person in central to the story so we should talk about him for a little bit he was the descendant of a rather well-to-do samurai family because no the stereotype about rich kids embracing Marxism or anarchism is not a new thing from what would have been Tosa domain and what was now Kochi prefecture in Shikoku in 1871 in his 20s he fell under the influence of Katyama Sen a prominent Christian socialist Kōtoku embraced socialism and was one of the founding members with katayama of the aforementioned socialist party like everyone else he was arrested within a few hours of its formation however technically speaking there wasn't anything they could be charged with so while that party was shut down they were released katayama and Kōtoku ended up splitting, katayama moved away from Christian socialism which was a big thing in the 19th century but not so much in the 20th towards communism he would eventually join the Communist International, helped found the Japan Communist Party in 1922 and spend the remainder of his life in exile in the Soviet Union Kōtoku meanwhile began moving towards Anarchism he left Japan in 1905 for the United States where in the age-old tradition of hippies everywhere again not making this up he moved to San Francisco and joined a commune because some things never change his rationale for leaving was a desire to openly critique the emperor in the imperial family whom he saw as the legitimizing force of the evils of Japanese capitalism he returned to Japan a year later after incidentally living through and helping rebuild from the great San Francisco earthquake in 1906 a very different man from the one who had left for the US now he was a committed anarchist and among other things he abandoned some of the more moderate goals of socialism including universal voting rights in favor of a more radical position of direct action against oppressive structures of government direct action of course makes the authorities think of the fates of all those world leaders who had been killed by Anarchists because what's more direct than a bomb throwing or a stabbing in fact reading his writings it's more likely Kōtoku is calling for general strikes than assassination now it's worth stopping here to note because if I don't any anarchist who listens to the show will likely flood my email with messages reminding me that most anarchists then and now did not advocate violence just as with a great many ideologies over the course of human history it was only a small lunatic fringe that did but of course as a general the lunatic fringe out there is always better getting noticed than the down-to-earth people anyway between his previous past as a socialist and his current one is an anarchist Kōtoku is now definitely a person of interest for the government they were watching him very carefully this despite the fact that after his return most of his public energy seems to have been expended on that great pastime on the left-leaning internal structures between functionally identical factions in particular the Japanese left was split between anarchist Christian socialist and Marxist socialist camps with a smattering of other folks thrown in to keep things exciting it's all very Byzantine and vaguely reminiscent of the whole people's front of Judea versus the Judean people's front bit for Monty Python's Life of Brian however the fact that Kōtoku and his allies descended into squabbling that would be incomprehensible to most people didn't seem to change the picture as much for the authorities he and his friends were dangerous this impression was confirmed in 1908 by what was known as the Akahata Jiken or the red banner incident on june 22nd of that year a prominent anarchist named Yamaguchi Kolken was released from jail after serving of his term he was greeted by a giant anarchist rally several hundred anarchists waving banners with slogans like "Revolution" and "Anarchy and Communism" greeted Yamaguchi and the police terrified of this human mass decided that something had to be done they went in and started beating and arresting whoever they could get their hands on to disperse the rally, in the wake of the incident the new prime minister Katsura Taro who had taken over a few weeks earlier from our old buddy Saionji Kinmochi future japanese delegate to Versailles and tutor of Konoe Fumimaro decided the key would crack down on the troublemakers he began to push for even more police power to be deployed against socialists and anarchists and that leads us to where we started on katsura's orders the police began digging and through their infiltration of anarchists cells sometimes I really wonder how many of these cells were actually anarchists and how many were all just police informants snitching on each other they came across a plot someone had talked about killing the Emperor and apparently one of the people that spoken to was Kōtoku Shūsui so the investigation continued given more urgency by the assassination of Ito Hirobumi since his assassin Ahn jung-geun was often incorrectly described as an anarchist a label he's sometimes still given today though he was not he was very much a nationalist the plot the authorities had come across was very real the only five people were involved in it one of them by the way is someone we've talked about before Kanno Sugako, Kanno she was one of Japan's leading feminists and like Kōtoku Shūsui had started out a Christian socialist and moved towards anarchism over time Kanno had also been in a relationship with Kōtoku Shūsui though by 1910 they'd broken things off her life story is absolutely fascinating she was born in Osaka to a family of merchants in 1881 and became involved in socialism because at the time it was one of the few ideologies out there unquestioningly dedicated to the idea of women's liberation she became a social critic and a journalist but over time more committed to direct action unlike in the case of Kōtoku who was definitely not involved in this assassination plot against the emperor she definitely was, someone talked though and the police pounced in addition to grabbing the five people actually involved in the plot Kanno Sugako Miyashita Takichi the guy with the bomb components in his home and three others they also took the time to round up 21 other suspected anarchists prime minister Katsura decided that now that he had the excuse he was time to crack down hard Kōtoku Shūsui was one of them he was arrested at an onsen while recovering from a bout of respiratory illness because obviously when you're plotting high treason you have to take care of your lungs ironically enough there were a bunch of other anarchist leaders the government wanted to arrests as well but couldn't people like the anarchist in labor leader Arahata Kanson they were in jail as a result of the red banner it's back in 1908 and thus even by the loosely defined standards of evidence which surrounded the whole affair they couldn't really be said to be involved now the trial these people were given well if he described it as a farce it would be a grave insult to the farcical arts the 26 defendants were brought up on charges from articles 73 to 76 of the Penal Code which allowed death sentences for those who harmed or attempted to harm the imperial family and hard labor for those who disrespected the family which could for example include destroying or damaging a Shinto shrine the chief prosecutor was a man named Hiranuma Kiichirō who had gotten his start in the Justice Ministry and was generally considered to be a star prosecutor he was also very much of the tough-on-crime school and press for the death penalty in every case even those only guilty by association incidentally he's come up in our story before but later along in his career as one of the prime ministers of the 1930s I said we'd be only dealing with him one more time on the show but it turns out I was wrong I actually didn't know he was involved with this case until I started writing this episode he'll come back next August when we turned to the events of 1945 and you probably won't like him much then either very recently in fact only a few years ago a letter from Kanno Sugako to a journalist at the Asahi Shimbun named Sugimura Jyuou dated directly before the trial came to light it has shed some light on what was going on in her head during the lead-up to the sentencing the way she wrote it was actually very ingenious she used a needle to poke characters in a piece of paper so that it looked blank but the writing was visible when you held it up to a light the letter itself flatly states that Kōtoku Shūsui knew nothing about the plot and implore Sugimura to find a lawyer for Kōtoku it also correctly predicted the sentencing the chief judge through Joe Ichiro apparently decided that this was no time to look soft on treason because he went with Hiranuma sentenced 24 of the 26 defendants to death the remaining two were giving varying terms of imprisonment things were getting out of hand a message had to be sent this provided an opening for the imperial house to show its benevolence the Emperor who at this point was already ailing and would die of natural causes two years later personally intervened to commute the death sentences of thirteen of the defendants however neither Kanno nor Kōtoku were among them Kōtoku and Kanno spent the remaining months in prison Kōtoku's own mother actually died when she came down to Tokyo to visit him and Kanno Sugako whom she was extremely fond of and then caught pneumonia Kanno who is quite the writer left a testament of her reflections during the lead-up to the final carrying out of the execution it's very moving and deeply depressing she describes the outcome of the trial quote my poor friends my poor comrades more than half of them were innocent bystanders who had been implicated by the actions of five or six of us just because they were associated with us they now are to be sacrificed in this monstrous fashion simply because they are anarchists they are to be thrown over the cliff to their deaths we had sailed into the vast ocean ahead of the world's current of thought and the general tides of events unfortunately we were shipwrecked but this sacrifice had to be made to get things started new routes are opened up only after many shipwrecks and dangerous voyages this is how the other Shore of one's ideals is reached after the sage of Nazareth Jesus that is was born many sacrifices had to be made before Christianity became a world religion in light of this I feel our sacrifices minuscule and quote the majority of executions including Kōtoku's were carried out on January 24th 1911 Kanno Sugako was executed the next day her execution was particularly politically explosive was the first woman ever executed by the Meiji government the story has a sad PostScript after his death Kōtoku Shūsui became a martyr to the Japanese left both because of his intellectual presence before his death and because of his show trial leading up to it the trials rather than undercutting the Japanese left actually galvanized it to a degree in fact in 1923 someone tried to avenge him as then Crown Prince Hirohito was writing to the Diet to open a new section he passed Toranomon an area between the imperial palace at Akasaka and the Diet building and Nagatachō a gunshot rang out the shot missed the Crown Prince though it did hit a Chamberlain in the entourage the perpetrator was tackled shortly after and revealed to be one Namba Daisuke Namba Daisuke was actually the son of a prominent Diet man a representative who had started his life fairly nationalist he actually can start joining the army but was converted to radical leftist politics among other things he said that he planned to assassinate Hirohito in revenge for the death of Kōtoku Shūsui unsurprisingly Namba Daisuke was convicted of high treason in short order and hanged but now the fear was back the radical left had not been forced underground by the trials and now someone had yet again tried to assassinate a member of the imperial family to make matters worse the hard left was even more entrenched than it had been before like we covered earlier the Japan Communist Party had been founded a year earlier in 1922 and while the Socialists had gone under the anarchist had died the Communists if anything were going far beyond anything the other two had ever managed they were even openly getting into academia in the form of Marxist economists like Kawakami Hajime clearly the crackdown initiated by Katsura was not working he by the way had been forced out of office shortly thereafter by a scandal we covered in another episode basically he proved unable to control the army something even harsher was necessary the result was the peace in law of 1925 easily the harshest and most authoritarian law in Japanese history and used to justify the vast majority of their oppression that would happen in the 1930s and 1940s the law was written by the Home Minister who was wait for it no one other than our old friend Hironuma Kiichirō the prosecutor from the treason trial the first two articles read quote anyone who organizes a group for the purposes of changing the national polity or of denying the private property system or anyone who knowingly participates in said group shall be sentenced to penal servitude or imprisonment not exceeding ten years an offence not actually carried out shall also be subject to punishment anyone who consults with another person on matters relating to the implementation of these objectives described in Clause one of the preceding article shall be sentenced to penal servitude or imprisonment not exceeding seven years the remainder of the law went on to specify that inciting others to these activities was also punishable at by penal servitude that financially supporting anyone found guilty of these crimes was illegal and incredibly that you were still guilty even if you broke the law outside of Japanese Jurisdiction a Japanese citizen writing an editorial in the United States about changing the Constitution would be arrested upon returning to Japan when a Dietman questioning the utility of the new law attempted to undercut here in nuuma by pointing out that the way the law was currently worded a legislator could be arrested for suggesting an amendment to the Constitution Hironuma Kiichirō responded that that Dieteman was absolutely correct it says right in the Meiji Constitution that only the emperor can propose amendments so anyone else doing so is a violation of the peace preservation law this draconian bit of lawmaking would become emblematic of totalitarian Japan and incidentally it would also be one of the first laws repealed under the US occupation government the peace preservation law really is the ultimate legacy of the great trees the incident the fear with which the Japanese elite looked at radical left prompted them to put into place a totalitarian system of repression that was then seized by the military and turned on the society it was supposed to defend from radicalism Kanno Sugako and her four compatriots thought they were attacking the linchpin of an oppressive system in reality they never really had much of a chance of getting their planned off the ground and all they did was provide an excuse for a crackdown Kōtoku Shūsui and all the other innocent anarchists meanwhile became sacrifices in the name of abstract notions of social stability and national security they were among the first but they would not be the last in a final sad note after the war the families of the victims tried one last time to get justice they requested a retrial of the case since legally speaking the original verdicts were still on the books even after the war Kōtoku officially was still legally a traitor their request for a retrial was denied by the Supreme Court of Japan in 1969 prior to his execution Kōtoku Shūsui we etched the following onto the wall of his cell "how has it come about that I have committed this grave crime today my trial is hidden from outside observers and I have even less Liberty than previously to speak about these events perhaps in 100 years someone will speak out about them on my behalf" well I guess I'm three years late and I'm not the first to bring this up but for what it's worth Kōtoku you were right that's all for this week special thanks this week to pierre Prue and Jerome Van Eps for donating to support the show to join them to find out more about this episode or any other episode or to submit ideas for future episodes check out the podcast web page at politicians ozawa Ichiro




Anarchist ideas were first popularised in Japan by radical journalist Shūsui Kōtoku.[1] After moving to Tokyo in his teens, Kōtoku became a journalist and by 1898 he was writing for the radical daily Yorozu Chōhō (Every Morning News).[1] His liberalism led him to social democracy and Kōtoku attempted to form the first Japanese Social Democratic Party in May 1901.[1]

His fledgling Social Democratic Party was immediately outlawed[1] and Yorozu Chōhō shifted away from the left[1] so Kōtoku started his own radical weekly, Heimin Shinbun (Common People’s Newspaper).[1] The first issue appeared in November 1903 and the last was published in January 1905.[1] Its fairly brief run earned Kōtoku

a short prison sentence from February to July 1905.[2]

In prison he read Peter Kropotkin's Fields, Factories and Workshops,[1] and following his release he emigrated to the United States, where he joined the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW). Kōtoku declared that he "had gone [to jail] as a Marxian Socialist and returned as a radical Anarchist."[3] In the US, more than 50 Japanese immigrants met in Oakland California and formed the Social Revolutionary Party.[1] The party began publishing a journal entitled Kakumei (Revolution)[1] and a leaflet called Ansatsushugi (Terrorism)[1] news of which reached Japan and angered officials there.[1]

Kōtoku returned to Japan in 1906, where he spoke on the ideas he had developed while staying in the USA (mainly California) which were largely a mixture of anarchist communism, syndicalism and terrorism[1] developed from reading such books as Kropotkin's Memoirs of a Revolutionist and The Conquest of Bread[1] amongst others. At the meeting, Kōtoku spoke on "The Tide of the World Revolutionary Movement".[1]

While Kōtoku was in the US, a second social democratic party was formed called Socialist Party of Japan.[1] A meeting of this party was held in February 1907 to discuss Kōtoku's views[1] which ultimately led the party to revoking the party rule which prescribed working "within the limits of the law of the land".[1] Five days later, the Socialist Party of Japan was banned.[1]

In 1910, Akaba Hajime penned a pamphlet entitled Nômin no Fukuin (The Farmers’ Gospel) which spoke of creating an anarchist paradise through anarchist communism.[1] His well founded apprehension of reprisals for his criticism of the mighty Sun God-Emperor in the pamphlet led him to go underground but eventually he was caught and imprisoned.[1] He died in Chiba Prison on March 1, 1912.[1]

The same year as the publication of The Farmer's Gospel, four Japanese anarchists were arrested following the discovery of bomb-making equipment. This caused a government crackdown on anarchists which culminated in 26 anarchists being charged with plotting to kill the emperor.[4] The trial was closed to the public and all were found guilty.[1] It is an interesting question whether there was such a plot, if so how serious the conspirators were about acting on it and how likely their efforts were to succeed.


In 1912, Noe Itō joined the Bluestocking Society and soon took over production of the feminist journal Seitō (Bluestocking). Soon Itō was translating works by anarchists Peter Kropotkin and Emma Goldman. Itō met and fell in love with Sakae Ōsugi, another Japanese anarchist who had served a series of prison sentences for his activism. Ōsugi began translating and publishing Japanese editions of Kropotkin's Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution and Memoirs of a Revolutionist while being personally more influenced by the work of Mikhail Bakunin.

Inspired by the Rice Riots of 1918, Ōsugi began publishing and republishing more of his own writing such as Studies on Bakunin and Studies on Kropotkin.

The Girochinsha (Guillotine Society), a Japanese anarchist group[5] hailing from Osaka, were involved with revenge killings aimed at Japanese leaders during the mid-1920s.[6] Nakahama Tetsu, an anarchist poet, and member of the Girochinsha, was executed for his activities.[7]

The state used the turmoil surrounding the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake as a pretext to round up Itō and Ōsugi. According to writer and activist Harumi Setouchi, Itō, Ōsugi, and his 6 year old nephew were arrested, beaten to death and thrown into an abandoned well by a squad of military police led by Lieutenant Masahiko Amakasu.[8] According to literary scholar Patricia Morley, Itō and Ōsugi were strangled in their cells.[9] What both accoounts agree on, however, is that both or all of the prisoners were brutally executed without even the formaity of a trial where conviction and death sentence would in the case of the two adults have probably have been a foregone conclusion. This was called the Amakasu Incident and it sparked much anger. In 1924, two attempts were made on the life of Fukuda Masatarô, the general in command of the military district where Itō and Ōsugi were murdered. Wada Kyutaro, an old friend of the deceased, made the first attempt, shooting at General Fukuda but merely wounding him.[1] The second attempt involved bombing Fukuda's house, but the general was not home at the time.[1]

In 1926 two nationwide federations of anarchists were formed, the Black Youth League and the All-Japan Libertarian Federation of Labour Unions.[1] In 1927, both groups campaigned against the death penalty sentence for Italian-born anarchists Sacco and Vanzetti.[4] The international anarchist movement in the following years was characterised by intense debate between anarcho-communists and anarcho-syndicalists.[1] in Japan, Hatta Shūzō, considered "the greatest theoretician of anarchist communism in Japan,"[1] began speaking for anarchist communism claiming that since anarchist syndicalism was an outgrowth of the capitalist workplace it would mirror the same divisions of labor as capitalism.[1] Arguments like Shūzō's, and those of another anarchist named Iwasa Sakutaro, convinced the Black Youth League and the All-Japan Libertarian Federation of Labour Unions to move towards anarcho-communism with anarchist syndicalists leaving both organizations.[1]

These divisions weakened the anarchist movement in Japan and soon after the Manchurian Incident led the state to solidify itself and silence internal opposition. By the beginning of the World War II, all anarchist organisations in Japan were forced to shut down.


Shortly after the end of World War II, Sanshiro Ishikawa, who had been anarchist since before the war, wrote Gojunen-go-no-Nihon (Japan 50 Years Later). This work described an anarchist reconstruction of Japanese society following a peaceful revolution. In May 1946, a short-lived Japanese Anarchist Federation was founded. It published an organ named Heimin after Kotoku's journal. During this time, Japan was shaken by a wave of workers' demonstrations demanding food and a democratic popular front government. The Federation, however, failed to gain a foothold in the left. Socialists and communists were able to crowd the anarchists out in social struggles and Heimin became increasingly academic and idealistic. While the anarchists were initially divided on their relationship with the Communist Party, Heimin became openly hostile to the party by the end of 1946. The anarchists opposed a strike being prepared by communists, socialists, and the trade unions for higher pay for government workers, denouncing bureaucrats as "agents of authoritarianism", and even reveled in the occupying Allied forces putting an end to this initiative. Eventually, the Federation was split between supporters and opponents of anarcho-syndicalism. As a result, it dissolved in October 1950. This was a time of crisis for the Japanese left in general. The Communist Party had been banned by the Allies just months before, while many war-time right-wing leaders returned to their powerful positions.[10]

Japanese Anarchists and Korean Anarchism

Japanese anarchists cooperated with and supported Korean anarchists. Sakae Ōsugi had a profound influence on Korean radicals. The Korean anarchist group Black Wave Society (Heukdo hoe) was established in 1921 with sponsorship from Japanese anarchists. Its organ was the Black Wave where Korean anarchist Bak Yeol was its editor-in-chief.[11]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Crump, John (1996). "The Anarchist Movement in Japan, 1906–1996". Anarchist Communist Editions ACE Pamphlet. Pirate Press. 8.
  2. ^ Notehelfer, Frederick George (1971). "Chapter 4: Pacifist opposition to the Russo-Japanese War, 1903–5". Kōtoku Shūsui: Portrait of a Japanese Radical. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 106–107. ISBN 978-0-521-07989-1. LCCN 76134620. OCLC 142930.
  3. ^ Shiota, Shôbee (1965). Kôtoku Shûsui no Nikki to Shokan [The Diaries and Letters of Kôtoku Shûsui]. Tôkyô: Mirai. p. 433.
  4. ^ a b "A Brief History of Japanese Anarchism". Anarchy in Nippon. Retrieved Aug 19, 2013.
  5. ^ Hatta Shūzō and Pure Anarchism in Interwar Japan By John Crump Page 42
  6. ^ Treacherous Women of Imperial Japan: Patriarchal Fictions, Patricidal Fantasies By Helene Bowen Raddeker Page 131
  7. ^ Modernism in Practice: An Introduction to Postwar Japanese Poetry By Leith Morton Page 45=46
  8. ^ Setouchi, Harumi (1993). Beauty in Disarray (1st ed.). Rutland, Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-8048-1866-5.
  9. ^ Morley, Patricia (1999). The Mountain is Moving: Japanese Women's Lives. University of British Columbia Press. p. 19. ISBN 9780774806756.
  10. ^ Tsuzuki 1970, pg. 505–507.
  11. ^ Anarchism and Syndicalism in the Colonial and Postcolonial World, 1870-1940 ... edited by Steven Hirsch, Lucien van der Walt Page 102 -110


  • Tsuzuki, Chushichi (1970). "Anarchism in Japan". Government and Opposition. 5 (4): 501–522.

Further reading

  • Graham, Robert (2005). "Anarchism in Japan and Korea". Anarchism: a Documentary History of Libertarian Ideas, Volume One. Montréal: Black Rose Books. ISBN 1-55164-250-6.
  • Stephen S. Large (1977). The Romance of Revolution in Japanese Anarchism and Communism during the Taishō Period. Cambridge University Press.
  • John Crump (1992). Anarchist opposition to Japanese militarism, 1926–1937.
  • John Crump (Jan 1, 1993). Hatta Shūzō and Pure Anarchism in Interwar Japan. Macmillan.

External links

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