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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anápolis, Goiás
Municipality
Município de Anápolis
Municipality of Anápolis
Parque Ambiental Ipiranga 9.jpg
Flag of Anápolis, Goiás

Flag
Coat of arms of Anápolis, Goiás

Coat of arms
Nickname(s): "Manchester of Goiás"
Location of Anápolis, Goiás
Anápolis, Goiás is located in Brazil
Anápolis, Goiás
Anápolis, Goiás
Location in Brazil
Coordinates: 16°20′02″S 48°57′07″W / 16.33389°S 48.95194°W / -16.33389; -48.95194
Country  Brazil
Region Central-West
State
Flag of Goiás.svg
Goiás
Settled 18th century
Incorporated as a town December 15, 1887
Incorporated as a city July 31, 1907
Government
 • Mayor Roberto Naves e Siqueira
Area
 • Total 918.375 km2 (354.587 sq mi)
Elevation 1,017 m (3,337 ft)
Population (2014)
 • Total 361,991
 • Density 390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Anapolino
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-2 (BRST)
Postal code 75000-000
Area code(s) +55 62
Website www.anapolis.go.gov.br

Anápolis is a Brazilian municipality of the State of Goiás. It is located between two capitals, the federal capital Brasília and state capital Goiânia. It is the third most populous city in the state, with 361 991 inhabitants according to an estimate by the Brazilian Institute of Geographic and Statistics in 2012.[1] It is an important industrial and logistics center in the Brazilian Central-West. Its GDP is R$ 10 billion, approximately US$4.4 billion, which makes it the second largest in the state.[2] The city became an industrial power after the implementation of its Industrial District in 1970.[3]

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Transcription

Male 1: The whole period of the American Revolution and the establishment of the country, of the government, can get very muddled in people's minds. What I was hoping we could cover in this video is unmuddle that, separate out the events and see how they all fit together. Male 2: Let's start in 1775 because that's when the rebellion really begins. That's when you have the Battles of Lexington and Concord and Paul Revere riding to say that the British are coming. They started to rebel against the taxes that Parliament has but on us. They're not quite clear what the rebellion is all about, especially those people who aren't up there in Massachusetts where the rebels are happening. By 1776, that's when they write the Declaration that says here's what we're doing. We're fighting a war of independence and "let facts be submitted to a candid world," here's why we're doing it. Then you get, you're fighting the war, it's really not until 1781 that we win the war. Around that period, between 1776 and 1781, they've drafted this thing called the Articles of Confederation. It's sort of rules by which the States are going to get together and govern themselves. But it doesn't really create a new nation. It's really just a federation of the separate states. Male 1: This is really around this idea the Declaration of Independence is really, look, we're already essentially at war. This is why. This is articulating why we're at war, what we actually believe in, but that didn't establish a government, it didn't actually talk about what kind of government it would be, how it would govern itself, so the Articles were really this first attempt at saying, well, assuming that we're able to win this war of independence, how do we set up? Male 2: Right. What they were during this war of independence were 13 separate states. They didn't really think of themselves as one new nation. Some people did. Ben Franklin and others thought we should really be a union of one nation, but when they get together to do the Articles of Confederation, really starting right after the Declaration is signed in 1776, they finish writing it in 1777, they write a pretty uninspiring document that just says we're from a whole lot of separate states and we're going to get together a bit and be a union of theses States, but we're not going to give ourselves many powers as one government. Male 1: Yeah, we have it right here. Actually, I'd never seen it before this conversation. I've obviously read about it when I was in history class, but "To all to whom these presents "shall come, we the undersigned Delegates of the "States affix to our names send greeting." Male 2: Oh, I mean it's like something written by a bad template. Male 1: To whom it may concern! (laughs) Male 2: It's not an inspiring document and it gives no power to a central government. As you say, it's the Delegates of the States. They "affix our names" to this and it's the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union between these States. One of the main things they fail to do is give the central government any taxation power. So really it's up to the States to tax, and then this Congress that's meeting, based on the Articles of Confederation, tries to beg each one of the States, hey, requisition us a little bit of money so we can continue our business. Male 1: The Federal, the central government, does not directly, there's no Federal income tax, or not any tax of any kind, not even any kind of tax. The States can tax in whatever way they see fit and then they have to give something. Male 2: What's kind of amusing is we win the Revolution in the Battle of Yorktown. That's in 1781. A messenger comes riding into New York where this Congress has been meeting, it sort of floats from city to city, and gives them all the details and they don't even have enough money to pay the messenger. They have to reach in their pockets to do it. So you have this sort of poorly written document called the Articles of Confederation, that seems to make a confederation of States, meaning we're going to gather together but we're going to have our own separate powers and doesn't given any taxation powers. You have a kind of messy governance structure. Male 1: It's obviously not a perfect analogy, but if we take analogy to present-day, it's kind of what's happening in Europe where there's these separate nations, separate States, that are trying to form some type of union, not clear who has what power. The Central European Union is not directly taxing. Male 2: Precisely. That's a very good analogy to what was happening because they weren't quite clear whether they had a central currency or not back then. They weren't quite sure what are the powers of each of the States versus the central government, and that's been something throughout history. Even starting with the Greek city-states where you can have confederations and it's unclear how much power you're going to put in the central government versus how much power you're going to leave at the States. Male 1: Considering that this is not the governing document for us now, something must have broken to want to replace it. Male 2: Well, yes. By the time you're getting into 1786, it is totally clear that this document isn't working. You have all sorts of disputes. Like Maryland and Virginia are having this horrible dispute over navigation and border rights. They call an Annapolis Convention to try to fix that up and they try to get the States to come. Only five of them come. You have something up in Massachusetts called Shays' Rebellion where there was this rebellion of the poor farmers in western Massachusetts under a former Revolutionary War officer named Daniel Shays. It's sort of unclear what ... Male 1: His name was Shays? Male 2: Yeah. S-H-A-Y-S. Male 1: So it's Shays, the apostrophe's after ... Male: The apostrophe's after, yeah. Daniel Shays was his name. He leads a rebellion and there's no central government to send a force to stop them. Washington's army has been disbanded. So the poor people of Massachusetts have to try to raise a militia to try to stop Shays' Rebellion, but they can't get the Federal government to step in. It was just one of many, many symptoms that we were all disintegrating and falling apart. There was no rule of law that governed all the colonies, and now all the States. What happens is people like Hamilton, Madison, others get together and say, you know what? Congress is meeting, I think they were meeting in New York by then. We ought to go back to Philadelphia where this all began in 1776 with the Declaration of Independence and we should have a Constitutional Convention. We should write a whole new constitution to govern centrally this new nation. Most of the States agreed to come. Some of them worried about the fact that we were writing a whole new constitution, so they did not give their delegates authority to get rid of the Articles of Confederation. So when they began in that very hot summer of 1787, it was kind of unclear whether they were going to be able to write a new constitution or just try to amend the old Articles of Confederation. Male 1: This makes it clear that even after Shays' Rebellion, even after these border disputes between Maryland and Virginia, it still wasn't a done deal. A lot of States still liked their autonomy, liked their independence. So even going into this, it wasn't like everyone was unanimously saying hey, we need to give the federal government more power. Male 2: And by the way, what does that sound like? It sounds like the debates we're having today. Male 1: Exactly! (chuckles) Male 2: We still, as a nation, have always had these debates of how much power should be given to the central government, how much power should retain with the States, whether it's on healthcare or our laws or our taxation. It's a useful tension to have. Male 1: Absolutely. Then they are able to come up with a solution. Male 2: It's a very difficult problem of the big States wanting there to be proportional representation in a new Congress, the small States wanting equal votes per State. You finally have Ben Franklin again, once again being the person who works out the compromise to have both a House and a Senate, equal votes per State in the Senate, proportional representation in the House. They finally come together and they all agree to line up and sign this new Constitution that will give taxation authority to the Federal government, or to Congress, a new Congress, a Federal taxation authority and, by the way, that has a Preamble that's a whole lot more inspiring than that Articles of Confederatin thing-y that said, "To all to whom these presents shall come." Male 1: (laughing)To whom it may concern! Male 2: Let's look at the Preamble to the constitution. Male 1: "We the people of the United States." That's as opposed to "To whom it may concern." Male 2: Just look at those first three words. I mean those first three words are totally an inspiring thing. It's never been done before, which is "We the people" are getting to create this Constitution. It's not the States getting together to do it. It's not the king devolving authority. It's not a Parliament doing it. It's "We the people" gathered together here. We are the ones that are going to ordain, a nice religious word down there, "ordain." "Do ordain and establish." It's almost like we have the power. It's not coming from the divine right of kings or God, we the people get to ordain and establish this constitution. Male 1: We've made previous videos about the Declaration of Independence. The Articles of Confederation in no way share any of the spirit or the poetry of the Declaration, while this Preamble does. It seems almost a continuation of it. Male 2: Yeah, let's read it. "We the people "of the United States, in order to form a more "perfect union." That's a very transcendent phrase, but it also means, hey, the Articles of Confederation, we weren't really unified. We have to create a united States. We have to create a union. Male 1: And the "more perfect," is that a direct reference to the Articles that that was a less perfect, or is this something else? Male 2: It's not a very good piece of grammar. As you know, things are either perfect or they're not. The notion of creating a more perfect union, yes, they are making a nod to the fact that we have been confederated under the Articles of Confederation, but now we have to create a more perfect union. We have to really hold together. Then they decide what's the purpose of this Constitution? First of all, establish justice. That means there'll be one common set of laws. Ensure domestic tranquility. This is Shay's Rebellion. It's still going on when they start writing this Preamble. Domestic tranquility means that the federal, the central government, has a right to raise an army and that in the end, the police and defense powers don't reside with just the individual States. There's going to be a more perfect union that helps ensure domestic tranquility and provide for the common defense. What you've had is the Continental Army under Washington has been disbanded. There's no way to raise taxes for a central army. Now we're saying that the union of States, the United States, the federal government, they're going to raise the money and provide for the common defense. There's another phrase, "promote the general welfare." When people argue about Contitutionalism and what gives the Federal government the right to do things, one of those phrases is every now and then we have to use the "general welfare" phrase and say whether it's healthcare or anything else, maybe there are things the central government does that promote the "general welfare." Then we get to the inspiring lines, the poetry as opposed to "To all whom these presents shall come." That's "secure the blessings of liberty to "ourselves and our posterity, we do ordain "and establish this Constitution of the "United States of America." We've been calling ourselves that ever since the Declaration of Independence, but now it's in all caps and it's signifying we're one nation, not just 13 different States. Male 1: Previously I think the "U" wasn't capitalized. Man 2: Yeah, in some of the earlier documents it wasn't and we certainly were not united. It's only under this Constitution do we become, really, the United States of America.

Contents

Etymology

Anápolis means "city of Ana" in Greek (Ana + polis, city).

History

The settlement began in the 18th century, due to the travels of the drovers to the region of gold mines in the nearby towns. Some of the travelers, when they did not find any more precious metals, decided to settle in the thorp. The first historical registry was written in 1819, when the French naturalist and traveler Auguste de Saint-Hillaire, traveling from Bonfim (Silvânia) towards Meia-Ponte (Pirenópolis), stays in the region called Tapirs' Farm. This name is due to the abundance of this animal in the region. The first official document was written in April 25, 1870, when a group of residents made a donation of some parts of their lands to the Our Lady of Saint Anne Patrimony.[4]

According to a local myth, in 1859, Ana das Dores left Jaraguá towards Bonfim (Silvânia), on a mule train travel. One of the mules, which was carrying the statue of Saint Anne, got lost. When, the mule was found, it was not willing to move, and das Dores interpreted this as the desire of the Saint to stay there. After she promised to build a chapel in homage to the Saint, the mule started to move again. The erection of the building was done by her son, Gomes de Souza Ramos, eleven years later. In 1872, a document requesting the status of a parish was written. It was carried by Souza Ramos to the provincial president. The pledge was granted and the thorn became a parish in August 6, 1873.[4][5] [6]

José da Silva Batista moved to the region in February 28, 1882, from Meia-Ponte (Pirenópolis). Seeking greater autonomy, He and Sousa Ramos requested the incorporation of the town, which was granted in December 15, 1887. However, due to some obstacles mainly by the authorities from Meia-Ponte, which was concerned about the loss of taxes, it became a town 'de facto' in March 10, 1892, when Batista was named the president of the administrative board of the Santana das Antas town. The town became a city in July 31, 1907.[4][6][7]

In January 9, 1924, the city became the first in the state to have electricity. The telegraph followed in 1926 and the railroad reached the city in 1935.[8]

Geography

Physical setting

Anápolis is located in Center-Western Brazil. It is located in a plateau, called Central Plateau, at an elevation of 1,017 metres (3,337 ft). The area is 918.3 square kilometres (354.6 sq mi), and the limiting municipalities are Abadiânia, Campo Limpo de Goiás, Gameleira de Goiás, Goianápolis, Leopoldo de Bulhões, Nerópolis, Pirenópolis, Silvânia and Terezópolis de Goiás. Anápolis is also the center of the Anápolis Microregion, and belongs to the Goiás Center mesoregion.

Climate

Anápolis
Climate chart (explanation)
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

The climate of the city is tropical savanna (Aw), according to Köppen climate classification.[9] The winters are dry and cool, mean low temperature is around 14 °C (57 °F), and mean precipitation in July is 4 millimetres (0.16 in). The most hot months are August and September, reaching a mean high of 29 °C (84 °F). Rainfall is abundant during the summer, averaging 280 millimetres (11 in) in January.


Transport

Anápolis is located on the main Brasília-Goiânia highway (BR 060), which has now become a four-lane motorway. It is also the starting point for the famous Belém-Brasília highway (BR 153). Distances to Goiânia is 54 kilometres (34 mi), to Brasília is 140 kilometres (87 mi) and to São Paulo 872 kilometres (542 mi).

The municipality is served by a branch of the Centro-Atlântica railroad, with 685 kilometres (426 mi) of network in Goiás, which allows for connections with the important ports of the country. Anápolis will be the starting point for the North-South railroad, in construction, which will connect with the Port of Itaqui, in Maranhão, as well as with other strategic points in the North and Northeast.

Anápolis has a municipal airport, which is being upgraded to a cargo facility.[10]

Economy

Anápolis is one of the most developed municipality in the state. It also has one of the fastest developing industrial sector with several pharmaceutical plants. Transportation is good, with highways linking the city with both Goiânia and Brasília.

There is a large pool of educated professionals produced by the several institutions of higher learning in the city, e.g. the State University of Goiás. The surrounding land is excellent for intensive production of fruit like oranges, bananas, and sugarcane.

All of these factors make Anápolis the most competitive city after the capital.

  • Gross Domestic Product: 6.265 billion Reais in 2008 as pointed out by IBGE, which was the second largest in the state after Goiânia and the seventh largest in Brazil. This PIB was 5.7% of the state PIB of 75.274 billion Reais in 2008 as referenced by IBGE IBGE - Cidades@. See Portalsepin for the complete list of all municipalities in Goiás.

Hyundai has a plant in Anápolis, which produces the Hyundai Tucson and Hyundai HB20

Ranking of Anápolis on list of top ten municipalities in GDP in Goiás in 2012 and 2015 (in Reais) IBGE - Cidades@:

Historically Anápolis has always been the center of a rich agricultural area. Animal raising has always been the main economic mainstay of the region. In 2003 the municipality had 65,000 head of beef cattle, 8,000 pigs, 138,000 poultry (second place in the state), and 9,500 head of dairy cattle. In addition rice (1 km2 / 160 tons), corn (16 km2 / 7,200 tons), and soybeans (17 km2 / 4,590 tons) are also grown in quantity.

Other important crops:

  • tomatoes: 0,5 km2 / 2,250 tons
  • wheat: 0.8 km2 / 360 tons
  • sugarcane: 0.2 km2 / 800 tons
  • manioc: 2 km2 / 3,000 tons
  • bananas: 8.3 km2 / 8,300 tons
  • coffee: 0.5 km2 / 30 tons
  • coconut: 0.27 km2 / 216 thousand fruits
  • citrus fruits: 2.75 km2 / 3,800 tons
  • passion fruit: 0.05 km2 / 40 tons

Source: IBGE

DAIA (Distrito Agro-Industrial de Anapolis) is the industrial sector of Anapolis. It includes many large companies such as Laboratório Teuto Brasil, a pharmaceuticals manufacturing plant, the largest generic medicine-producing plant in Brazil. The federal government decided to build a major logistical centre around the DAIA, which is a distribution point for goods throughout Brazil by road, rail and air.

The main entrepreneurial sectors employing workers in 2003 were the transformation industry with 12,980 workers, construction with 1,222 workers, commerce with 18,114 workers, hotels and restaurants with 1,635 workers, transportation with 3,880 workers, services with 2,429 workers, public administration, defense, and social security with 6,724 workers, education with 3,723 workers, and health with 2,247 workers.

There were 23 financial institutions in 2004.

Motor vehicles

In May, 2011 [2]:

  • automobiles: 90,332
  • trucks: 9,151
  • pickups: 13,542
  • motorcycles: 39,044

Education and health

In education the city is well served. In addition to the more than 100 primary schools there are eight secondary schools and several public and private colleges. The colleges are: Associação Educativa Evangélica, Faculdade de Filosofia São Miguel Arcanjo, Faculdade do Instituto Brasil-FIBRA, Faculdade Anhanguera de Anápolis, and Faculdade Raízes. It is home to a campus of the Goiás State University (UEG) and the UniEVANGÉLICA, a Protestant university and one of the first institutes of higher education founded in the state of Goiás.

There are 94 health establishments including 25 hospitals with 1,445 beds. The infant mortality rate is 22.15.

  • Doctors: 811 (IBGE 2002)
  • Nurses: 66
  • Dentists: 105
  • Infant mortality rate: 20.77 in 2000. It was 28.27 in 1991.
  • Primary schools: 56,665 students, 2,517 teachers, 51 schools (IBGE 2004)
  • Secondary schools: 2,319 students, 933 teachers, 40 schools

College: 9,103 students, 1,527 teachers, 6 schools

The water supply system reaches 95% of the population while the sewage system reaches 53%.

The city is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Anápolis.

Air force base

The Força Aérea Brasileira (Brazilian Air Force) operates one of their most important bases here, protecting the nearby capital as well as being an important element of the SIVAM project, the Amazonas survey system.

Ranking on the UN MHDI

(See the Human Development Index)

  • Life expectancy: 70.2
  • Adult literacy rate: 0.912
  • School attendance rate: 0.844
  • MHDI: 0.788
  • State ranking: 16 (out of 242 municipalities)
  • National ranking: 851 (out of 5,507 municipalities)

All data are from 2000

For the complete list see [4]

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Estimativas da população residente nos municípios brasileiros com data de referência em 1o de julho de 2012" (PDF). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
  2. ^ "Produto Interno Bruto dos Municípios 2010" (PDF). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 2013-07-11.
  3. ^ Vander Lúcio (2009-11-13). "Distrito "mudou" o perfil econômico de Goiás". Jornal Contexto. Retrieved 2011-9-2011. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. ^ a b c "História de Anápolis". Prefeitura de Anápolis. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
  5. ^ Eucarice Sousa Ramos (2012-10-18). "Anápolis, cidade de Ana - cidade de Sant-Ana". Diocese de Anápolis. Archived from the original on 2013-07-14. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
  6. ^ a b Tiziano Mamede Chiarott. "O município de Anápolis: Elucidações sobre sua emancipação política e historicidade". Prefeitura de Anápolis. Retrieved 2013-07-13.
  7. ^ "Anápolis completa 103 anos com a marca do progresso". O estado de Goiás. 2010-07-31.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ "A História de Anápolis: Emancipação". Archived from the original on 2010-12-08. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
  9. ^ Werner Wilhelm Bonnet (2003). "Gestão ambiental de áreas de aeronáutica, o caso da Base Aérea de Anápolis, Anápolis, GO". Universidade Católica de Brasília. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2013-07-14.
  10. ^ "Obras do aeroporto de cargas estão em ritmo acelerado em Anápolis, GO". Retrieved 2012-07-14.

External links

This page was last edited on 22 August 2018, at 22:49
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