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Allen J. Ellender

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Allen J. Ellender
AllenJosephEllender.jpg
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
January 21, 1971 – July 27, 1972
Preceded byRichard Russell Jr.
Succeeded byJames Eastland
Chairman of the
Senate Committee on Appropriations
In office
January 21, 1971 – July 27, 1972
Preceded byRichard Russell Jr.
Succeeded byJohn Little McClellan
Chairman of the
Senate Committee on Agriculture
In office
January 3, 1955 – January 21, 1971
Preceded byGeorge Aiken
Succeeded byHerman Talmadge
In office
January 3, 1951 – January 3, 1953
Preceded byElmer Thomas
Succeeded byGeorge Aiken
United States Senator
from Louisiana
In office
January 3, 1937 – July 27, 1972
Preceded byRose McConnell Long
Succeeded byElaine Edwards
54th Speaker of the Louisiana House of Representatives
In office
1932–1936
GovernorAlvin Olin King
Oscar K. Allen
Preceded byJohn B. Fournet
Succeeded byLorris M. Wimberly
Personal details
Born
Allen Joseph Ellender

September 24, 1890
Montegut, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana, United States
DiedJuly 27, 1972(1972-07-27) (aged 81)
Bethesda Naval Hospital, Maryland
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Helen Calhoun Donnelly Ellender (born 1895, died 1949)[1][2]
ChildrenOrthopedic surgeon Dr. Allen Ellender Jr. (1921-2014)[3][4]
Alma materTulane University
ProfessionLawyer
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Years of service1918
RankTrainee
UnitStudent Army Training Corps, Tulane University
Battles/warsWorld War I

Allen Joseph Ellender (September 24, 1890 – July 27, 1972) was a U.S. senator from Houma in Terrebonne Parish in south Louisiana, who served from 1937 until 1972 when he died in office in Maryland at the age of eighty-one. He was a Democrat who was originally allied with Huey Long. As senator, he compiled a generally conservative record, voting 77 percent of the time with the Conservative Coalition on domestic issues. A staunch segregationist, he signed the Southern Manifesto in 1956, voted against the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and opposed anti-lynching legislation in 1938.[5][6][7] Unlike many conservatives, he was not a "hawk" in foreign policy and opposed the Vietnam War.[8]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Flipped Classroom: A New Approach to Teaching
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  • ✪ 2011 Nicholls State University Scholars Day
  • ✪ Library Strategic Plan 2012

Transcription

In my classes right now I'm using a flipped classroom approach. The whole idea really is to invert the classroom. We flip what we think about occurs in classes. We usually think lecture in class, individual practice and homework at home and that model has had issues for years. So the idea of flipping is we're just going to turn that around. So now the lecture video is watched at home and then they come back into class and what would have been practice or homework or anything else gets done in class. Some of the great benefits to the flipped classroom is that my students can come to class, they've had some idea of what the material is about by watching the videos prior to the class and when they come in here they are able to work with one another, they're able to ask me questions. It gives them really the opportunity to get the help when they need it and where they need it. The way that I'm trying to measure in my research the idea of any influence of the flipped classrooms, I'm looking at two aspects, I'm looking at math anxiety and I'm looking at math achievement and what I've done is I've actually got three sections of my Math 111 class, which is the first class that the elementary education students have to take in the mathematics series and we'll go through the semester, one class using my flipped videos, one class using the Khan Academy videos, and one class that is using lecture within the class. And so what I'm doing is I'm having a pretest that measures their math anxiety and an achievement test from the Praxis I scores because the Praxis I is a test these students have to pass and a lot of them struggle with in mathematics. At the end of the semester they'll take the math anxiety surveys again and then they'll take the achievement test as part of their final exam again so that we can look and see is there any change from the beginning of the semester to the end of the semester and that way it's trying to help limit any other factors that may be going on within the semester or what they came into the class with. I think the idea of looking at our instructional practices important, no matter how well we think it's going, because there's always things we can learn from what we've done, reflect on that, and think about how can we improve it for the student population that we have now.

Contents

Early life

Ellender was born in the town of Montegut in Terrebonne Parish, a center of Cajun culture. He was the son of Victoria Marie (Javeaux) and Wallace Richard Ellender, Sr.[9] He attended public and private schools, and in 1909 he graduated with a bachelor of arts degree from the Roman Catholic St. Aloysius College in New Orleans.[10] (It has been reorganized as Brother Martin High School). He graduated from Tulane University Law School in New Orleans with a LL.B. in 1913,[11] was admitted to the bar later that year, and launched his practice in Houma.

Early career

Ellender was appointed as the city attorney of Houma, and served from 1913 to 1915, and then district attorney of Terrebonne Parish from 1915 to 1916.

World War I

Though he received a draft deferment for World War I, Ellender volunteered for military service.[12] Initially rejected on medical grounds after being diagnosed with a kidney stone, Ellender persisted in attempting to serve in uniform.[13] After surgery and recovery, Ellender inquired through his Congressman about obtaining a commission in the Army's Judge Advocate General Corps, and was offered a commission as an interpreter and translator in the United States Marine Corps, which he declined over concerns that because he spoke Louisiana French, he might not be proficient enough in the formal French language.[13]

While taking courses to improve his French, he also applied for a position in the Student Army Training Corps at Tulane University.[13] He was accepted into the program in October 1918, and reported to Camp Martin on the Tulane University campus.[13] The war ended in November, and the SATC program was disbanded, so Ellender was released from the service in December before completing his training.[13] Despite attempts lasting into the late 1920s to secure an honorable discharge as proof of his military service, Ellender was unsuccessful in obtaining one.[14] As his career progressed, his biography often included the claim that Ellender had served as a sergeant in the United States Army Artillery Corps during the war.[15]

State politics

Ellender was a delegate to the Louisiana constitutional convention in 1921. The constitution produced by that body was retired in 1974, two years after Ellender's death. He served in the Louisiana House of Representatives from 1924 to 1936. He was floor leader from 1928–1932, when in 1929 he worked successfully against the impeachment forces, led by Ralph Norman Bauer and Cecil Morgan, that attempted to remove Governor Huey Long for a litany of abuses of power. Ellender was the House Speaker from 1932 to 1936, when he was elected to the US Senate.

U.S. Senator

In 1937 he took his Senate seat, formerly held by the fallen Huey Long and slated for the Democratic nominee Oscar Kelly Allen, Sr., of Winnfield, the seat of Long's home parish of Winn. Allen had won the Democratic nomination by a plurality exceeding 200,000 votes, but he died shortly thereafter. His passing enabled Ellender's election. The Democrats had so dominated state politics since the disfranchisement of most blacks at the turn of the century, that the primary was the decisive election for offices.

Lorris M. Wimberly of Arcadia in Bienville Parish, meanwhile, succeeded Ellender as House Speaker. Wimberly was the choice of Governor Richard Webster Leche and thereafter Lieutenant Governor Earl Kemp Long, who succeeded Leche to the governorship.

Ellender was repeatedly re-elected to the Senate and served until his death in 1972. He gained seniority and great influence. He was the leading sponsor of the federal free lunch program, which was enacted in 1945 and continues; it was a welfare program that helped poor students.[16]

Ellender served as the powerful chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee from 1951 to 1953 and 1955 to 1971, through which capacity he was a strong defender of sugar cane interests. He chaired the even more powerful Senate Appropriations Committee from 1971 until his death. Denoting his seniority as a Democrat in the Senate, Ellender was President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate from 1971–1972, an honorific position.

Ellender was an opponent of Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin, who exposed communist infiltration in the government during the 1950s.[17]

In March 1952, Ellender stated the possibility of the House of Representatives electing the president in that year's general election and added that the possibility could arise from the entry of Georgia Senator Richard Russell, Jr. into the general election as a third party candidate and thereby see neither President Truman or Republican Senator Robert A. Taft able to secure enough votes from the Electoral College.[18]

Ellender strongly opposed the federal civil rights legislation of the 1960s, which included the Voting Rights Act of 1965 to enforce blacks' constitutional rights in voting. Many, particularly in the Deep South, had been disfranchised since 1900. In the aftermath of the Duck Hill lynchings, he also helped block a proposed anti-lynching bill which had previously been passed in the House, proclaiming, "We shall at all cost preserve the white supremacy of America."[7] He did support some Louisiana state legislation sought by civil rights groups, such as repeal of the state poll tax (a disfranchisement mechanism).[16]

On August 31, 1964, during President Johnson's signing of the Food Stamp Act of 1964, the president noted Ellender as one of the members of Congress he wanted to compliment for playing "a role in the passage of this legislation".[19]

Early in his tenure, the Audubon Society, with an interest in the ivory-billed woodpecker, which faced extinction, persuaded Ellender to work for the establishment of the proposed Tensas Swamp National Park to preserve bird habitat: 60,000 acres of land owned by the Singer Sewing Company in Madison Parish in northeastern Louisiana. Ellender's bill died in committee. In 1998, long after Ellender's death, Congress established the Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge.[20]

Sticking with Truman, 1948

Ellender rarely had serious opposition for his Senate seat. In his initial election in 1936, Ellender defeated U.S. Representative John N. Sandlin of Louisiana's 4th congressional district in the Democratic primary, 364,931 (68 percent) to 167,471 (31.2 percent). Sandlin was from Minden in Webster Parish in northwest Louisiana. There was no Republican opposition to Ellender during much of his tenure.

Ellender was steadfastly loyal to all Democratic presidential nominees and refused to support then Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina for president in 1948. That year Thurmond, the States Rights Party nominee, was also listed on the ballot as the official Democratic nominee in Louisiana and three other southern states. Ellender supported Harry Truman, whose name was placed on the ballot only after Governor Earl Kemp Long called a special session of the legislature to place the president's name on the ballot. "As a Democratic nominee, I am pledged to support the candidate of my party, and that I will do," declared Ellender, though he could have argued that Thurmond, not Truman, was technically the "Democratic nominee" in Louisiana.

Senatorial campaigns of 1954, 1960, and 1966

In 1954, Ellender defeated fellow Democrat Frank Burton Ellis, a former state senator from St. Tammany Parish and later a short term judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana. Ellender polled 268,054 votes (59.1 percent) in the party primary; Ellis, 162,775 (35.9 percent), with 4 percent for minor candidates. He faced no Republican opposition that year.[21]

In 1960, Ellender was challenged by the former Republican National Committeeman George W. Reese, Jr., a New Orleans lawyer, who in 1952 and 1954 had challenged the conservative Democratic U.S. Representative Felix Edward Hébert of Louisiana's 1st congressional district, based about New Orleans. In the 1960 campaign, Reese accused Ellender of being "soft on communism". Ellender retorted that Reese's allegation came with "ill grace for the spokesman for the member of a party which has permitted the establishment of a Red-dominated beach head [Cuba] only ninety miles from our shores to attack my record against the spread of communism."[22]

Reese campaigned across the state in the fall, accompanied at times by Richard Lowrie Hagy of New Orleans, the in-state campaign manager for both Reese and Vice President Richard M. Nixon. In Lake Charles, he claimed that Senator Ellender had been lax in protecting military installations in Louisiana from being downsized or dismantled, with the impacted military services sent to bases in other states. "There has been inadequate representation of the state in these matters," Reese said.[23]

Ellender crushed Reese's hopes of making a respectable showing: he polled 432,228 (79.8 percent); Reese, 109,698 (20.2 percent). Reese's best performance was in two parishes that voted for Richard Nixon for President; La Salle Parish (Jena) and Ouachita Parish (Monroe), but he still gained less than a third of the ballots – 31.3 percent in each. In Caddo Parish (Shreveport), Reese finished with 30 percent. Reese was only the third Republican since the Seventeenth Amendment was ratified to seek a U.S. Senate seat from Louisiana. Ellender ran 24,889 votes ahead of the John F. Kennedy-Lyndon Johnson ticket, but 265,965 voters cast in the presidential race ignored the Senate contest, a phenomenon that would later be called an "undervote".

In 1966, Ellender disposed of two weak primary opponents, including the liberal State Senator J. D. DeBlieux (pronounced "W") of Baton Rouge and the conservative businessman Troyce Guice, a native of St. Joseph in Tensas Parish, who then resided in Ferriday, and later in Natchez, Mississippi. The Republicans once again did not field a candidate against Ellender that year.

Ellender cultivated good relationships with the media, whose coverage of his tenure helped him to fend off serious competition. One of his newspaper favorites was Adras LaBorde, longtime managing editor of Alexandria Daily Town Talk. The two "Cajuns" shared fish stories on many occasions.

Last campaign

Senator Ellender late in his career
Senator Ellender late in his career

In 1972, the Democratic gubernatorial runner-up from December 1971, former state senator J. Bennett Johnston, Jr., of Shreveport challenged Ellender for renomination. Ellender was expected to defeat Johnston, but the veteran senator died in July during the primary campaign and left Johnston the de facto Democratic nominee. Nearly 10 percent of Democratic voters, however, still voted for the deceased Ellender.

Johnston became the Democratic nominee in a manner somewhat reminiscent of how Ellender had won the Senate seat in 1936 after the death of Governor Oscar K. Allen. Johnston easily defeated the Republican candidate, Ben C. Toledano, a prominent attorney from New Orleans who later became a conservative columnist, and former Governor John McKeithen, a Democrat running as an Independent in the general election because he had not been able to qualify for the primary ballot, given the timing of Ellender's death.

The Ellender family endorsed McKeithen in the 1972 general election because of resentment over Johnston's entry into the race against Ellender.[24] Ellender's immediate successor was not Johnston but Elaine S. Edwards, first wife of Governor Edwin Edwards, who was appointed to fill his seat from August 1, 1972, to November 13, 1972, after the election.

Legacy

In the Senate, Ellender was known by his colleagues for Cajun cooking, including dishes ranging from roast duck to shrimp jambalaya. As of 2009, the Senate dining room still served "Ellender Gumbo."

Ellender Memorial High School in Houma and Allen Ellender Middle School in Marrero are named in his honor.

In 1994, Ellender was inducted posthumously into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield.

The Allen J. Ellender Memorial Library on the campus of Nicholls State University in Thibodaux is named after him.

See also

References

  • United States Congress. "Allen J. Ellender (id: E000112)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.
  • Finley, Keith M. Delaying the Dream: Southern Senators and the Fight Against Civil Rights, 1938-1965 (Baton Rouge, LSU Press, 2008).
  • https://web.archive.org/web/20070127233419/http://www.legis.state.la.us/members/h1812-2008.pdf
  1. ^ Becnel, Thomas (1995). Senator Allen Ellender of Louisiana: a biography. LSU Press. pp. 22 and p. 166. ISBN 978-0-8071-1978-5. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  2. ^ "Helen Calhoun Donnelly Ellender". FindAGrave.com. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  3. ^ Becnel, Thomas (1995). Senator Allen Ellender of Louisiana: a biography. LSU Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-8071-1978-5. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  4. ^ "Orthopedic surgeon". Eunice Today. Retrieved May 17, 2014.
  5. ^ govtrack
  6. ^ Thomas Becnel, Senator Allen Ellender of Louisiana: a biography (1996) p 245
  7. ^ a b Congressional Record – Senate (January 20, 1938) https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CRECB-1938-pt1-v83/pdf/GPO-CRECB-1938-pt1-v83-16-1.pdf
  8. ^ Becnel, Senator Allen Ellender p 248
  9. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "The Political Graveyard: Terrebonne Parish, La". politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  10. ^ Tulane University (1913). Jambalaya, the Tulane University Yearbook (PDF). Nashville, TN: Benson Printing Co. p. 101.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  11. ^ "Jambalaya, the Tulane University Yearbook", p. 100.
  12. ^ Becnel, Thomas A. (1995). Senator Allen Ellender of Louisiana: A Biography. Louisiana State University Press: Baton Rouge, LA. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-8071-1978-5.
  13. ^ a b c d e Senator Allen Ellender of Louisiana: A Biography, pp. 24-25.
  14. ^ Senator Allen Ellender of Louisiana: A Biography, p. 52.
  15. ^ Onofrio, Jan (1999). Louisiana Biographical Dictionary. St. Clair Shores, MI: Somerset Publishers, Inc. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-403-09817-0.
  16. ^ a b Becnel, Senator Allen Ellender p 130
  17. ^ Becnel, Senator Allen Ellender pp 192-3
  18. ^ "Senator Thinks House May Pick Next President". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. March 3, 1952.
  19. ^ Johnson, Lyndon B. (August 31, 1964). "546. Remarks Upon Signing the Food Stamp Act". American Presidency Project.
  20. ^ "John Earl Martin, Singer". rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
  21. ^ Numan V. Bartley and Hugh D. Graham, Southern Elections: County and Precinct Data, 1950-1972, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978, p. 122
  22. ^ Alexandria Daily Town Talk, November 5, 1960, p. 19
  23. ^ "The election of a Republican senator from Louisiana can reverse the trend of removal of federal installations from the state". Lake Charles American-Press. October 26, 1960. p. 37. Retrieved January 6, 2015.
  24. ^ "Tim Ellender, McKeithen's State Campaign Manager, Visits Here", Tensas Gazette, St. Joseph, Louisiana, October 26, 1972, p. 1.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Reuben Chauvin
Dr. N. V. Marmande
Louisiana State Representative from Terrebonne Parish
1924-1936
Succeeded by
Morris Lottinger, Sr.
Preceded by
John B. Fournet
Speaker of the Louisiana House of Representatives
1932–1936
Succeeded by
Lorris M. Wimberly
Preceded by
Elmer Thomas
Chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee
1951–1953
Succeeded by
George D. Aiken
Preceded by
George D. Aiken
Chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee
1955–1971
Succeeded by
Herman E. Talmadge
Preceded by
Richard B. Russell, Jr.
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
1971–1972
Succeeded by
James O. Eastland
Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee
1971–1972
Succeeded by
John L. McClellan
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Rose McConnell Long
 U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Louisiana
1937–1972
Served alongside: John H. Overton, William C. Feazel, Russell B. Long
Succeeded by
Elaine S. Edwards
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Richard B. Russell, Jr.
Dean of the United States Senate
January 21, 1971 – July 27, 1972
Succeeded by
George D. Aiken
This page was last edited on 28 October 2019, at 17:33
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