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Albanian Declaration of Independence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Albanian Declaration of Independence
Deklarata e Pavarësisë (dokumenti origjinal 1912).jpg
Photograph of the original document of the Declaration of Independence
Created28 November 1912
Ratified28 November 1912
LocationVlorë, Albania
Author(s)Ismail Qemali, Luigj Gurakuqi
Signatories40
PurposeIndependence from Ottoman Empire

The Albanian Declaration of Independence (Albanian: Shpallja e Pavarësisë, or Deklarata e Pavarësisë) was the declaration of independence of Albania from the Ottoman Empire. Independent Albania was proclaimed in Vlorë on 28 November 1912. Six days later the Assembly of Vlorë formed the first Government of Albania which was led by Ismail Qemali and the Council of Elders (Pleqnia).

The success of the Albanian Revolt of 1912 sent a strong signal to the neighboring countries that the Ottoman Empire was weak.[1] The Kingdom of Serbia opposed the plan for an Albanian Vilayet, preferring a partition of the European territory of the Ottoman Empire among the four Balkan allies.[2] Balkan allies planned the partition of the European territory of the Ottoman Empire among them and in the meantime the territory conquered during First Balkan War was agreed to have status of the Condominium.[3] That was the reason for Ismail Qemali to organize an All-Albanian Congress in Vlorë.[4]

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Transcription

Albania has had a very long and troubled history with conquest independence and reconquest going in a long-lasting cycle for centuries While the people have had a very long history the Mahr nation we see today is relatively new creation in today's episode We'll be looking at the war that cemented Albania independence the V or a war before looking at this war itself We must first look at the album's role during the First World War. This will be a brief overlook but if you're interested in learning more I have an episode about Albanian during the first world war that you can go to by clicking on the card here the Young Turk revolution in 1908 was one of the many countless for an Albanian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire the Changes to the Albanian section of the Empire including the raising taxes for conscription other issues Ghazi Albanians to rise up in a revolt once in 1910 and again in 1912 The revolt of 1912 was caused by not only the failure during the Italian Or but also by the Balkan war with Albania land and cities being occupied in all directions by Serbs Greeks Montenegrins and Bulgarians this led to the Albanian Declaration of Independence on November the 28th of 1912 Independence wasn't recognized in any capacity Until the Treaty of Bucharest in May the following year however Only about 40% of the ethnic Albanian land was incorporated into the state and most of the nation was occupied by Great Powers forces each vying for control over the region a government was eventually formed under former minister for Assad pasha the greek soon invade from the south was support of the British and Muslim leaders as well as political factions at post Apostle albanian near korea these forces managed to pin pasha at the nation's capital terrazzo by late November of 1914 Pasha was rescued by italian warships and italy is self invaded bologna in late december soon - holding the coastline from Valona to terrazzo No, great Power poses move as they wish Ilia to join their side when the patent of london was signed in april of 1915 The saw italian entry into the war ii-era gave the central Albania as a rectorate controlling the whole region south of the eora While the Serbs eige pay the section and the Greeks of southern section in June of 1917 The Italians declared albion independence and outside posture for power while he was in exile in France the French occupational zones have largely been left to their own deeded day administrative devices for months now and the ayyappa French region joined this Albanian state by late November All of Albania was under Anton control once the war was over Albania was still left without a recognized government and many of the nation feared partition between the Italians Greeks and the newly formed nation of Yugoslavia u.s President Woodrow Wilson Spoke up for the nation garni support that caused both the greeks and yugoslavia to drop their claims the italian still have large Occupational and garrison forces in the region however, and no power really tried to force them to give up their claims Italian prime minister francisco civ Remini t hope to keep Albania as protectorate as was stated in the Treaty of London in 1915 and attended to secure control over the whole of Albania as the previous two regional powers had banned their claims this led to the start of the vieira war on June the 4th of 1920 a Defense committee was established in viore itself the months prior This committee was meant to organize the liberation war Directly but largely focus on sabotage and supply related roles in the city The Albanian government didn't involve a self directly with this Conflict with her main focus being on keeping support for the Albanian state around the world, especially in the British They attempted to gain guarantees from Yugoslavia and Greece that they wanted to invade in the advent of a full-out war with Italy He was Slavia was quick to offer assurance of this but the Greek army was slowly in vain towards Corsa which the French had recently departed from a Number of militant bands as well as regular troops from the Taurani Government soon occupied the whole course here region proclaim this merger with the Albanian State the Greeks at this time halted the invasion as The war in Asia Minor required their fall forcus and granted the guarantees that had been requested The British gave vague promises of support a little came of it They still hope to have an Albanian state under the control of the great powers as they want to use Albania as a major source of oil for Britain and France the italians rejected ultimatum sent to them to leave the aura and the defense committee was established an army raised under Chasm kousouli the main nucleus of this army was a militia battalion that had been trained and equipped by the town to lair Defected these men number some 400 of the raised armed of four thousand within the vicinity of the aura The Albanian government didn't officially declare war against the Italians as they were heavily fear that doing so would risk the nation's Credibility with other powers and give the Yugoslavians or Greeks a reason to invade instead the future King Zog Who is the Minister of Interior organized 4000 Albanian irregular stew ate the Defense Committee with the goal of attacking? Italian outline positions 10 over small Garrison's capturing arms Which was fairly lacking and caused disruption back at home all total The Albanians had around 20,000 men under the overall command of I'm at the pink ax the Italians Meanwhile had around 15,000 men within the city and around another 5,000 in the out of region under the overall command to sent to Mina Puccini there further augmented by 240 howitzers of all sizes 5 aircraft and enabled attachment numbering a dozen warships On June the 5th the Albanians attacked Italian positions all around the area and within the day most of the Garrison's had been taken but the positions at Kota Schumann in Liguria Lasted throughout the night with Fabiana being the last to hold even with 5 days of heavy fighting were the full of these positions the whole region except for viola and cami Anna had been liberated a full-on assault was launched against Viura in combination with an armed uprising in the city while this attack failed the implications of this attack proved to be a breaking point back in Italy Unrest increased Bari and ancona eventually results in demonstrations, and they were finally put down they did prevent any more reinforces from reaching fiora and massive protests further engulfed the major cities the Italians launched a counter-attack on the 18th, but a filled with heavy losses plummeting army morale and lead to the collapse of Tepe on the 20th the new government under give a yawn and glee t Gave o cleans the whole of Albania outside of your itself and opened up negotiations with the tyranny government a followed occurred in mid-july Where Albanian forces once again lost major assault against fiora reaching the outskirts of the city? but suffering nearly 3,000 casualties a Peace treaty between Italy and Albania was reached on August. The second saying that Italy will give up all claims to Albanian land I'll say the island as asano which they had under occupation till 1943 and recognized Albanian independence based along in the 1913 borders This treaty proved critical as it said the present for a condition by the rest of the Western powers at the Paris Peace Conference I hope you enjoyed the brief video into one of the more obscure wars during the interwar period again, if you'd like to learn a little bit more about albania during the First World War click here for the video I did about That don't forget to Like and subscribe and I'll catch you guys next time

Contents

Independence

Declaration

The Assembly of 40 delegates meeting in southern Albania in the city of Vlorë on 28 November 1912, declared Albania an independent country. On the 4th of December 1912 they set up a provisional government. The complete text of the declaration, composed in Albanian, partially in Gheg and Tosk and Ottoman Turkish,[5] was:

Signatories

Below is the list of the forty signatories as published by newspaper Perlindja e Shqipëniës. The original act of the Declaration of Independence was written on two pages. On the front page, there are a total of 34 recognizable signatures and on the back page are found 6 more signatures.

  1. Ismail Qemali
    (Ismaïl Kemal)
  2. Dom Nikoll Kaçorri
    (Kaçorri)
  3. Vehbi Dibra Agolli
    (Ottoman writing)
  4. Jorgji Karbunara
    (J. Karbunara)
  5. Elmas Boçe
    (Elmas Boce)
  6. Veli Harçi
    (Veli Harçi)
  7. Qazim Kokoshi
    (Qazim Kokoshi)
  8. Jani Minga
    (J K Minga)
  9. Rexhep Mitrovica
    (Rexhep)
  10. Dhimitër Tutulani
    (Indistinguishable)
  11. Aristidh Ruçi
    (A. Rruçi)
  12. Abdi Toptani
    (Abdi)
  13. Abaz Dilaver Çelkupa
    (Abas Dilaver)
  14. Mid'hat Frashëri
    (Midhat Frashëri)
  15. Shefqet Dajiu
    (Sefqit Daji)
  16. Zihni Abaz Kanina
    (Zihni Abbas Kanina)
  17. Xhelal Koprëncka
    (Xelal Ko)
  18. Hajredin Çakrani
    (Hajredin Çakran)
  19. Qemal Karaosmani
    (Qemal Elbasani)
  20. Ilias Vrioni
    (Iljas Vrijon)
  21. Salih Gjuka
    (Salih Gjuka)
  22. Dhimitër Beratti
    (D Beratti)
  23. Dhimitër Mborja
    (Dh Emmanuel)
  24. Dhimitër Zografi
    (Dimitri Zografi)
  25. Murad Toptani
    (Murad Toptani)
  26. Pandeli Cale
    (Pandeli Cale)
  27. Luigj Gurakuqi
    (Luz Gurakuqi)
  28. Bedri Pejani
    (Bedri Pejani)
  29. Spiridon Ilo
    (Spiro T. Ÿlo)
  30. Thanas Floqi
    (Thanas V. Floqi)
  31. Qemal Mullaj
    (Indistinguishable)
  32. Lef Nosi
    (Lef Nosi)
  33. Myrteza Ali Struga
    (D. H. Murtezi)
  34. Nuri Sojliu
    (Nuri)
  35. Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
    (Mustafa Asim Kruja)
  36. Ferit Vokopola
    (M. Ferid Vokopola)
  37. Ymer Deliallisi
    (Ymer)
  38. Xhemal Deliallisi
    (Cemmalyyddin bey)
  39. Nebi Sefa
    (Nebi Sefa Lusja)
  40. Zyhdi Ohri
    (Zuhdi Ohria)

Assembly of Vlorë

The Flag waved at the Assembly of Vlorë.
The Flag waved at the Assembly of Vlorë.

Under these circumstances, delegates from all over Albania were gathered in the Assembly of Vlorë (Albanian: Kuvendi i Vlorës). Ismail Qemali returned to Albania with Austro-Hungarian support and, at the head of a swiftly convened national assembly, declared Albanian independence in the town of Vlora on 28 November 1912. The declaration was more theoretical than practical because Vlora was the only town in the whole country under the delegates’ control―yet it proved to be effective in the vacuum of power. Though Albanian independence was recognised de facto on 17 December 1912 at the London Conference of Ambassadors, it was not until 29 July 1913, after the second Balkan War and the solving of the delicate problem of Shkodra, that the international community agreed to recognise Albania as a neutral, sovereign and hereditary principality. The newspaper Përlindja of Vlora described it as follows:[6]

The National Assembly, composed of delegates from all over Albania and convening here in Vlora, opened today at four in the afternoon at the house of Xhemil bey. Ismail Kemal bey, as the prime initiator of the gathering, took the floor and explained to the delegates the purpose of the assembly, that is, that they all must strive to do what is necessary to save Albania from the great perils it is now facing.

The chairman, Ismail Kemal Bey, then took the floor and, in an ardent, fluid and reasonable speech, stated that although they had always been faithful to the Ottoman Empire, the Albanians had never forgotten their own language and nationality, the best proof of this being the endeavours and uprisings that had taken place from time to time, in particular over the last four years, to preserve their rights and customs. The Ottoman Government had never taken their interests into consideration and had never been willing to recompense the Albanians for the great services they had rendered. It had recently shown some interest in coming to an understanding with our people, but had not given proof of good faith and had not taken all the steps needed to appease and satisfy the Albanians. War had recently broken out with four countries in the Balkans that were seeking change and rights for their peoples, united by their ethnicity and religion.

Later, these countries put aside their initial objective and, as the war was going well for them, they agreed to divide the Empire up among themselves, including Albania. Realizing that the Turkish army had been defeated and that the Empire would not survive, the Albanians, who had played a greater role in the fighting than the soldiers, hastened to take requisite steps in their own interests as owners of the country. For this reason, Ismail Kemal bey departed for Istanbul and, having come to an understanding with the Albanians of Bucharest, too, set off for Vienna, where he reached an agreement with the Great Powers that had vital interests in the Balkans. As there was no more hope of saving Albania by means of arms, the only road to salvation was to separate Albania from Turkey. Ismail Kemal bey promoted this idea and objective, that was well received by all the Great Powers, in particular by Austria and Italy. It was only Russia that remained somewhat hostile to the idea because of the Slavs, but it did not deny the existence of Albania and an Albanian people. To realise this objective, he invited all Albanians to gather in Vlora and was delighted today to see that his call had not been in vain, and that delegates had been sent from all parts of Albania to reflect together on ways to save the Fatherland. According to Ismail Kemal Bey, the most urgent measures that the Albanian nation must take today are these: that Albania be independent under a provisional government; that a council of elders be elected to assist and supervise the government; and that a commission be sent to Europe to defend Albanian interests among the Great Powers.

The delegates unanimously agreed with the words of Ismail Kemal bey and resolved that Albania, as of today, should be on her own, free and independent under a provisional government.

The meeting was adjourned until the following day and the delegates went out and greeted the flag that was raised at five thirty in the afternoon.

The second session of the Assembly of Vlorë was held on 4 December 1912. During that members of the assembly founded the first government of Independent Albania on 4 December 1912, which was led by Ismail Qemali.[7] The government established also a 'Council of Elders' (Pleqësia), which would help the government to its duties. In addition, the Assembly of Vlorë decided that it would agree to any decision of the Great Powers for the system of government in Albania and that the provisional government would cease to exist after the recognition of independence of the country and the nomination of the monarch.

The same day, Ismail Qemali waved the national flag of Albania, from the balcony of the Assembly of Vlorë, in the presence of hundreds of Albanians. This flag was sewn after Skanderbeg's principality flag, which had been used more than 400 years earlier.

Delegates

This is a complete list of the 76 registered delegates by region:[8][9][10][11]

Region Delegates
Berat Sami Vrioni, Iliaz Vrioni, Dhimitër Tutulani, Babë Dud Karbunara
Çamëri Veli Gërra, Jakup Veseli, Rexhep Demi, Azis Tahir Ajdonati
Delvinë Avni bej Delvina
Dibër Vehbi Dibra, Sherif Lengu
Durrës Abaz Çelkupa, Mustafa Hanxhiu, Jahja Ballhysa, Nikollë Kaçorri
Elbasan Lef Nosi, Shefqet Dajiu, Qemal Karaosmani, Dervish Biçaku
Gramsh Ismail Qemali Gramshi
Gjirokastër Azis Efendi Gjirokastra, Elmaz Boçe, Veli Harxhi,
Myfid Libohova, Petro Poga, Jani Papadhopulli, Hysen Hoxha
Janinë Kristo Meksi, Aristidh Ruci
Korçë Pandeli Cale, Thanas Floqi, Spiridon Ilo
Kosovë,
Dukagjin,
Plavë-Guci
Rexhep Mitrovica, Bedri Pejani, Salih Gjuka, Midhat Frashëri,
Mehmet Pashë Dërralla, Isa Boletini, Riza Gjakova, Ajdin Draga,
Dervish Ipeku, Zenel Begolli, Qerim Begolli
Krujë Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
Lushnjë Qemal Mullai, Ferit Vokopola, Nebi Sefa
Mallakastër Hajredin Cakrani
Mat Ahmet Zogu, Riza Zogolli, Kurt Agë Kadiu
Ohër,
Strugë
Zyhdi Ohri, Myrteza Ali Struga, Nuri Sojliu,
Hamdi Ohri, Mustafa Baruti, Dervish Hima
Peqin Mahmud Efendi Kaziu
Përmet Veli Këlcyra, Syrja Vlora
Pogradec Hajdar Blloshmi
Skrapar Xhelal Koprencka
Shijak Xhelal Deliallisi, Ymer Deliallisi, Ibrahim Efendiu
Shkodër Luigj Gurakuqi
Tepelenë Feim Mezhgorani
Tiranë Abdi Toptani, Murat Toptani
Vlorë Ismail Qemali, Zihni Abaz Kanina, Zyhdi Vlora,
Qazim Kokoshi, Jani Minga, Eqrem Vlora
Colony of
Bucharest
Dhimitër Zografi, Dhimitër Mborja, Dhimitër Berati, Dhimitër Ilo

Recognition of Independence

Diplomatic efforts

Main delegates of the Congress of Trieste (1913)
Main delegates of the Congress of Trieste (1913)

Just as the overseas communities of Albanians had stimulated the patriotic fervor which gradually led to the independence of their homeland, so at this critical juncture they once again demonstrated their solidarity. On 1 March 1913, they convened an Albanian Congress of Trieste, Austria. There were 119 representatives in all, coming from the United States, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Egypt, Italy, and of course from the new state itself. Bishop Fan Noli of Boston was one of the featured speakers.

The congress recognized the provisional government of Ismail Qemal, pledged its faithful support, discussed the ethnic boundaries of the new state and sent strong resolutions to the European capitals and to the London Conference of Ambassadors then in session, appealing for their recognition of Albanian independence and for the lifting of the Greek blockade.

Treaty of London and recognition of independence

Signing of the Peace Treaty on 30 May 1913
Signing of the Peace Treaty on 30 May 1913

On December 1912 the Great Powers met in London to deal with territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War.

After months of wrangling and compromise under the constant threat of a general war, the conference announced its formal decisions on 17 May 1913. The question of Albanian independence that had prompted the Conference of Ambassadors at London came up for discussion at their first session. According to article II of the treaty, the six ambassadors decided that Albania would be recognized as an autonomous state under the sovereignty of the Ottoman sultan.[12]

After the breakout of the Balkan Wars, on 29 July, the ambassadors decided to recognize the total independence and sovereignty of Albania. They provided that it be governed by a European prince to be elected by the powers. Albanian neutrality would be jointly guaranteed by the six great powers. They also appointed an International Commission of Control for Albania, to be composed of one representative from each of the six powers and one Albanian. This commission would supervise the Albanian government's organization, finances and administration for a 10-year period. Dutch officers would organize the gendarmerie.

Soon after the Declaration of Independence Albania was occupied by the Balkan League member states (Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece). The Occupation of Albania (1912–1913) took place during the Balkan Wars.

Commemoration in Albanian banknotes

The façade of the building where the independence was proclaimed is depicted on the reverses of the Albanian 200 lekë banknote of 1992–1996,[13] and of the 500 lekë banknote issued since 1996.[14]

See also

Annotations

Cite error: A list-defined reference with group name "lower-alpha" is not used in the content (see the help page).

References

  1. ^ Warrander, Gail; Verena Knaus (November 2007). Kosovo. United States: The Globe Pequot Press. p. 12. ISBN 1-84162-199-4. At the same time the rebellion sent strong signal to Kosovo neighbors that the Ottoman Empire was weak.
  2. ^ Redlich, Josef; d'Estournelles, Baron; Godart, M. Justin; Shucking, Walter; Hirst, Francis W.; Brailsford, H. N.; Milioukov, Paul; Dutton, Samuel T. (1914). "Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and the Conduct of the Balkan Wars". Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Piece. p. 47. Retrieved 10 January 2011. The Servians hastened to oppose the plan of a "Greater Albania" by their plan for partition of Turkey in Europe among the Balkan States into four spheres of influence.
  3. ^ Redlich, Josef; d'Estournelles, Baron; Godart, M. Justin; Shucking, Walter; Hirst, Francis W.; Brailsford, H. N.; Milioukov, Paul; Dutton, Samuel T. (1914). "Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and the Conduct of the Balkan Wars". Washington D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Piece. p. 49. Retrieved 10 January 2011. In a few weeks the territories of Turkey in Europe .. by the Balkan allies....in their hands as condominium
  4. ^ Zhelyazkova, Antonina (2000). "Albania and Albanian Identities". International Center for Minority Studies and Intercultural Relations. Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2011. calling together an all-Albanian congress. On 28 November 1912, delegates from all over the country gathered in Vlora
  5. ^ Pollo, Stefanaq; Selami Pulaha (1978). "175". Akte të rilindjes kombëtare shqiptare 1878-1912 (Memorandume, vendime, protesta, thirrje). Tirana: Akademia e Shkencave të RPS të Shqipërisë. p. 261. Vendimi është hartuar shqip dhe turqisht ...
  6. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2006). Historia e Shtetit Shqiptar 1912-2005. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 22. ISBN 9994379933.
  7. ^ Si u shpall Pavarësia e Shqipërisë?
  8. ^ Schmidt-Neke, Michael (1987). Entstehung und Ausbau der Königsdiktatur in Albanien, 1912–1939. Oldenbourg Verlag. p. 320. ISBN 3-486-54321-0.
  9. ^ Gaçe, Bardhosh. "Ata që shpallën pavarësinë kombëtare" ["Those who declared national independence"]. Tirana: Toena, 2012.
  10. ^ Meksi, Aleksandër (18 October 2012). "Kuvendi i Vlorës, pjesëmarrësit dhe firmëtarët e Aktit të Pavarësisë". Hylli i Dritës. Botime Franceskane (3). 25) Qeveritarët turk të Korçës nuk i dorëzonin Parisë së qytetit telegramet që vinin nga Vlora dhe as dërgonin atje telegramet që Paria i dërgonte organizatorëve të Kuvendit. Ata u njoftuan me tepër vonesë që Kuvendi po zhvillonte punimet dhe se u shpall Pavarësia. Në fakt delegatët e caktuar ishin Mihal Grameno, Menduh Zavalani, Stavro Karoli dhe Estref Verlemi. Falënderojmë Niko Kotheren për këtë informacion që ne e gjykojmë me mjaft vlerë.
  11. ^ Meksi, Aleksandër (2 December 2016). "Kuvendi i Vlorës, pjesëmarrësit dhe firmëtarët e Aktit të Pavarësisë, studim nga Aleksandër Meksi" (in Albanian). Radi and Radi. Archived from the original on 2017-11-07. Retrieved 17 October 2017. Në fakt delegatët e caktuar ishin Mihal Grameno, Menduh Zavalani, Stavro Karoli dhe Estref Verlemi.(English: The appointed delegates were, in fact Mihal Grameno, Menduh Zavalani, Stavro Karoli and Estref Verlemi.)
  12. ^ Mowat, R.B. (1916). Select Treaties and Documents 1815–1916. Oxford Clarendon Press. pp. 120–121.
  13. ^ Bank of Albania. Currency: Banknotes withdrawn from circulation Archived 6 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – Retrieved on 23 March 2009.
  14. ^ Bank of Albania. Currency: Banknotes in circulation Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – Retrieved on 23 March 2009.

Sources


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