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Alabama House of Representatives

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alabama House of Representatives
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Term limits
None
History
New session started
February 25, 2020
Leadership
Speaker
Mac McCutcheon (R)
since August 15, 2016
Speaker pro Tempore
Victor Gaston (R)
since December 8, 2010
Majority Leader
Nathaniel Ledbetter (R)
since March 1, 2017
Minority Leader
Anthony Daniels (D)
since February 8, 2017
Structure
Seats105
Political groups
Majority
  •   Republican (75)

Minority

Other

  •   Vacant (2)
Length of term
4 years
AuthorityArticle IV, Alabama Constitution
Salary$51,734/year[1]
Elections
First-past-the-post
Last election
November 6, 2018
(105 seats)
Next election
November 8, 2022
(105 seats)
RedistrictingLegislative Control
Meeting place
Alabama House of Representatives.jpg
House of Representatives
Alabama State House
Montgomery, Alabama
Website
Alabama House of Representatives

The Alabama State House of Representatives is the lower house of the Alabama Legislature, the state legislature of state of Alabama. The House is composed of 105 members representing an equal number of districts, with each constituency containing at least 42,380 citizens. There are no term limits in the House. The House is also one of the five lower houses of state legislatures in the United States that is elected every four years. Other lower houses, including the United States House of Representatives, are elected for a two-year term.

The House meets at the Alabama State House in Montgomery.

Legal provisions

The Alabama House of Representatives is the lower house of the Alabama Legislature, with the upper house being the Alabama Senate. Both bodies are constitutionally required to convene annually at the Alabama State House.[2] In quadrennial election years (e.g. 2018), they convene on the second Tuesday in January.[2] In the first year after quadrennial election years (e.g. 2019), they convene on the first Tuesday in March.[2] In the second and third years of quadrennium (e.g. 2020 and 2021), the Legislature convenes on the first Tuesday in February.[2] From that date of convention, the House of Representatives must meet for 30 legislative days over the course of 105 calendar days.[2]

The legislature is not permitted to call for special sessions, though they may determine the subject of those sessions by a two-thirds vote in the event that they do take place.[2] Special sessions in the Alabama Legislature span 30 calendar days and meet for 12 of them.[2]

Membership requirements

The Alabama House of Representatives consists of 105 members, each representing single-member legislative districts of equal size. State representatives have a term length of four years, uncommonly lengthy among lower legislative chambers in the United States. Members have been elected in what correspond with United States midterm election years since 1902.

In order to serve in the House, an individual must have attained the age of 21.[2] The person must also be a qualified voter who has resided in the state of Alabama for at least three years and in their legislative district for at least one year.[2] In accordance with Section 46 of the Constitution of Alabama, "the terms of office of the senators and representatives shall commence on the day after the general election at which they are elected, and expire on the day after the general election held in the fourth year after their election."[3] As a result, representatives formally assume their positions on the day after Election Day in early November.

Leadership

The most powerful individual in the chamber is the Speaker of the House, who is elected by all 105 representatives. Other leadership positions include the Speaker pro tempore (also elected by the entire chamber) and the Majority Leader (elected by the majority party caucus).[2]

The minority party is headed by the Minority Leader, who is elected by the minority party caucus.[2]

Compensation

Constitutional Amendment 57 provides the methods for setting legislative compensation.[2] Since 2021, representatives earn $51,734 per year.[1] Representatives are also allotted $85 per day for single overnight stays or $100 per day for multiple overnight stays in order to accommodate lodging needs.[2] The presiding officer of the House of Representatives earns an additional $18,000 per year.[2]

No retirement benefits are available to representatives.[2]

Legislative process

House bills are referred to their committees of jurisdiction by the Speaker.[2] Bills can be introduced at any point in the legislative session.[2]

The Governor of Alabama has the authority to use a line-item veto on appropriations bills as long as they are returned to the legislature before its adjournment. In most circumstances, during the legislative session, the Governor has six days to consider vetoing legislation before it automatically becomes law.[2] If session has concluded, the Governor has 10 days to consider legislation.[2] Vetoes can be overturned by a majority vote in both chambers of the Alabama Legislature.

Legislative staffing

State representatives are given year-round personal staff at the Capitol, as well as some staff who are shared between members.[2] Representatives for select counties are entitled to shared district office staff.[2] All committees have paid clerical staff, while only some committees have additional professional staff.[2]

Committees

Committee members and committee chairpersons are both assigned by the Speaker.[2]

There are currently 33 standing committees in the House.[4] They are as follows:

  • Agriculture and Forestry
  • Baldwin County Legislation
  • Boards, Agencies and Commissions
  • Children and Senior Advocacy
  • Commerce and Small Business
  • Constitution, Campaigns and Elections
  • County and Municipal Government
  • Economic Development and Tourism
  • Education Policy
  • Ethics and Campaign Finance
  • Financial Services
  • Fiscal Responsibility
  • Health
  • Insurance
  • Jefferson County Legislation
  • Judiciary
  • Lee County Legislation
  • Limestone County Legislation
  • Local Legislation
  • Madison County Legislation
  • Military and Veterans Affairs
  • Mobile County Legislation
  • Montgomery County Legislation
  • Public Safety and Homeland Security
  • Rules
  • Shelby County Legislation
  • State Government
  • Technology and Research
  • Transportation, Utilities and Infrastructure
  • Tuscaloosa County Legislation

Composition

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Republican Democratic Vacant
End of previous legislature 72 33 105 0
Begin present legislature 77 28 105 0
Current 76 27 103 2
Latest voting share 72.82% 27.18%

House leadership

Position Name Party District
Speaker of the House Mac McCutcheon Republican 25th–Capshaw
Speaker pro tempore Victor Gaston Republican 100th–Mobile
Clerk of the House Jeffrey Woodard

Majority Leadership

Position Name Party District
House Majority Leader Nathaniel Ledbetter Republican 24th–Rainsville
Majority Whip Danny Garrett Republican 44th–Trussville
Majority Caucus Vice-Chair Connie Rowe Republican 13th–Jasper
Majority Caucus Secretary/Treasurer Phillip Pettus Republican 1st–Killen

Minority Leadership

Position Name Party District
House Minority Leader Anthony Daniels Democratic 53rd–Huntsville
Assistant Minority Leader Merika Coleman Democratic 57th–Birmingham
Minority Caucus Chair Christopher J. England Democratic 70th–Tuscaloosa
Minority Caucus Vice-Chair Barbara Drummond Democratic 103rd–Mobile
Minority Whips Adline Clarke Democratic 97th–Mobile
Jeremy Gray Democratic 83rd–Opelika
Tashina Morris Democratic 77th–Montgomery
Minority Caucus Secretary/Treasurer Kelvin Lawrence Democratic 69th–Hayneville

House roster

District Name Party Residence First elected Counties represented
1 Phillip Pettus Rep Killen 2014 Lauderdale
2 Lynn Greer Rep Florence 2002 Lauderdale, Limestone
3 Andrew Sorrell Rep Muscle Shoals 2018 Colbert, Lauderdale, Lawrence
4 Parker Moore Rep Decatur 2018 Limestone, Morgan
5 Danny Crawford Rep Athens 2016 Limestone
6 Andy Whitt Rep Ardmore 2018 Limestone, Madison
7 Proncey Robertson Rep Mt. Hope 2018 Franklin, Lawrence, Morgan, Winston
8 Terri Collins Rep Decatur 2010 Morgan
9 Scott Stadthagen Rep Hartselle 2018 Cullman, Marshall, Morgan
10 Mike Ball Rep Madison 2002 Madison
11 Randall Shedd Rep Cullman 2013 Blount, Cullman, Marshall, Morgan
12 Corey Harbison Rep Good Hope 2014 Cullman
13 Connie Rowe Rep Jasper 2014 Blount, Walker
14 Tim Wadsworth Rep Arley 2014 Jefferson, Walker, Winston
15 Allen Farley Rep Pleasant Grove 2010 Jefferson, Shelby
16 Kyle South Rep Fayette 2014 Fayette, Jefferson, Lamar, Tuscaloosa
17 Tracy Estes Rep Winfield 2018 Lamar, Marion, Winston
18 Jamie Kiel Rep Russellville 2018 Colbert, Franklin, Lauderdale
19 Laura Hall Dem Huntsville 1993 Madison
20 Howard Sanderford Rep Huntsville 1989 Madison
21 Rex Reynolds Rep Huntsville 2018 Madison
22 Ritchie Whorton Rep Owens Cross Roads 2014 Jackson, Madison
23 Tommy Hanes Rep Bryant 2014 DeKalb, Jackson
24 Nathaniel Ledbetter Rep Rainsville 2014 DeKalb
25 Mac McCutcheon Rep Capshaw 2006 Limestone, Madison
26 Kerry Rich Rep Albertville 2010 DeKalb, Marshall
27 Wes Kitchens Rep Arab 2018 Blount, DeKalb, Marshall
28 Gil Isbell Rep Gadsden 2018 Etowah
29 Vacant Calhoun, DeKalb, Etowah
30 Craig Lipscomb Rep Gadsden 2012 Etowah, St. Clair
31 Mike Holmes Rep Wetumpka 2014 Autauga, Elmore
32 Barbara Boyd Dem Anniston 1994 Calhoun, Talladega
33 Ben Robbins Rep Montgomery 2021 Clay, Coosa, Talladega
34 David Standridge Rep Oneonta 2012 Blount, Marshall
35 Steve Hurst Rep Munford 1998 Calhoun, Clay, Coosa, Talladega
36 Randy Wood Rep Anniston 2002 Calhoun, Sanit Clair, Talladega
37 Bob Fincher Rep Woodland 2014 Chambers, Cleburne, Randolph
38 Debbie Wood Rep Valley 2018 Chambers, Lee
39 Ginny Shaver Rep Leesburg 2018 Calhoun, Cherokee, Cleburne, DeKalb
40 K. L. Brown Rep Jacksonville 2010 Calhoun
41 Corley Ellis Rep Columbiana 2016 Shelby
42 Ivan Smith Rep Clanton 2019 Autauga, Chilton
43 Arnold Mooney Rep Birmingham 2014 Jefferson, Shelby
44 Danny Garrett Rep Trussville 2014 Jefferson
45 Dickie Drake Rep Leeds 2011 Jefferson, Shelby
46 David Faulkner Rep Homewood 2014 Jefferson
47 David Wheeler Rep Vestavia Hills 2018 Jefferson
48 Jim Carns Rep Vestavia Hills 2011 Jefferson, Shelby
49 Russell Bedsole Rep Alabaster 2020 Bibb, Chilton, Shelby
50 Jim Hill Rep Odenville 2014 Saint Clair
51 Allen Treadaway Rep Morris 2006 Jefferson
52 John Rogers Dem Birmingham 1982 Jefferson
53 Anthony Daniels Dem Huntsville 2014 Madison
54 Neil Rafferty Dem Birmingham 2018 Jefferson
55 Rod Scott Dem Fairfield 2006 Jefferson
56 Louise Alexander Dem Bessemer 2014 Jefferson
57 Merika Coleman Dem Birmingham 2002 Jefferson
58 Rolanda Hollis Dem Birmingham 2017 Jefferson
59 Mary Moore Dem Birmingham 2002 Jefferson
60 Juandalynn Givan Dem Birmingham 2010 Jefferson
61 Rodney Sullivan Rep Northport 2018 Pickens, Pickens, Tuscaloosa
62 Rich Wingo Rep Tuscaloosa 2014 Tuscaloosa
63 Cynthia Almond Rep Tuscaloosa 2021 Tuscaloosa
64 Harry Shiver Rep Bay Minette 2006 Baldwin, Monroe
65 Brett Easterbrook Rep Fruitdale 2018 Choctaw, Clarke, Marengo, Washington
66 Alan Baker Rep Brewton 2006 Baldwin, Escambia
67 Prince Chestnut Dem Selma 2017 Dallas, Perry
68 Thomas Jackson Dem Thomasville 1994 Clarke, Conecuh, Marengo, Monroe
69 Kelvin Lawrence Dem Hayneville 2014 Autauga, Lowndes, Montgomery, Wilcox
70 Christopher J. England Dem Tuscaloosa 2006 Tuscaloosa
71 Artis J. McCampbell Dem Demopolis 2006 Greene, Marengo, Sumter, Tuscaloosa
72 Ralph Anthony Howard Dem Greensboro 2005 Bibb, Greene, Hale, Marengo, Perry
73 Kenneth Paschal Rep Pelham 2021 Shelby
74 Charlotte Meadows Rep Montgomery 2019 Montgomery
75 Reed Ingram Rep Mathews 2014 Elmore, Montgomery
76 Patrice McClammy Dem Montgomery 2022 Montgomery
77 Tashina Morris Dem Montgomery 2018 Montgomery
78 Kenyatté Hassell Dem Montgomery 2021 Montgomery
79 Joe Lovvorn Rep Auburn 2016 Lee
80 Chris Blackshear Rep Smiths Station 2016 Lee, Russell
81 Ed Oliver Rep Alexander City 2018 Chilton, Coosa, Tallapoosa
82 Pebblin Warren Dem Tuskegee 2005 Lee, Macon, Tallapoosa
83 Jeremy Gray Dem Opelika 2018 Lee, Russell
84 Berry Forte Dem Clayton 2010 Barbour, Bullock, Russell
85 Dexter Grimsley Dem Abbeville 2010 Henry, Houston
86 Paul Lee Rep Dothan 2010 Houston
87 Jeff Sorrells Rep Hartford 2018 Geneva, Houston
88 Will Dismukes Rep Prattville 2018 Autauga, Elmore
89 Wes Allen Rep Troy 2018 Dale, Pike
90 Chris Sells Rep Greenville 2014 Butler, Coffee, Conecuh, Crenshaw, Montgomery
91 Rhett Marques Rep Enterprise 2018 Coffee
92 Mike Jones Rep Andalusia 2010 Coffee, Covington, Escambia
93 Steve Clouse Rep Ozark 1994 Dale, Houston
94 Joe Faust Rep Fairhope 2004 Baldwin
95 Vacant Bay Minette Baldwin
96 Matt Simpson Rep Daphne 2018 Baldwin, Mobile
97 Adline Clarke Dem Mobile 2013 Mobile
98 Napoleon Bracy Jr. Dem Saraland 2010 Mobile
99 Sam Jones Dem Mobile 2018 Mobile
100 Victor Gaston Rep Mobile 1982 Mobile
101 Chris Pringle Rep Mobile 2014 Mobile
102 Shane Stringer Rep Mobile 2018 Mobile
103 Barbara Drummond Dem Mobile 2014 Mobile
104 Margie Wilcox Rep Mobile 2014 Mobile
105 Chip Brown Rep Mobile 2018 Mobile

Past composition of the House

Throughout most of the state's history, the Democratic Party has held the majority in the Alabama House of Representatives except for a few brief exceptions. The Whig Party controlled the lower house in 1819 and again in 1821-23, and for the last time in 1837–1838.

After the Civil War and emancipation, granting of citizenship and the franchise to freedmen, most joined the Republican Party. Politics became competitive for several years. Republicans, made up of both races, held the majority of seats during the Reconstruction period from 1868 to 1870, and again from 1872 to 1874.

Among the House's historical firsts was the election of its first African-American members in 1868, when 27 black Republicans were elected.[5] Among those African Americans elected to the lower house in 1872 was Rev. Mentor Dotson, a teacher. His granddaughter Helen Elsie Austin in 1930 was the first African-American woman to graduate from University of Cincinnati Law School, and in 1937 the first black and first woman to be appointed as state assistant attorney general of Ohio. She had a career as counsel to several federal agencies, was active in civil rights, and served a decade as a US Foreign Service Officer in Africa.

Beginning in 1876, white Democrats regained control of the state house, through a combination of fraud, intimidation, and armed attacks on Republicans. At the turn of the 20th century, they passed laws that essentially disenfranchised both blacks and poor whites, causing a dramatic drop in voter rolls. Alabama white Democrats helped form the Solid South in Congress. For decades a failure to redistrict according to census returns resulted in the state legislature being dominated by rural counties and conservative Democrats.

In 1922 the first female member was elected to the State House: Hattie Hooker Wilkins of Dallas County, who served a single four-year term.[6]

There was a realignment of party affiliations during the later 20th century. In the 1970s the ruling of one man, one vote by the US Supreme Court enabled urban jurisdictions to acquire political power in the State House that expressed the size of their populations. Through the late 20th century, after the civil rights movement, white conservatives began to realign, supporting Republican presidential candidates. Most blacks in the state supported the national Democratic Party, which had supported constitutional rights. At the local and state level, numerous Democrats were elected.

Some 136 years of Democratic control of the State House ended in November 2010. Beginning with the 2010 General Election Republicans swept to a large majority in the state house. They increased this margin in the elections in 2014 and 2018.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Sell, Mary (December 3, 2020). "Alabama lawmakers' p5ay increasing in 2021". WBRC. Alabama Daily News. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w The Book of the States (53 ed.). The Council of State Governments. January 7, 2022. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  3. ^ "Constitution of Alabama, Section 46". Alabama Legislature. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  4. ^ "House Standing Committees". Alabama Legislature. Retrieved January 12, 2022.
  5. ^ Bailey, Neither Carpetbaggers nor Scalawags (1991)
  6. ^ Dance, Gabby. Alabama Political Reporter, July 24, 2019

External links

This page was last edited on 9 May 2022, at 00:23
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