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Al Gore and information technology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Al Gore, 2007
Al Gore, 2007

Al Gore is a former US Senator who served as the Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. In the 1980s and 1990s, he promoted legislation that funded an expansion of the ARPANET, allowing greater public access, and helping to develop the Internet.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Al Gore and Jaden Smith on the Next Generation of Climate Activism
  • ✪ Jaden Smith and Al Gore on the Role of Social Media in Democracy and Progress
  • ✪ New thinking on the climate crisis | Al Gore
  • ✪ Al Gore: Leaders Must Supply Vision, Values & Goals
  • ✪ The 2018 Wilson Lecture: Al Gore

Transcription

[applause] -Jaden, thanks for all the work you're doing on the environment. It's very inspiring to me. -I really appreciate it and honestly without you I wouldn't be able to go out into the world with the information that you offer and talk to other young people about these problems and also talk to adults about these problems to help actually create solutions for the real world. I just want to say thank you to you. Leading into my first question-- -Okay. -[laughs] I want to hear it right. -Smooth segue. -Yes. [laughs] -You've been in show business a long time. -Yes. [laughs] In 2006 when the An Inconvenient Truth came out that really sparked I would say a rebellion in the world where we kind of started to wake up and grow and in so many ways inspiring so many different ideas. Now, in the state of the world that we are now dealing with the amount of problems that we have in the world and the amount of optimism that I hear from you when you're speaking why should we still be optimists in this time? What do we still have to be optimistic about in the environmental challenges that we all face? -Well, it's a great question and of course in the time of a great danger and we do have a global emergency. Some people hear that phrase and just say "Calm down. It can't be that bad." It is that bad. It's very urgent. Since the latest IPCC report Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change this fantastic group of scientists around the world since their latest report it's ever clearer that this emergency is quite dire. Even since it came out there's another a new study showing that the oceans are heating up even more than we had previously thought. How can you find cause for optimism in those circumstances? Well, one simple answer is because we have the solutions now. 10-12 years ago when An Inconvenient Truth came out we could see the solutions on the horizon and respected analysts were predicting confidently that they would come down in cost pretty quickly. Now they have, and they're available. They're five times more jobs in solar here in the US than in coal already. [applause] The fastest growing [applause] [applause] 62% of the new electricity generation installed in the US last year was solar and wind. The fastest growing job in the US is a solar installer. Second fastest growing job is wind turbine technician. A lot of the new jobs that are being created in the economy now are coming as part of this sustainability revolution. I want to temper my optimism. I am genuinely optimistic because we have the solutions and because your generation so many of you are here are helping to awaken the rest of the folks as to how quickly we have to move. We also don't want to run the risk of being Pollyannish on this because still to this day 80% of all the energy we use in the global economy comes from burning fossil fuels. Taxpayers around the world are being forced by bad policies to subsidize fossil fuels at a rate 38 times more than the meager subsidies for solar and wind and renewals. We have to change policies. We have to change investment practices. We have to change so many things, agriculture the preservation of our forests, and reforestation. Sustainable agriculture is coming on strong, but not fast enough. We have to address the built-in environment to stop wasting so much energy. About a quarter of all the greenhouse gas emissions come from just inefficient buildings. That's another opportunity to create jobs in fixing the built-in environment. Of course, we have to speed up the transformation of the way we produce electricity. We have to shift over to electric vehicles. Diesel is the new coal and we have got to get rid of the internal combustion engine. We've got to shift completely away from burning fossil fuels and we have to do it quickly. The task in front of us is really a daunting one. We can't minimize how serious it is and how quickly we have to move. I'm optimistic simply because I do believe that we have the ability to match this rise in determination to bring change with the solutions that are already available. We don't need any new breakthroughs it'll be great if we get some new technology breakthroughs maybe fusion several years out. I don't know how many years out but what we have already. If you look at solar and wind particularly solar you know what a cost reduction curve is. We found out about it with computer chips a long time ago. You look at smartphones and flat-screen TVs they get cheaper every year with higher performance. That's happening with solar now to the point where it is now more economical to produce electricity from renewables. My final point on this about optimism and I often end my formal speeches with this phrase because I believe it deeply. Never forget that political will is itself a renewable resource. It's up to us to renew it and apply it to this global emergency and solve this crisis. [applause] to this global emergency and solve this crisis. [applause] -Wow, wow. Through this journey that you've been taking and through preaching and being able to express this information to the entire world, have you ever had a time that you felt defeated or that you just couldn't do anymore? If so, what was your lowest time? -[laughs] Well-- [laughter] You're too good at this, man. I would say that the election a couple of years ago was not necessarily a higher point. [applause] was not necessarily a higher point. was not necessarily a higher point. [laughter] I really believe very deeply that we are now in the early stages of a sustainability revolution that has the magnitude of the industrial revolution but the speed of the digital revolution. These new technology solutions are absolutely stunning. I think that the sustainability revolution and the climate movement should be seen in the context of other great moral revolutions like the civil rights movement in our country abolition long before that the women's suffrage movement and women's rights. Women's right, civil rights of course, we still have a long way to go but if you look at the accomplishments there and again, lesbian rights. If somebody had told me eight years ago that in the year 2018 gay marriage would be legal in all 50 US States and honored and celebrated by more than two-thirds of the American people I would have said- [applause] "-Wow, that's great." All of these great revolutions have followed a similar pattern. The advocates in every one of these movements have encountered setbacks they have struggled with despair at times they've had to fight their way through bleak times but because their course was just and because of who we are as human beings ultimately, when the underbrush is cleared away the central choice is revealed between what's right and what's wrong. That's the tipping point when hearts change and then minds change and then solutions are pushed with the vigor that's appropriate. I think that we're at that tipping point right now in the climate movement and I think it's unstoppable. I think we're going to solve it. [applause] -Something that's been very, very close to my heart since the first time that I watched the first documentary that you made is plastic. It's something that I think about-- and trash it's something that I think about a lot. We hear statistics floating around on Instagram like "Oh, in 2050, there's going to be more plastic in the ocean than fish." -By weight, yes. -You have people like Boyan Slat who are creating things to pull plastic out of the ocean. How do you feel about the trash epidemic and what's happening with plastic and how involved the youth is getting with these movements and getting behind "Let's get the plastic out of the ocean let's get the plastic out of the ocean." Sometimes it distracts people from CO2s and the rising of the temperatures globally being the real problem. How do you feel about people advocating for cleaning plastic out of the ocean? Do you have any ideas for ways that we can do this more efficiently? -Yes. Well, it's all connected. The efforts to remove plastic from the ocean are congruent with the efforts to reduce CO2 emissions and other other greenhouse gas emissions. It's part of the petrochemical industry that is producing both of these terrible afflictions. Most of the plastics come out of the mouths of the rivers and for all of the incredible volume in the oceans and you just gave that statistic that represents only 11% of the total plastic production around the world each year. We need to shift to what's called the circular economy with recyclable components. The good news is we can do that. We're seeing with the small initial steps like the banning of plastic straws and really innovative products like just water sharply reducing plastics and CO2 emissions that's how that revolution begins but it's all part of the same movement toward a sustainable world. Your generation is rightly and justly demanding a better world and companies that want to hire the best and brightest of the new generation need to hear you or they're not going to get the brightest and best young women and men coming to work for them. Entrepreneurs like you are starting brand new business models that have this commitment to sustainability at the core of it. We can win this, we will win this it's just a matter of how quickly we will win it and we don't have a lot of time to waste. It starts right now, and maybe at the summit LA will be where it goes over the tipping point. -I'm sorry that I'm asking so many rapid questions, I'm just-- -No, I'm going to have some questions for you too. -Wow, okay, wow. -Absolutely. What do you think is different about your generation? The polling and public opinion surveys clearly show that your generation has a significantly higher level of commitment and knowledge on sustainability and climate than the two generations that came before you? Why do you think that is? -I think that's something is really helping my generation being able to be aware about all of these different causes is the internet. I feel the Internet can be used positively and negatively and I feel like something that-- -Negatively? Do you have any evidence? I'm sorry, go ahead. [laughter] -Too much evidence but I feel like something that is very positive is short-form content on the Internet. 60 seconds of saying "Hey, here's what's going on this is being polluted, this is not okay this is happening, here's ocean statistics here's CO2 and other greenhouse gases statistics." It's something that the youth can just go flip on their phone, 60 seconds of learning "Boyan Slat is doing this, Al Gore is doing this Jos Water is doing this, Elon is doing this." I feel like it's almost a way for the youth to receive content in a way that they can digest it. It's like, "60 seconds of this idea 60 seconds of this idea 60 seconds of this idea." That's why I feel we have many young people who "I'm passionate about this but I'm also passionate about this and passionate about this." I feel as though it's the versatility of the exposure that they are getting from the Internet that is allowing them to be aware and to also be passionate about all of these different subjects. -Yes. I strongly agree with that. We've had an evolution in-- forgive the geeky term the information ecosystem of our democracy the main ways in which we share ideas. When America was founded the printing press was completely dominant. It had low entry barriers two-way flows of information kind of a meritocracy of ideas not always perfect by any means but it lifted the role of reason in public discussions. Then broadcast came in, first radio and then the big kahuna television and video in various delivery media is still dominant and that set up gatekeepers so that people and corporations with a lot of money that wanted to impose their will on the conversation of democracy were able to dominate that conversation and it wasn't two-way any more people would just sat back and absorbed all these commercial messages and content that was often twisted. I had great hopes when the Internet and social media came in that it would restore a democracy-friendly public square but the Internet has been hacked-- long before the Russians hacked it it was hacked by big money and our democracy has suffered. Whether it's a search engine or a social media site we have got to stop this stalker economy where they collect all the private data and build dossiers on everybody. [applause] and build dossiers on everybody. [applause] We have got to restore a sense of integrity and fairness and respect to the Internet because alongside the very positive manifestations you just talked about which are great there has also been a lot of downside. We have the ability to fix that. I don't want to dwell on this but I've long since come to the view that the solution to the climate crisis requires a solution to the democracy crisis and the solution to the democracy crisis means new vigorous efforts to create a virtual public square with social media that operates in favor of the meritocracy of ideas and facilitates the kind of learning experience and dialogue that you've described while protecting us against Russian bods and the alt-right groups that try to spread hate. We've got a big job there on our hands as well. Again, I think we are up to it but we count on your generation, Jaden. You know this stuff. [applause] -We're going to try not to let you down. -Okay. -We're definitely going to try not to let you down. I hear you talking about big money a lot. -Yes. -That always interests me. I have a question. Why do you feel like these major corporations do not make the switches just immediately when they here the news "Oh, something bad is happening and we could switch to fully solar or we could deploy robots to clean all of our plastic out of the ocean or we could make all of our fleet trucks these new Tesla model of trucks." Why do these major companies not just immediately make the switch for the better world? -The easy answer is that so many of them have business models that lead them to fear that if they switch away from what they know how to do and the assets they have in abundance like oil and coal and gas then their share prices are going to go down and their bonuses will go down and their business models will collapse. It's not that complicated but there are examples of companies that are trying to change. Just last week, the current administration proposed rolling back the clean air standards for cars and trucks. The largest manufacturer General Motors, Tesla they go back and forth now but General Motors said they were opposed to the administration's proposal and they came out for a shift on all electric vehicles which is great. [applause] Now, the market is beginning to express a preference for EVs just as it is for solar and wind electricity but the future additions each year that's great but the installed base is still a huge problem and how we switch away from the internal combustion engine and fossil fuel burning electricity and so forth that's a challenge. Now, here's another way to unpack the answer to your question. I want to draw an analogy to the subprime mortgage crisis. You might remember that you were pretty young when they-- you're pretty young now but when that happened 10 years ago the large banks and financial services groups they started seeing how they could make a ton of money by doing away with the credit cheques for people who wanted home mortgages and they gave millions of them to people who not only could not make a down payment they couldn't make the monthly payments and they became known as subprime mortgages. They fooled people and maybe fooled themselves a little bit by saying that if they just put millions of them together and attached to a phony insurance-like product to it and sold it off into the global market everything would be fine. The risk would magically disappear but then some people who were careful in analyzing this product said, "Wait a minute." They dug a little deeper and they said "These things are worthless." That's when the subprime mortgages collapsed in value. That created a credit crisis kind of a run on the banks and that's what caused the great recession which in turn has fueled this terrible move toward populist authoritarianism in the White House, in Russia in places as diverse as Hungary and the Philippines. Here's the analogy. We now have a subprime carbon asset crisis except it's much bigger. What I mean by that is we have $22 trillion worth of carbon assets like oil, gas, and coal that are already discovered already on the books of these major energy companies marked at a value that assumes that they're all going to be put to their intended use and burned but they're not going to be burned. Not only because there's going to be a new policy I'm hoping and expecting but also because of the sharp reduction in the cost of the competition because of the efficiency wave that's reducing demand for energy. They're not going to be burned. At some point and it's already started smart people are looking at the real value of these carbon assets and some are saying "Whoa, this is a crisis about to explode in the financial markets we better get rid of these carbon assets." The largest sovereign wealth fund in the world the Norwegian fund just announced that it's about to decide to get rid of 100% of all the oil and gas holdings in their fund and they were fund-- their money came 100% from oil and gas so they know what they're talking about. A lot of other investors are doing the same thing. When the psychology of the market shifts like that then it can also reach a tipping point where people say "Wait a minute we don't want to be the last ones holding on to these nearly worthless assets when they have a book value up here and their real value is down here." A lot of these companies are trying to hold off the light bulb going off in people's heads they're trying to hold off the recognition of the truth. That's why New York State and Massachusetts are suing Exxon Mobil and they just got the green light to go ahead do a trial on this because they have told their investors according to this allegation. They've given false information about the prospective value of these assets. The scenario I just described they've been hiding information that they have that would queue in investors to what the real situation is. When more and more people realize that we're going to get to a quick change where it's no longer competitive to get 80% of our energy from fossil fuels and burn petrol and diesel and gasoline in cars. Sooner the better. [applause] -Yes. Sooner the better for sure. I feel like a lot of people in my generation definitely have this question that they always constantly asking me and I don't know how to answer. It's that, let's say that every car in the world becomes an electric vehicle are all of our problems solved at that point? -No. That's a big chunk of it. First of all, we have to change the global energy system. That change has already begun it needs to be accelerated. As I mentioned earlier we have to get rid of the subsidies for fossil fuels that's keeping it in place. We have to change the transportation systems we have to move to electric cars, electric trucks electric scooters, electric trains that we're already seeing the electric vehicles that are on the road now are just amazing to drive. The cost again there is coming down very rapidly. In the next couple of years you're going to see the drive train the power train for these vehicles become much cheaper than those for internal combustion engine. That's part of why GM made their announcement last week. Then we have to take on agriculture because agriculture is very petroleum intensive and it operates too often now on a model that strips the carbon out of the soil with synthetic nitrogen fertilizer that's 90% natural gas. This is a deeper subject and we can go into it more if you want but we have to shift to organic regenerative agriculture it's better for farmers it's better for what we eat. Forest management we have to stop the destruction of forest land we have to do a better job of regrowing forests and not just cut down the trees for wood chips. That's absolutely insane and then they replant with monoculture that doesn't support biodiversity. We haven't mentioned the sixth great extinction now but the biologists say almost to a person that the most serious part of the climate crisis is that half of all the living species on earth are in danger of extinction in this century but forest management and wetlands management is a big part of it. Then something I mentioned earlier also, the built environment to make our buildings zero carbon and some countries are already starting to do that. By the way, it not only creates jobs in every community with the retrofit jobs, it leaves the owners and renters with lower utility bill. What's not to like? It's a win win win strategy. Why aren't we moving simultaneously on all five of these fronts? The answer comes back to something I mentioned ago those with these potentially stranded assets with business models that make them defend past practices and hope that they can continue them indefinitely they have used big money to hack our political system. A lot of the big fossil fuel companies say publicly that they're no longer giving money to climate deniers but with the other hand they're funneling money to opponents of these state referenda and local measures. In the state of Washington right now they have a historic proposal on the ballot Tuesday, to put a carbon fee in that's really well designed but the big oil companies are funneling money into misleading TV ads to try to fool people into voting against it. We need to have truth in lobbying. We need to call out these firms that are working against our future just because of pure greed and fear, fear that they won't be able to change fast enough. The future is ours. The future is your generation and if all of you will join with what Jaden and his colleagues are doing we're going to win this sooner rather than later. [applause] -You are such an inspiration to me to all of us in this room to all of my friends. I just want to say thank you so much because without what you have done everybody that is coming out with these new technologies right now and being aware of what's happening in the climate they owe so much of that information to you. I just want to say thank you and please, just give a round of applause for you. [applause] -You're nice to say that. Hold on, hold on, hold on. I want to spread that around because I get my inspiration from the millions of people at the grassroots level. You're one of them, my friend. There are millions of people who are out there organizing starting new businesses bringing the solutions that we need. There are a lot of other people besides me doing this and I appreciate your kind words but-- -Speaking of the other people that are out there making a difference and making a change I would love to talk about your professor for a second. You were telling all of us at the last event that I saw you at that your professor was the first person to measure CO2 in the atmosphere. -In the global atmosphere. -In the global atmosphere. How did that inspire you and how was that, growing up with a professor that was such an advocate? -Well, that made all the difference for me. His name was Roger Revelle. He was from here in Southern California. I went to school on the East Coast and I didn't even major in science but I had an opportunity to take an elective. I signed up for his course not really having much of any idea of what I was going to experience there. He designed the first experiment to measure CO2 in the global atmosphere. A Little bit of ancient history back in 1957 and '58, there was something called the International Geophysical Year. In the decade following World War II there was a lot of optimism and a lot of progress and this was part of it. That's when he designed this experiment. David Keeling was the one who implemented it for 50 years out on the Big Island of Hawaii. They would send up measuring instruments several times a day. Now they have them in multiple locations around the world. When I walked into this professor's class he shared with us the first few years of the CO2 increase in the atmosphere. That is still the foundation of modern climate scientists. All the great climate scientists really, that's where it really started. There were discoveries of the basic chemistry and physics before them but seeing that it was real and it was happening on a dramatic current basis That's what opened my eyes. He sketched out what this would mean. I kept in touch with my professor. When I graduated, went into the Army came back, got elected to Congress a few years after that and asked immediately what are we doing about global warming and crickets and so I helped organize the first congressional hearing on global warming back in the '70s and invited my professor to come and be the leadoff witness. I was so naive that I actually held the hope in my heart sitting up on the dice with the other members of Congress that when he spoke they would have the same epiphany from a 20-minute congressional statement that I had from a full college course and it didn't happen to say the least. That's really the first time that I asked myself the question how can this be communicated to others the way he communicated it to me in a way that would be accessible in a shorter period of time and produce in the minds and hearts of millions of people the same aha realization that he gave me. By the way, he died many years after that but on the 100th anniversary of his birth I went to a celebration of his life at the Scripps Institute in La Jolla. I really boned up to try to do justice to this great man. In the course of learning more about him I learned that when he had been my age I took his course when he was your age now he had been inspired by a great professor who had changed the course of his life. I thought to myself "Wow, how many chains of intergenerational inspiration are there going way, way back and how far in the future will they continue?" We've got to accelerate that process now. That's what the Climate Reality Project is all about, by the way. I do these regular training sessions around the world to get the facts about the crisis the solutions to the crisis communications skills how to persuade legislators and other policymakers to make changes. We have to gear this up. I started by giving you the reasons for my optimism, Jaden, and they're real. My optimism is premised on the assumption that this aha realization about the danger we're in and the fact that we do have the solutions that this will spread rapidly. Your generation is helping to lead the way. By the way, there is an election on Tuesday everybody who hasn't voted yet go out and vote on Tuesday. [applause] -Yes. I'm telling all my friends to go out and vote. I signed up for my ballot and I want to make sure that this generation really knows that they now have the power. It's a hard switch to go from being a teenager like oh, I'm 16 and 17 to being 18 turning 20 and realizing now I'm a young adult and I actually have a say. I need to express my opinions and how I feel about the world because if I don't then my side of the story may never be heard for the rest of history. -That's great. Let me ask you another question, Jaden. When you encounter somebody in your generation who is not in sync doesn't really get this and actually fights against it what strategies have you discovered are most effective in changing their minds? -Honestly, I try to scare them as bad as I can. Honestly, because the kids in my generation they're just like "I'm tough. I don't care. I'll be fine. I'm just going to skate for the rest of my life and I'm going to be fine." I'm just going to be like "Well, bro, if the skatepark floods you're going to have to learn how to surf." -[laughs] Let me add to that a little bit because I do put hope first and emphasize the hope and the solutions. I don't want to miss the opportunity to do what you just said works for you and that is to lay out how serious this is. We're using the sky as an open sewer The sky is different in reality, from the way it appears to us when we go outside this building and look up. From the ground it looks like a vast and limitless expanse but the pictures from the astronauts confirm what the scientists have long known. It's actually a very, very thin shell of atmosphere encasing and surrounding the planet. If you could drive a car at normal interstate highway speeds straight up in the air you'd get to the top of the sky in about 10 minutes. It's that thin. We are now spewing 110 million tons of manmade heat-trapping pollution into that thin space, every single day. A good portion of it will stay there for more than 1000 years. The cumulative amount that is up there now traps as much extra heat energy every day as would be released by 500,000 Hiroshima class atomic bombs exploding on the earth every 24 hours day in and day out. It's a big planet, but that's a lot of energy and more than 90% of it goes into the oceans. Now, the remaining 7% to 10%, heats up the air. Of course, the oceans heat up the air too. The fact that the oceans are warming so much that has consequences of its own. That's what makes these hurricanes and cyclones and typhoons so much stronger than they were in the past. They intensify so rapidly. They're moving north, by the way into the latitudes that cover Southern California. Not yet, but they're moving. We saw with Hurricane Harvey last year. How much water did that dump on Texas? If you think of Niagara Falls and imagine the full flow of Niagara Falls for 500 days that's how much water dumped on Texas and Louisiana in five days five feet of water in Houston, Texas. We've had eight once-in-a-1000-year events in the US in the last 12 months. Well, statistically that doesn't work out so well. The other thing that warming the oceans up heating the oceans this much also does is it disrupts the water cycle that's at the basis of life. We all learn in school that water evaporates off the ocean and comes over the land and falls as rain or snow and then works its way back to the sea. Well, we're putting on it a huge increased amount of water vapor off the oceans into the sky. We have these atmospheric rivers that come in this region across from the Pacific over the land. In the case of Texas, Louisiana, Florida off the Gulf of Mexico. These atmospheric rivers can be 30 times larger than the Mississippi so when storm conditions release the downpour the downpours are much, much bigger so the floods are much bigger and the mudslides are much worse. Same thing, by the way, with droughts because the extra heat evaporates the moisture out of the land so that right now in the southwestern part of the United States New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Oklahoma we have a huge drought going on right now. Also in Central America. By the way, there are a lot of causes for the exodus of refugees looking for safe lives coming from Honduras and Guatemala, et cetera but the so-called dry carder that is impacted by global warming has meant they have gone for long periods of time two years in some cases without rain so they don't have a harvest. Same thing happened in Syria the worst drought in the history of the eastern Mediterranean. There were other causes for all of the migration from the eastern Mediterranean and Syria into Europe and the neighboring countries but they had the worst drought in history there, 2006 to 2010 definitely caused by the climate crisis. It's been studied very thoroughly and many peer-reviewed papers written about it. It killed 80% of their livestock 80% of their goats died 60% of their farms were destroyed. All these refugees were driven into the cities and WikiLeaks released the conversations among the Syrian ministers before the civil war started saying all hell's going to break loose we can't handle this. There were other causes there too just as there are for the Central American refugees. My point is, the knock-on consequences of the climate crisis has political effects and some of these nations have difficulty governing themselves in the best of seasons but when they have the added pressure of these tremendous climate consequences some of them tipped over the edge and the gates of hell did open in Syria. Russia, they had the worst drought in their history 2010 and the worst fires ever, 55,000 people killed so they canceled all their grain exports and there were food riots in 60 countries including in Tunisia where at the peak of food prices a food vendor, set himself on fire. That's what touched off the Arab spring and his last words were not down with a tyrant. His last words were, "How am I supposed to live?" We have these crises in West Africa. We have them in Southeast Asia. The water crises brewing in northern China. In Bangladesh, it's sea level rise and the stronger ocean-based storms so farmers that were used to rebuilding their lives every 20 years now have to rebuild them every 6 or 7 years, and they can't do that. India has just completed the largest steel fence in the world on its southern border with Bangladesh and I could go on and give you other examples but my point-- The health consequences we were talking about that in the green room upstairs. The mosquito is spreading and diseases I never heard of when I was your age, Jaden. Zika, chicken Gaya, not to mention malaria and these other tick and mosquito-borne diseases heat stress, food shortages. All of the crops that we use as our food today were patiently selected by Neolithic women 10,000 years ago. They save the seeds of the best-producing plants and then generation after generation they kept on replanting the best ones and that's where our broccoli and cauliflower and lettuce and carrots and potatoes and everything we eat came from but they were optimized for a climate that we're now changing. We're seeing crop yields decline because of heat stress and the change in the periodicity of the rainfall coming at planting time or at harvest time or not coming at all for long stretches. For many years, we were really encouraged by the act that hunger in the world has been going down and poverty has been going down, yay. Well, the last four years it started going up again because of the climate crisis. Now, I won't even try to go through the rest of the list of these consequences but it is a whole system crisis and it is at our doorstep right now. It is a global emergency facing us at this very moment. The time for complacency is over. The time for political activism and a demand for changes in policies is right now and we've got to do it. [applause] is right now and we've got to do it. [applause] -That's right now. That's right now. You're the best. You're the best. You're the best, but it is right now. Right now is when we have to make the change and I feel like a lot of people in the world-- Everybody cares. Everybody cares about themselves about their well-being about happiness, about their neighbors but not everybody knows the videos for example, that you were playing and what you were showing us of the countless amounts of videos of streets just flooding people being trapped in cars and just a whole like what should be a main street of a city just being run by water cars being stripped down the road. I'm not trying to scare people. I'm just trying to get-- -You told us you are trying to scare people. -No, I am trying to scare people. -You told us you are trying to scare people. -No, I am trying to scare people. [laughter] -That is my que, man, don't pull it out from me We've got to give them the hope too we do have the solutions. The missing ingredient is the political will but yes, those videos. Every night on the television news is like a nature hike for the book of Revelation now. [laughter] Honestly, I get people sending me videos every single day from cities that don't even show up in the news at all where they have these 1000-year downpours. In parts of Texas it was a once in 250,000-year downpour. By the way, have you had any fires this year in California? That's also climate-related. The Mendocino Complex Fire was the largest fire in the history of California. There's practically a year-round fire season here now. That's because of the drying of the land and the vegetation. Now, we can solve this but we have got to face the danger without letting it tip you into despair. Despair is just another form of denial. There are some people that go straight from denial to despair without pausing on the intermediate step of solving the dam crisis which we have the ability to do. [applause] which we have the ability to do. [applause] Here's the thing, it's really challenging. The complexity of it is challenging. I think maybe we're getting past the point where the complexity is so much that people don't want to understand. More and more people really really do because they're seeing these things. Mother Nature has a pretty powerful voice and she's hard to argue with. The complexity has been a barrier. The fact that it is global in its dimension also is something we're not used to dealing with. The fact that it seems to be a longer-term threat when it's really present now also gives people a chance to say "Well, I'll just wait on this." By the way, these climate deniers funded by mainly the fossil fuel companies they count on all of the psychological tricks they can use to convince people to say "Oh, we can wait on that. Wait a minute, one-tenth or 1% of the scientists still don't agree. Let's wait on the other one-tenth of 1%. It may be sunspots." It's not sunspots. It's all this gaseous garbage that we're putting into the atmosphere trap and the, "I don't want to get wound up again." [applause] I wish there was a magic wand I could wave. I wish there were magic words I could use. I wish that I knew a better and more effective way to transfer zap. What I feel in my heart having studied this intensely for more than 40 years right into your heart and head. I believe in democracy. I believe in a reformed version of capitalism. I believe in humanity. I know we have limitations from our long period of development. We're ready to fight the things that our ancestors survived. More modern complex threats that are more deadly. We got to think about those and doesn't come naturally and viscerally. In spite of our limitations we also have the ability to rise above those limitations and we have done it before. This is the biggest challenge we've ever faced. Nuclear war is the only one in the same category and we've held that at bay for quite a while, now pretty successfully. Don't get me started. [laughter] This one is an existential threat to the future of our civilization and potentially to the future of our species. Do not get discouraged. Do not despair. Yes, Donald Trump announced that he wants to pull us out of the Paris agreement. What people often don't know is that the first day we could legally leave the Paris agreement is the day after the next presidential election two years from now. [applause] And if there's a new president excuse me for a moment then a new president could give 30 days notice and we're back in the Paris agreement. This is still in our hands. By the way, this experiment with Trumpism is not going very well. In science and medicine some experiments are terminated early for ethical reasons. [applause] [laughter] -We can only pray. Wow, this is amazing. We've talked a lot today about putting CO2 emissions into the air but we haven't really talked about just pulling them straight out. I've been seeing a lot of growing technologies around the world where people are developing machines where you can just pull CO2 directly out of the air. I've actually never thought about that. When I look at these developing technologies and I see that people are actually saying "Oh, I can build a machine this size and it can pull the same amount of CO2 out of the air as a rain forest," but it's not the size of a rain forest. Do you see that being in our future? Do you see that being hopeful for us in the future of us being able to just build things that just take CO2 out of the air and turn it back into some type of material that we can create plastic and turn it to ink or? -I hope so, I hope so. As of right now, the most advanced and effective technology we have for pulling CO2 out of the atmosphere is called a tree. [applause] -When you take that technology to scale is called a forest. The really smart women and men in the scientific and engineering communities that have put pencil to paper and have really delved deeply into this they all reach basically the same conclusion and that is, the Paris agreement is a great start. It's not nearly enough but it's a really encouraging start and it has built into it a five-year review period every five years for nations to ratchet up their commitments so that's great. Then they go further and they say, "Look, when we do all the numbers it's hard to solve this without coming up with some way to pull CO2 out of the atmosphere." I hope there are technology breakthroughs that make that affordable. I wouldn't bet against it but we have to start now with what we have already in place. By the way, we are still seeing the destruction of forest land at the rate of about one football field per second. This populist authoritarian way that I mentioned before has just captured Brazil and some worry that the Amazon may now be at risk because of Bolsonaro that's the guy just elected president his platform, maybe he'll moderate that. I don't know, I hope so. Yes, we have to find a way to do it. Now, there's another thing related to this Jaden called carbon capture and sequestration which doesn't pull it out of the air but it hovers above the smokestacks where they're generating a lot of it and it captures it there and then compresses it and puts it deep underground in a form that makes it safe. Everything works and every part of that technology works but here's the trick to it. If you are the CEO of a major utility generating electricity and you say, "That's what I want to do." You install that, you have to take one-third of the electricity you're now selling to your customers and use it to power that technology instead so, no utility can survive doing that. The volumes are so large that it's almost impossible to socialize that cost. Maybe there will be some breakthroughs there too and maybe that will become cheaper and more politically acceptable. What we already have at our disposal that creates jobs, that saves us money that also cleans the air pollution out of the sky that's also produced when we burn fossil fuels killing more than nine million people a year. Air pollution is the new smoking they say now. That comes from burning fossil fuels too mainly mercury which is also a persistent poison. We've got to stop putting that in the environment. All of these things we can start doing right now. I know we're coming to the end of our hour here but I want to close for my part Jaden by thanking you and your generation. What you personally have been doing is great keep at it, you're getting better at it. Every day, you're inspiring more people in your generation. I'll close with a line that I previewed in one of my first answers. That is, for anybody who thinks that we don't have the political will the political will to do this please remember that political will is really and truly a renewable resource in and of itself. We have the capacity in our hearts to solve this crisis if we decide that it is the morally correct economically advantageous and politically feasible decision to make. I hope that each of you will make that decision. [applause] -Ladies and gentlemen, Al Gore. -Thank you, buddy. -Thank you, Sir. [applause] -Thank you so much. Thank you.

Contents

Congressional work and Gore Bill

Gore had been involved with computers since the 1970s, first as a Congressman and later as Senator and Vice President, where he was a "genuine nerd, with a geek reputation running back to his days as a futurist Atari Democrat in the House. Before computers were comprehensible ... Gore struggled to explain artificial intelligence and fiber-optic networks to sleepy colleagues."[1] According to Campbell-Kelly and Aspray (Computer: A History of the Information Machine), up until the early 1990s public usage of the Internet was limited and the "problem of giving ordinary Americans network access had excited Senator Al Gore since the late 1970s."[2]

Of Gore's involvement in the then-developing Internet while in Congress, Internet pioneers Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn have also noted that,

As far back as the 1970s Congressman Gore promoted the idea of high-speed telecommunications as an engine for both economic growth and the improvement of our educational system. He was the first elected official to grasp the potential of computer communications to have a broader impact than just improving the conduct of science and scholarship ... the Internet, as we know it today, was not deployed until 1983. When the Internet was still in the early stages of its deployment, Congressman Gore provided intellectual leadership by helping create the vision of the potential benefits of high speed computing and communication. As an example, he sponsored hearings on how advanced technologies might be put to use in areas like coordinating the response of government agencies to natural disasters and other crises.[3]

24 Jun 1986: Albert Gore introduced S 2594 Supercomputer Network Study Act of 1986[4]

As a Senator, Gore began to craft the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991 (commonly referred to as "The Gore Bill"[5]) after hearing the 1988 report Toward a National Research Network[6] submitted to Congress by a group chaired by UCLA professor of computer science, Leonard Kleinrock, one of the central creators of the ARPANET (the ARPANET, first deployed by Kleinrock and others in 1969, is the predecessor of the Internet).[7]

Indeed, Kleinrock would later credit both Gore and the Gore Bill as a critical moment in Internet history:

A second development occurred around this time, namely, then-Senator Al Gore, a strong and knowledgeable proponent of the Internet, promoted legislation that resulted in President George H.W Bush signing the High Performance Computing and Communication Act of 1991. This Act allocated $600 million for high performance computing and for the creation of the National Research and Education Network [13–14]. The NREN brought together industry, academia and government in a joint effort to accelerate the development and deployment of gigabit/sec networking.[8]

The bill was passed on Dec. 9, 1991 and led to the National Information Infrastructure (NII)[9] which Gore referred to as the "information superhighway". President George H. W. Bush predicted that the bill would help "unlock the secrets of DNA," open up foreign markets to free trade, and a promise of cooperation between government, academia, and industry.[10]

Prior to its passage, Gore discussed the basics of the bill in an article for the September 1991 issue of Scientific American entitled Scientific American presents the September 1991 Single Copy Issue: Communications, Computers, and Networks. His essay, "Infrastructure for the Global Village", commented on the lack of network access described above and argued: "Rather than holding back, the U.S. should lead by building the information infrastructure, essential if all Americans are to gain access to this transforming technology"[11]"... high speed networks must be built that tie together millions of computers, providing capabilities that we cannot even imagine."[12]

Mosaic

Perhaps one of the most important results of the Gore Bill was the development of Mosaic in 1993.[13][14] This World Wide Web browser is credited by most scholars as beginning the Internet boom of the 1990s:

Gore's legislation also helped fund the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois, where a team of programmers, including Netscape founder Marc Andreessen, created the Mosaic Web browser, the commercial Internet's technological springboard. 'If it had been left to private industry, it wouldn't have happened,' Andreessen says of Gore's bill, 'at least, not until years later.'[15]

Gore and the Information Superhighway

As Vice President, Gore promoted the development of what he referred to as the Information Superhighway. This was discussed in detail a few days after winning the election in November 1992 in The New York Times article "Clinton to Promote High Technology, With Gore in Charge."[16] They planned to finance research "that will flood the economy with innovative goods and services, lifting the general level of prosperity and strengthening American industry."[16] Specifically, they were aiming to fund the development of "robotics, smart roads, biotechnology, machine tools, magnetic-levitation trains, fiber-optic communications, and national computer networks. Also earmarked are a raft of basic technologies like digital imaging and data storage."[16] These initiatives were met with some skepticism from critics who claimed that "the initiative is likely to backfire, bloating Congressional pork, and creating whole new categories of Federal waste."[16] These initiatives were outlined in the report Technology for America's Economic Growth.[17] In September 1993, they released a report calling for the creation of a "nationwide information superhighway," which would primarily be built by private industry.[18] Gary Stix commented on these initiatives a few months prior in his May 1993 article for Scientific American, "Gigabit Gestalt: Clinton and Gore embrace an activist technology policy." Stix described them as a "distinct statement about where the new administration stands on the matter of technology ... Gone is the ambivalence or outright hostility toward government involvement in little beyond basic science. Although Gore is most famous for his political career and environmental work, he is also noted for his creation of the internet."[19] Campbell-Kelly and Aspray further note in Computer: A History of the Information Machine:

In the early 1990s the Internet was big news ... In the fall of 1990, there were just 313,000 computers on the Internet; by 1996, there were close to 10 million. The networking idea became politicized during the 1992 Clinton-Gore election campaign, where the rhetoric of the information highway captured the public imagination. On taking office in 1993, the new administration set in place a range of government initiatives for a National Information Infrastructure aimed at ensuring that all American citizens ultimately gain access to the new networks.[20]

These initiatives were discussed in a number of venues. Howard Rheingold argued in the 1994 afterword to his noted text, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier, that these initiatives played a critical role in the development of digital technology, stating that, "Two powerful forces drove the rapid emergence of the superhighway notion in 1994 .... The second driving force behind the superhighway idea continued to be Vice-President Gore."[21] In addition, Clinton and Gore submitted the report, Science in the National Interest in 1994,[22] which further outlined their plans to develop science and technology in the United States. Gore also discussed these plans in speeches that he made at The Superhighway Summit[23] at UCLA and for the International Telecommunications Union.[24]

On January 13, 1994 Gore "became the first U.S. vice president to hold a live interactive news conference on an international computer network".[25] Gore was also asked to write the foreword to the 1993 internet guide, The Internet Companion: A Beginner's Guide to Global Networking (1st edition) by Tracy LaQuey. In the foreword, he stated the following:

Since I first became interested in high-speed networking almost seventeen years ago, there have been many major advances both in the technology and in public awareness. Articles on high-speed networks are commonplace in major newspapers and in news magazines. In contrast, when as a House member in the early 1980s, I called for creation of a national network of "information superhighways," the only people interested were the manufacturers of optical fiber. Back then, of course, high-speed meant 56,000 bits per second. Today we are building a national information infrastructure that will carry billions of bits of data per second, serve thousands of users simultaneously, and transmit not only electronic mail and data files but voice and video as well.[26]

The Clinton-Gore administration launched the first official White House website on 21 October 1994.[27][28] It would be followed by three more versions, resulting in the final edition launched in 2000.[28][29] The White House website was part of a general movement by this administration towards web-based communication: "Clinton and Gore were responsible for pressing almost all federal agencies, the U.S. court system, and the U.S. military onto the Internet, thus opening up America's government to more of America's citizens than ever before. On 17 July 1996. President Clinton issued Executive Order 13011 – Federal Information Technology, ordering the heads of all federal agencies to fully utilize information technology to make the information of the agency easily accessible to the public."[30]

The Clipper Chip, which "Clinton inherited from a multi-year National Security Agency effort,"[31] was a method of hardware encryption with a government backdoor. In 1994, Vice President Gore issued a memo on the topic of encryption, which stated that under a new policy the White House would "provide better encryption to individuals and businesses while ensuring that the needs of law enforcement and national security are met. Encryption is a law and order issue, since it can be used by criminals to thwart wiretaps and avoid detection and prosecution."[32]

Another initiative proposed a software-based key escrow system, in which keys to all encrypted data and communications would reside with a trusted third party. Since the government was seen as possibly having a need to access encrypted data originating in other countries, the pressure to establish such a system was worldwide.[33]

These policies met with strong opposition from civil liberty groups[21] such as the American Civil Liberties Union and the Electronic Privacy Information Center, scientific groups such as the National Research Council,[34] leading cryptographers,[35] and the European Commission.[36] All three encryption initiatives thus failed to gain widespread acceptance by consumers or support from the industry.[37] The ability of a proposal such as the Clipper Chip to meet the stated goals, especially that of enabling better encryption to individuals, was disputed by a number of experts.[38]

With this resistance and lack of industry support, the Clipper Chip and key escrow initiatives were abandoned by 1996.[39]

President Bill Clinton installing computer cables with Vice President Al Gore on NetDay at Ygnacio Valley High School in Concord, CA. March 9, 1996.
President Bill Clinton installing computer cables with Vice President Al Gore on NetDay at Ygnacio Valley High School in Concord, CA. March 9, 1996.

Gore had discussed his concerns with computer technology and levels of access in his 1994 article, "No More Information Have and Have Nots." He was particularly interested in implementing measures, which would grant all children access to the Internet, stating:

We've got to get it right. We must make sure that all children have access. We have to make sure that the children of Anacostia have that access, not just Bethesda; Watts, not just Brentwood; Chicago's West Side, not just Evanston. That's not the case now. Twenty-two percent of white primary-school students have computers in their homes; less than 7% of African-American children do. We can't create a nation of information haves and have-nots. The on-ramps to the information superhighway must be accessible to all, and that will only happen if the telecommunications industry is accessible to all.[40]

Gore had a chance to fulfill this promise when he and President Clinton participated in John Gage's NetDay'96 on March 9, 1996. Clinton and Gore spent the day at Ygnacio Valley High School, as part of the drive to connect California public schools to the Internet.[41] In a speech given at YVH, Clinton stated that he was excited to see that his challenge the previous September to "Californians to connect at least 20 percent of your schools to the Information Superhighway by the end of this school year" was met. Clinton also described this event as part of a time of "absolutely astonishing transformation; a moment of great possibility. All of you know that the information and technology explosion will offer to you and to the young people of the future more opportunities and challenges than any generation of Americans has ever seen."[42] In a prepared statement, Gore added that NetDay was part of one of the major goals of the Clinton administration, which was "to give every child in America access to high quality educational technology by the dawn of the new century." Gore also stated that the administration planned "to connect every classroom to the Internet by the year 2000."[43] On April 28, 1998, Gore honored numerous volunteers who had been involved with NetDay and "who helped connect students to the Internet in 700 of the poorest schools in the country" via "an interactive online session with children across the country."[44]

He also reinforced the impact of the Internet on the environment, education, and increased communication between people through his involvement with "the largest one-day online event" for that time, 24 Hours in Cyberspace. The event took place on 8 February 1996, and Second Lady Tipper Gore also participated, acting as one of the event's 150 photographers.[45] Gore contributed the introductory essay to the Earthwatch section of the website,[46] arguing that:

The Internet and other new information technologies cannot turn back the ecological clock, of course. But they can help environmental scientists push back the frontiers of knowledge and help ordinary citizens grasp the urgency of preserving our natural world ... But more than delivering information to scientists, equipping citizens with new tools to improve their world, and making offices cheaper and more efficient, Cyberspace is achieving something even more enduring and profound: It's changing the very way we think. It is extending our reach, and that is transforming our grasp.[47]

Gore was involved in a number of other projects related to digital technology. He expressed his concerns for online privacy through his 1998 "Electronic Bill of Rights" speech in which he stated: "We need an electronic bill of rights for this electronic age ... You should have the right to choose whether your personal information is disclosed."[48] He also began promoting a NASA satellite that would provide a constant view of Earth, marking the first time such an image would have been made since The Blue Marble photo from the 1972 Apollo 17 mission. The "Triana" satellite would have been permanently mounted in the L1 Lagrangian Point, 1.5 million km away.[49] Gore also became associated with Digital Earth.[50][51]

Urban legend that Gore claims to have invented the Internet

In a March 9, 1999, interview with CNN's Late Edition with Wolf Blitzer, Gore discussed the possibility of running for President in the 2000 election. In response to Wolf Blitzer's question: "Why should Democrats, looking at the Democratic nomination process, support you instead of Bill Bradley," Gore responded:

I'll be offering my vision when my campaign begins. And it will be comprehensive and sweeping. And I hope that it will be compelling enough to draw people toward it. I feel that it will be. But it will emerge from my dialogue with the American people. I've traveled to every part of this country during the last six years. During my service in the United States Congress, I took the initiative in creating the Internet. I took the initiative in moving forward a whole range of initiatives that have proven to be important to our country's economic growth and environmental protection, improvements in our educational system.[52]

After this interview, Gore became the subject of controversy and ridicule when his statement "I took the initiative in creating the Internet"[53] was widely quoted out of context. It was often misquoted by comedians and figures in American popular media who framed this statement as a claim that Gore believed he had personally invented the Internet.[54] Gore's actual words, however, were widely reaffirmed by notable Internet pioneers, such as Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn, who stated, "No one in public life has been more intellectually engaged in helping to create the climate for a thriving Internet than the Vice President."[55]

Former UCLA professor of information studies, Philip E. Agre and journalist Eric Boehlert argued that three articles in Wired News led to the creation of the widely spread urban legend that Gore claimed to have "invented the Internet," which followed this interview.[56][57][58] Jim Wilkinson, who at the time was working as congressman Dick Armey's spokesman, also helped sell the idea that Gore claimed to have "invented the internet."[59][60][61] Computer professionals and congressional colleagues argued against this characterization. Internet pioneers Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn stated that "we don't think, as some people have argued, that Gore intended to claim he 'invented' the Internet. Moreover, there is no question in our minds that while serving as Senator, Gore's initiatives had a significant and beneficial effect on the still-evolving Internet."[3][57] Cerf would also later state: "Al Gore had seen what happened with the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956, which his father introduced as a military bill. It was very powerful. Housing went up, suburban boom happened, everybody became mobile. Al was attuned to the power of networking much more than any of his elective colleagues. His initiatives led directly to the commercialization of the Internet. So he really does deserve credit."[62]

Al Gore, Newt Gingrich, and President Bill Clinton in 1997.
Al Gore, Newt Gingrich, and President Bill Clinton in 1997.

In a speech to the American Political Science Association, former Republican Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Newt Gingrich also stated: "In all fairness, it's something Gore had worked on a long time. Gore is not the Father of the Internet, but in all fairness, Gore is the person who, in the Congress, most systematically worked to make sure that we got to an Internet, and the truth is -- and I worked with him starting in 1978 when I got [to Congress], we were both part of a "futures group"—the fact is, in the Clinton administration, the world we had talked about in the '80s began to actually happen."[63] Finally, Wolf Blitzer (who conducted the original 1999 interview) stated in 2008 that:

I didn't ask him about the Internet. I asked him about the differences he had with Bill Bradley ... Honestly, at the time, when he said it, it didn't dawn on me that this was going to have the impact that it wound up having, because it was distorted to a certain degree and people said they took what he said, which was a carefully phrased comment about taking the initiative in creating the Internet to—I invented the Internet. And that was the sort of shorthand, the way his enemies projected it and it wound up being a devastating setback to him and it hurt him, as I'm sure he acknowledges to this very day.[64]

Gore, himself, would later poke fun at the controversy. In 2000, while on the Late Show with David Letterman he read Letterman's Top 10 List (which for this show was called, "Top Ten Rejected Gore – Lieberman Campaign Slogans") to the audience. Number nine on the list was: "Remember, America, I gave you the Internet, and I can take it away!"[65] A few years later in 2005, when Gore was awarded the Lifetime Achievement Award "for three decades of contributions to the Internet" at the Webby Awards[66][67] he joked in his acceptance speech (limited to five words according to Webby Awards rules): "Please don't recount this vote." He was introduced by Vint Cerf who used the same format to joke: "We all invented the Internet." Gore, who was then asked to add a few more words to his speech, stated: "It is time to reinvent the Internet for all of us to make it more robust and much more accessible and use it to reinvigorate our democracy."[67]

Post-Vice Presidency

Gore continued his involvement with the computer industry and new technologies after he left the White House in 2001. He is a member of the Board of Directors of Apple Inc. and a Senior Advisor to Google.[68]

Emmy and Current TV

On May 4, 2004, INdTV Holdings, a company co-founded by Gore and Joel Hyatt, purchased cable news channel NewsWorld International from Vivendi Universal. The new network would not "be a liberal network, a Democratic network or a political network", Gore said, but would serve as an "independent voice" for a target audience of people between 18 and 34 "who want to learn about the world in a voice they recognize and a view they recognize as their own."[69]

The network was relaunched under the name Current TV on August 1, 2005. On September 16, 2007, Current TV won the Outstanding Creative Achievement in Interactive Television award at the 2007 Primetime Emmys[70] for its use of online technologies with television. In his acceptance speech, Gore stated, "we are trying to open up the television medium so that viewers can help to make television and join the conversation of democracy and reclaim American democracy by talking about the choices we have to make. More to come. Current.com. Next month."[71]

The Assault on Reason

Gore's 2007 book, The Assault on Reason, is an analysis of what he calls the "emptying out of the marketplace of ideas" in civic discourse due to the influence of electronic media (especially television), and which endangers American democracy. However, Gore also expresses the belief that the Internet can revitalize and ultimately "redeem the integrity of representative democracy."[72]

Selected honors and awards

See also

Selected publications

Books, forewords, and other publications
  • Albert Gore. (2013). The Future: Six Drivers of Global Change. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-8129-9294-6.
  • Al Gore. (2007). The Assault on Reason. New York: Penguin. ISBN 1-59420-122-6.
  • "Agenda for Cooperation:Global Information Infrastructure" Diane Publishing, February, 1995 (with Ronald H. Brown).
  • "Foreword by Vice President Al Gore." In The Internet Companion:A Beginner's Guide to Global Networking (2nd edition) by Tracy LaQuey, 1994.
  • Science in the National Interest. Washington, DC: The White House, August 1994 (with William Clinton).
  • Technology for America's economic growth, a new direction to build economic strength. Washington, DC: The White House, February 22, 1993 (with William Clinton).
  • "Foreword," and "Prepared Remarks" in "Delivering Electronic Information in a Knowledge - Based Democracy. Summary of Proceedings." (Washington D.C., July 14, 1993).
  • Albert Gore (1992). Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-57821-3.
Articles, reports, and speeches

References

Notes

  1. ^ Miles, Sarah (30 January 1998). "A Man, a Plan, a Challenge". Wired. Retrieved 2008-06-28.
  2. ^ Campbell-Kelly and Aspray (1996).Computer: A History of the Information Machine. New York: BasicBooks, 298
  3. ^ a b Robert Kahn; Vinton Cerf (October 2, 2000). "Al Gore and the Internet". The Register. Archived from the original on 19 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
  4. ^ Roads and Crossroads of Internet History Archived 2016-08-24 at the Wayback Machine by Gregory Gromov
  5. ^ "Computher History Museum Exhibits:1991". computerhistory.org. Computer History Museum. Archived from the original on 2007-07-10. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
  6. ^ Kleinrock, Leonard; Kahn, Bob; Clark, David; et al. (1988). "Toward a National Research Network". Archived from the original on 18 May 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
  7. ^ Kleinrock, Leonard; Cerf, Vint; Kahn, Bob; et al. (2003-12-10). "A Brief History of the Internet". Archived from the original on 4 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
  8. ^ Kleinrock, Leonard. "The Internet rules of engagement: then and now" (PDF). lk.cs.ucla.edu. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-01.
  9. ^ Chapman, Gary; Rotenberg, Marc (1995). Johnson, Deborah G.; Nissanbaum, Helen (eds.). "Computers, Ethics, & Social Values". Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. pp. 628–644.
  10. ^ Bush, George H.W. (1991-12-09). "Remarks on Signing the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991". bushlibrary.tamu.edu. George Bush Presidential Library. Archived from the original on 10 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-16.
  11. ^ Gore, Al (1991). "Infrastructure for the Global Village"Scientific American presents the September 1991 Single Copy Issue: Communications, Computers, and Networks, 150
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