To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Air Force Space Command

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Air Force Space Command
Air Force Space Command Logo.svg
Shield of Air Force Space Command
Active 1 September 1982–present
(36 years, 1 month)
Country  United States of America
Branch  United States Air Force
Type Major Command
Role "To provide resilient and affordable space and cyberspace capabilities for the Joint Force and the Nation."[2]
Size 19,944 airmen[3]
Part of
Seal of the United States Strategic Command.svg
U.S. Strategic Command
Headquarters Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado, U.S.
Motto(s) "Guardians of the High Frontier"[4]
Decorations
AFOEA Streamer.jpg

Air Force Organization Excellence Award[1]
Website www.afspc.af.mil
Commanders
Commander Gen John W. Raymond[5]
Deputy Commander Maj Gen Robert J. Skinner
Command Chief CCM Brendan I. Criswell

Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), sometimes referred to informally as U.S. Space Command,[6] is a major command of the United States Air Force, with its headquarters at Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. AFSPC supports U.S. military operations worldwide through the use of many different types of satellite, launch and cyber operations. Operationally, AFSPC is an Air Force component command subordinate to U.S. Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), a unified combatant command. It is the primary space force for the U.S. Armed Forces.

More than 38,000 people perform AFSPC missions at 88 locations worldwide; they include military personnel of the Regular Air Force, Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard; Department of the Air Force civilians (DAFC); and civilian military contractors. Composition consists of approximately 22,000 military personnel and 9,000 civilian employees, although their missions overlap.

On 1 December 2009, the strategic nuclear intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) mission that AFSPC inherited from Air Combat Command (ACC) in 1993, and which ACC had inherited following the inactivation of Strategic Air Command (SAC) in 1992, was transferred to the newly established Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC).[7]

Mission

According to AFSPC, its mission is to "Provide resilient and affordable Space and Cyberspace capabilities for the Joint Force and the Nation."[8] As a result, AFSPC's activities make the space domain reliable to United States warfighters (i.e., combat forces personnel) by assuring their access to space.

AFSPC's primary mission areas are:

History

During the Cold War, space operations focused on missile warning and associated command and control for the National Command Authority (NCA). Missile warning operations from the former Aerospace Defense Command (ADC) that had been assumed by Tactical Air Command (TAC) in the late 1970s, and space and spacelift/space launch operations that had been resident in the Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), were combined to form a new Air Force major command (MAJCOM) in 1982 known as Space Command. Following the creation of United States Space Command (USSPACECOM) as a Unified Combatant Command, in 1985, Space Command was renamed Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) and assigned to USSPACECOM as its USAF component command.

In 1991, Operation Desert Storm provided emphasis for AFPSC's new focus on support to the warfighter. ICBM forces previously assigned to the inactivated Strategic Air Command (SAC) were merged into AFSPC in 1993 until moved into Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC) in 2009. In August 2009, Air Force Space Command became the lead MAJCOM for all Air Force cyberspace operations with the stand-up of 24th Air Force, gaining Air Force cyber operations and combat communications units, the Air Force Network Integration Center, and the Air Force Spectrum Management Office (formerly known as the Air Force Frequency Management Agency). On 1 April 2013, Air Force Space Command announced that the Space Innovation and Development Center's missions had been realigned under Headquarters, Air Force Space Command, and the Air Force Warfare Center of the Air Combat Command (ACC).[10]

The Space Command was the subject of a 60 Minutes News segment on CBS in April 2015. When speaking with 60 Minutes reporter David Martin, commanding General John E. Hyten was not able to respond to many of the questions, claiming the information was classified but that the program was doing its part in keeping the global world of GPS satellites and other important global satellite usage peaceful. To ensure satellite safety, General Hyten confirmed the belief that other countries were developing anti-satellite technology, but that the Space Command Program was developing technologies of their own, including telescopic lasers to better track the paths of satellites. Reporter David Martin also asked about the new Boeing X-37 spaceplane the US Air Force had been testing. General Hyten confirmed that it could bring satellites into orbit and bring them back, and that the US Air Force would do everything they could to protect the country and its satellites from the danger posed by anti-satellite technology from China and Russia in the future.[11]

In 2016 Space Command began their Space Mission Force concept of operations to respond quickly to attacks in space.[12][13] Each Space Wing undergoes special training then serves a four to six-month rotation.[14]

Launch Service Agreements

In 2016, the US Congress authorized the Air Force to "sign deals with the space industry to co-finance the development of new rocket propulsion systems. The program known as the Launch Service Agreement (LSA) fits the Air Force’s broader goal to get out of the business of 'buying rockets' and instead acquire end-to-end services from companies. The Air Force signed cost-sharing partnerships with [launch vehicle company] ULA, [launch vehicle and rocket engine manufacturers] SpaceX [and] Orbital ATK, and [with rocket engine supplier] Aerojet Rocketdyne. The original request for proposals noted the Air Force wants to 'leverage commercial launch solutions in order to have at least two domestic, commercial launch service providers.' The next step is to select three companies [by mid-year 2018] to move forward with launch system prototypes.", which the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center intends to award by July 2018.[15]

2018

On July 17, 2018, 24th Air Force, along with the cyber mission, was moved from Air Force Space Command to Air Combat Command.[16]

List of commanders

No. Image Name Start of Term End of Term Notes
1.
James V Hartinger.jpg
Gen James V. Hartinger 1 September 1982 30 July 1984 [17]
2.
General Robert Herres, military portrait, 1984.JPEG
Gen Robert T. Herres 30 July 1984 1 October 1986
3. Maj Gen Maurice C. Padden 1 October 1986 29 October 1987
4.
Donald Kutyna 4.jpg
Lt Gen Donald J. Kutyna 29 October 1987 29 March 1990
5.
Thomas S Moorman Jr.jpg
Lt Gen Thomas S. Moorman Jr. 29 March 1990 23 March 1992
6.
Donald Kutyna 4.jpg
Gen Donald J. Kutyna 23 March 1992 30 June 1992
7.
Chuck Horner (color).jpg
Gen Charles A. Horner 30 June 1992 13 September 1994
8.
Joseph ashy.jpg
Gen Joseph W. Ashy 13 September 1994 26 August 1996
9.
Howell M Estes III.jpg
Gen Howell M. Estes III 26 August 1996 14 August 1998
10.
Richard Myers official portrait.jpg
Gen Richard B. Myers 14 August 1998 22 February 2000
11.
Ralph E Eberhart, CINCSPACE & CINCNORAD.jpg
Gen Ralph E. Eberhart 22 February 2000 19 April 2002
12.
Lance W Lord.jpg
Gen Lance W. Lord 19 April 2002 1 April 2006
Acting
Klotz fg8.jpg
Lt Gen Frank G. Klotz 1 April 2006 26 June 2006
13.
Kevin P. Chilton.jpg
Gen Kevin P. Chilton 26 June 2006 3 October 2007
Acting Lt Gen Michael A. Hamel 3 October 2007 12 October 2007
14.
C. Robert Kehler 2007.jpg
Gen C. Robert Kehler 12 October 2007 5 January 2011
15.
Gen William L Shelton 2012.jpg
Gen William L. Shelton 5 January 2011 15 August 2014
16.
Hyten AFSPC 2014.JPG
Gen John E. Hyten 15 August 2014 25 October 2016
17.
General John W. Raymond (AFSPC).jpg
Gen John W. Raymond 25 October 2016 Incumbent

Organization

Numbered Air Forces

Air Force Space Command has one active Numbered Air Force (NAF).

Fourteenth Air Force

The Fourteenth Air Force (14 AF) provides space warfighting forces to U.S. Strategic Command in its capacity as Air Forces Strategic-Space, and is located at Vandenberg AFB, California. It is responsible for space launch / space lift of payloads from facilities in California and Florida, and manages the generation and employment of space forces to support U.S. Strategic Command and North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) operational plans and missions.[18]

Direct Reporting Units

AFSPC is the major command providing space forces for U.S. Strategic Command. AFSPC also supports NORAD with ballistic missile warning information, operates the Space Warfare Center to develop space applications for direct warfighter support, and is responsible for the U.S. Department of Defense's ICBM follow-on operational test and evaluation program.

Space and Missile Systems Center

The Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) at Los Angeles AFB, California, designs and acquires all Air Force and most Department of Defense space systems. It oversees launches, completes on-orbit checkouts, then turns systems over to user agencies. It supports the Program Executive Office for Space on the NAVSTAR Global Positioning, Defense Satellite Communications and MILSTAR systems. SMC also supports the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and the Follow-on Early Warning System. In addition, it supports development and acquisition of land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles for the Air Force Program Executive Office for Strategic Systems.

Locations

The AFSPC headquarters is a major unit located at Peterson AFB, Colorado. There are six AFSPC host bases:

AFSPC also operates several Air Force Stations for launch support and early warning missions:

Space capabilities

Spacelift operations at the East and West Coast launch bases provide services, facilities and range safety control for the conduct of DOD, NASA and commercial launches. Through the command and control of all DOD satellites, satellite operators provide force-multiplying effects—continuous global coverage, low vulnerability and autonomous operations. Satellites provide essential in-theater secure communications, weather and navigational data for ground, air and fleet operations and threat warning. Ground-based radar and Defense Support Program satellites monitor ballistic missile launches around the world to guard against a surprise missile attack on North America. Space surveillance radars provide vital information on the location of satellites and space debris for the nation and the world.

General Shelton has said that in order to protect against attacks, Space Situational Awareness is much more important than additional hardening or armoring of satellites.[19]

As of 2013, Air Force Space Command is considering Space Disaggregation, which would involve replacing a few large multimission satellites with larger numbers of smaller single purpose platforms.[20] This could be used to defend against ASATs, by increasing the number of targets that needed to be attacked.[21]

Resources

Satellites

Launch vehicles

Space situational awareness

Ballistic missile warning radars

In popular culture

In the science-fiction TV series Stargate SG-1, Stargate Atlantis, and Stargate Universe the fictional Stargate Program is managed by the U.S. Air Force, specifically through Air Force Space Command.

See also

Comparable organizations

References

  1. ^ a b http://www.afhra.af.mil/About-Us/Fact-Sheets/Display/Article/433549/air-force-space-command-usaf/
  2. ^ http://www.afspc.af.mil/About-Us/Heritage/
  3. ^ http://www.airforcemag.com/magazinearchive/magazine%20documents/2017/june%202017/0617grudoallfactsfigures.pdf
  4. ^ "Air Force Space Command Heritage". Air Force Space Command. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
  5. ^ http://www.afspc.af.mil/About-Us/Biographies/
  6. ^ https://www.cbsnews.com/news/space-defense-inside-colorado-cheyenne-mountain-air-force-station/
  7. ^ Air Force Space Command: About Us Archived 3 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ US Air Force. "Air Force Space Command". AFSPC. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
  9. ^ Brown, Peter J. (9 July 2009). "Mixed signals over Chinese missiles". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  10. ^ "AFSPC Public Web Site". Archived from the original on 23 April 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
  11. ^ "The Battle Above, part two". CBS News. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
  12. ^ "Details of Space Mission Force now available from AF Space Command". www.afspc.af.mil. AFSPC. 15 July 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  13. ^ Prigg, Mark (25 July 2016). "Top Guns in orbit: US Air Force reveals plan for 'Space Mission Force' to protect America using satellites". www.dailymail.co.uk. Daily Mail. Retrieved 1 October 2016.
  14. ^ Gruss, Mike (20 July 2016). "U.S. Air Force expands space warfare training". spacenews.com. spacenews.com. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  15. ^ Cite error: The named reference sn20180325 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  16. ^ "24th Air Force joins Air Combat Command, welcomes new commander". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 2018-08-14.
  17. ^ "2011 USAF Almanac" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. May 2011. p. 105. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  18. ^ "14th Air Force (Air Forces Strategic)". Vandenberg Air Force Base website. United States Air Force. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  19. ^ "Future of USAF Space Command". Defense News. 30 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2 October 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  20. ^ "Disaggregation in Space: A Strategy for National Security Space in an Era of Fiscal Austerity?". George Marshall Institute. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  21. ^ "Space: Disruptive Challenges" (PDF). Air University. Retrieved 3 April 2013.

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

External links

This page was last edited on 13 October 2018, at 09:24
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.