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Ahmadnagar Sultanate

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ahmadnagar Sultanate
Nizam Shahi dynasty

28 May 1490–1636
Alam, Flag of the Nizam Shahi dynasty of the Ahmadnagar Sultanate (Contained the verse from the Quran, chapter 61, verse 13, As-Saff)
Extent of Ahmadnagar Sultanate
Extent of Ahmadnagar Sultanate
CapitalAhmednagar
Paranda
Aurangabad.
Common languagesPersian (official)[1]
Deccani Urdu
Marathi
Religion
Shia Islam
GovernmentMonarchy
Nizam Shah 
• 1490–1510
Ahmad Nizam Shah I
• 1510–1553
Burhan Nizam Shah I
• 1553–1565
Hussain Nizam Shah I
• 1565–1588
Murtaza Nizam Shah I/Chand Bibi
• 1588–1589
Hussain Nizam Shah II
• 1588–1591
Isma'il Nizam Shah
• 1591–1595
Burhan Nizam Shah II
• 1595–1596
Ibrahim Nizam Shah/Chand BBibi
• 1596-1596
Ahmad Nizam Shah II
• 1596–1600
Bahadur Nizam Shah
• 1600–1610
Murtaza Nizam Shah II
• 1610–1631
Burhan Nizam Shah III
• 1631–1633
Hussain Nizam Shah III
• 1633–1636
Murtaza Nizam Shah III
History 
• Established
28 May 1490
• Disestablished
1636
CurrencyFalus[2]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bahmani Sultanate
Mughal Empire
Today part of India

The Ahmadnagar Sultanate was a late medieval Indian kingdom, located in the northwestern Deccan, between the sultanates of Gujarat and Bijapur. Malik Ahmad, the Bahmani governor of Junnar after defeating the Bahmani army led by general Jahangir Khan on 28 May 1490 declared independence and established the Nizam Shahi dynasty rule over the sultanate of Ahmednagar.[3] Initially his capital was in the town of Junnar with its fort, later renamed Shivneri. In 1494, the foundation was laid for the new capital Ahmadnagar. In 1636 Aurangzeb, then Mugal viceroy of Deccan finally annexed the sultanate to the Mughal empire.

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  • ✪ Bharat Ek Khoj 30: The Fall of Vijayanagar
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  • ✪ TOMB OF MALIK AMBER
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  • ✪ Malik Ambar | From a African slave to a kingmaker of Deccan | Get the facts History |

Transcription

Early 14th century saw the rise of two big Sultanates The Bahamani Sultanate and Vijayanagar to its south Bahamani comprised parts of Karnataka and Maharashtra It existed for 150 years was tyrannical murder and loot was common In contrast to its wealth was the common man's poverty It collapsed in the early16th century due to ineptitude Vijayanagar, in the meantime, had existed for 200 years and was still flourishing In order to dominate the south Vijayanagar, Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Bidar, Golconda and Berar were frequently at war There were alliances which kept changing If any one kingdom seemed powerful the others would unite against it Eventually, Vijayanagar's wealth and power made the others oppose it made the others oppose it Krishnadeva Raya's heir was his step-brother Achyuta who was succeeded by his nephew Sadashiva But Sadashiva was king on name The real power was Rama Raya, son-in-law of Krishnadeva With his political acumen and military might Rama Raya was arbiter of fate of the other states So, the throne of Golconda is finally yours! If you hadn't supported me after my father's death I don't know what I would have done My brother Jamshed would have seized the throne and killed me Why are you taking back only a few soldiers? I can give you some more Have I refused? No, Raya! People will think you have installed me That's not true! I don't want you to risk your life unnecessarily Have I no right over you? You supported me as a boy of 13 Since then, you are my guardian I merely repaid the favour your father bestowed on me That's all! You gave me your trust and love taught me how to live Why don't you take more troops as I say ? The nobles of Golconda will misinterpret it You had yourself taught me not to mix politics and personal relationships That's true, but this time it's different scene Then let me go without your soldiers If that's what you want I won't stop you Come, Let's embrace! I'll miss you my boy! Go see the princess. She is weeping since last night Bless me, mother. I am going to Golconda May you be happy! May the Lord protect you! Greetings! Listen, Tirumala! Did you get an appointment with Ramaraya for me? Have I not told you to patient? Raya is very busy Tell me, Tirumala. Is this proper? I've been waiting for over a month My master Adil Shah has been sending frantic messages What reply shall I give? Trust me! The Raya will decide in your favour The Vijayanagar — Bijapur alliance will continue Then why the delay? Nothing new is to be negotiated Late Sultan Ibrahim's treaty is to be renewed You are the regent's brother and minister You have influence. Please do something I don't have that influence, I'll try If nothing else, find out the reason for the delay Must be a valid reason. Don't worry An ambassador must learn to be patient He should be grateful, we are teaching him patience His master is more impatient than he is Let Adil Shah wait for a few more days What do we gain? arrogance will decrease He'll realise the importance of an alliance with us He needs us but we don't Besides, how do we know he'll stay in power? His brother Abdullah is still a threat to him What if his claim grows stronger? He has sought asylum with Portuguese in Goa Then we shall back Ali and teach the Portuguese that they cannot interfere in the Deccan without consulting us Adil Shah does not fear his brother as much as he fears Hussain Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar That's why he is impatient for a treaty with us Without our help, he is doomed When he fully realises, then we'll extend our support Raya! My master Adil Shah of Bijapur desires friendship with you The Sultan hopes he'll get the same consideration as you extended to his late father Ibrahim Adil Shah The Sultan requests that you sign the treaty soon I hope you have been well looked after Your hospitality is famous My Sultan requests Is this your first time in Vijayanagar? I have come here once before for a brief period Now you had plenty of time to see the city How did you find it? It is a beautiful city, Raya The acrobats you'd called are here What rare feats! The treaty is more important than the acrobats Delaying the treaty any more will Wonderful! Acrobats are preferred to Bijapur's ambassador! Were you catching fishes flies all these weeks? Or were you courting someone? Do not move your arm about, my Lord The insult was intended for you, my Lord Is there any written message? No! Rama Raya says if you really wanted his friendship you should come yourself How dare he say that! I am the Sultan of Bijapur, while he's a mere regent I will go there ? Why can't he come here? As if he'll come here! He thinks he's more powerful than we are Tell him, we don't want a treaty Don't act in haste! It will spoil the matter Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar is already on our border Now Ibrahim Qutub Shah has joined him So we must befriend Vijayanagar. You must go there I will not demean myself by pleading before him There is one way out of all this, if you agree Recently Raya lost a favourite son You can go there on a condolence visit Allow me to express my sympathy The loss of a beloved leaves a void which is so painful to fill When I lost my father, I found life meaningless Thank you for coming to share the sorrow Gestures like these make the loss bearable Thank you for sharing our grief Please do not be formal. I am not an outsider Please wait. Ill be back As you wish! Are you satisfied with this visit Very happy! Beyond my expectations It is not proper to talk through ambassadors If two rulers talk directly the result is often positive You are right! I'll help you if Nizam Shah attacks you I give you my word My army is ready to march at any time I am overwhelmed by your favours I have found another son to replace the one I lost Mother! I am not worthy of that honour I cannot replace your son Am I wrong, Raya? I don't know. That is for the princess to decide She runs this palace. You cannot deny her I dare not deny, but I am not worthy of this love Now you are a member of the family What kind of a man is he? First he humiliates me on purpose then sends arrogant messages But when I reach his court dejected he changes his entire attitude He honours me to the point of embarrassment He agrees to stand by me in all crises The princess looks upon me as her son What is the mystery behind all this? My Lord! It is really quite simple At first when he was arrogant he wanted to put Bijapur in its place When you reached uninvited he became magnanimous and offer you a treaty And what a treaty! He could have insisted on harsh terms and we would have had to accept Instead, the terms were nominal Do not be taken in by all this, my Lord Raya will not help you unless it suits him Since Raichur and Doabs are in his control what does he want from Bijapur? So, if he can control the Deccan through you what more can he want? Someday this desire may be dangerous for us That day is far away. Think of today Today he'll check Nizam Shah for me What if he fails to keep his word There is no sign of his army You are suspicious beyond need What can I do? My profession is such Greetings! Here's the royal order The Vijayanagar army has crossed Nizam Shah's border Raya has kept his word Now that Raya is ready to fight will Ibrahim Shah retreat? Of course! Qutub Shah will not dare fight Ray a How dare he raise weapons against me? He knows I am a party to the war and yet he continues to remain in conflict His enmity is with Adil Shah, not you Don't take his side He is not retreating on purpose I can't believe it But this is the truth Maybe he thinks your siding with Adil Shah is a mere formality Only a fool will think like that. He's not a fool He is opposing me on purpose What will he get by opposing you? He wants to play a greater part in establishing peace Isn't that a clever move? You will say that You admitted that he's a worthy student You should be proud Yes! So worthy that he has forgotten me He opposes me for small gains Why don't you send a messenger? He'll change his mind when he hears from you No! Political decisions are not changed so easily I must find another way out Who's that? Who let you in? Raya! You! At this time How are you, my son? I am seeing you after many years Your health is better than before You have progressed well It's worthy of a Sultan Why didn't you call me? Had you informed me of your coming I could have received you properly I wanted to see you so I came! Princess Tirumalamba was remembering you What's the matter Are you not happy to see me? What are you saying? I am astonished I mean, no one comes along so suddenly Should I send an ambassador and request a meeting with the Sultan of Golconda? That's the procedure. I mean What am I saying! I am confused Forgive me Such meetings should be pre-decided True! If Vijayanagar's regent wants to meet the Sultan of Golconda then venue and time must be decided beforehand But if Rama Raya meets an old friend it is a personal meeting Then, why the formality? You did not come to meet me, so I came! Believe me! I decided to meet you often but I could not come to Vijayanagar You had taught me not to give in to emotions A ruler must not be a prey to personal feelings Correct! I also told you that a ruler can break rules Sometimes it is profitable to do so Yes, but on special occasions Is it such an occasion? You have made it specia I ? I don't understand Either you are pretending or you are a fool May be both! But Our armies are facing one another War can start at any moment We will meet in the battlefield as enemies You did not think of this. Just jumped into the fray The war is not between us If it were, I wouldn't let it progress I would give you what you want without a fight Then end this war I'll explain to Nizam Shah Adil Shah will listen to what you say New terms can be decided between them New terms? Is it a child's play? Nizam Shah thought Adil Shah was weak and tried to capture his land You were caught in his trap Did you forget my treaty with Adil Shah? Would I keep quiet? What shall I do? Tell me You have to decide Are you ready to fight me? The princess will not believe that you can ever oppose me I don't want to fight you Then what is all this? Has Nizam Shah mesmerised you that you have forgotten those dear to you There's a limit to ingratitude I am not ungratefu What do you want? I'll do what you say Return to Golconda I have given my word to Nizam Shah That word has no meaning Is Nizam Shah paying for your army's upkeep? Or will give you a piece of land? When Ibrahim is with me in the march to Ahmednagar Nizam Shah will have to plead for peace What will we gain from Nizam Shah's enmity? In itself, nothing! But it proves that the Deccan is in our control Both war and peace or compromise They may fight one another, but they must bow to us In the south, Vijayanagar is powerful since Krishnadev Raya We will not let them forget it But Krishnadeva never let the balance be upset I did not like two of his policies One, giving importance to Brahmins and But you got rid of all the Brahmins! What was the other? Giving the Sultans freedom They fight over the smallest issues They have no idea Most of them spend their time in song and dance They need someone to keep a watch over them Don't forget Sultans are humans, not puppets Regent of Vijayanagar! Protector of Karnataka! Sultan Nizam Shah greets Ray a! I am glad you came to meet me How are you now? I heard you were unwell Thanks to your prayers, I am well now Raya! My people have suffered a great deal The crops were burned. Villages destroyed kingdom is in shambles It is you who is responsible, not me Our dispute was with Bijapur, not Vijayanagar Yet, your army destroyed my Sultanate On what grounds? Adil Shah of Bijapur is dear to me We have an understanding. So I helped him You are needlessly fighting us I am prepared to do anything to appease your anger Accept my terms and I will recall my troops immediately I'll do what you say The terms are simple One, you'll give the Kalyani fort to Adil Shah Two, you'll kill Jehangir Khan He has taken refuge with me Will it be right to kill him? Jehangir Khan is proving troublesome for me I want his death right! If that's what you want Rama Raya also decided to teach Ibrahim a lesson because he had dared to fight him Ibrahim had to give three forts in penalty Rama Raya was so sure of his strength that he exacted a price of friendship from Adil Shah The forts of Bagalkot, Mudgal and Yadgir are Bijapur's How can you ask for them? Nonsense! They were ceded to us under valid treaties The treaties were imposed on us against our will I will repeat the Sultan's message Bagalkot Leave the court at once I ll talk to Adil Shah directly Throw this man out You get excited very quickly Listen to the music for a while It will reduce your tension My Lord, I am tired The Raya has gone too far This is the second time he has insulted me All right Tell me in detail why you are angry He threw me out while I was talking Everyone in court made fun of me When I left, I was not allowed to ride I had to walk up to the city gates Soldiers were riding behind me They said it was Raya's order Are ambassadors treated thus? Even the ambassadors of Bidar Golconda and Ahmednagar were treated thus Are we his Nayaks? Arrogance has blinded him. His end is near If he does not realize his mistake it will be to his disadvantage He will only learn when we teach him a lesson How long will he indulge himself? So you suggest we challenge the might of Vijayanagar Should we destroy ourselves so that Qutub Shah, Nizam Shah and Barid Shah can feed on our remains? We cannot fight him alone but united we can defeat him Raya is my senior. I'll do nothing to hurt him I'll not ally myself with Ahmednagar, Golconda, Bidar Then go on swallowing insults You worry unnecessarily All this can be sorted out Nothing will change You may not care about insults but I do I will not approach Raya on your behalf again I'll do anything else You have always served me faithfully Now do what your heart desires Eyes to the ground, my Lord We take two steps down Why come to me with this story? Why not approach your master I have told him often enough He won't act because he reveres that Raya He will be our My lord! Two more steps downwards He will be our undoing We have to pay the price of his reverence Sultan Adil Shah is sincere to his word Not while dealing with Birad Khan who is of his faith He is loyal to Rama Raya who treats you with contempt Without Bijapur, you cannot challenge Raya True. First we'll get Bidar and Golconda on our side I'll give you a letter for them If they agree, take my message to your master Let's see how long they stay apart It is time to forget our disputes to cleanse our hearts and stand united Golconda and Bidar are with us against Rama Raya I request you to join us in our effort Allow our army to pass your state towards Vijayanagar If you do not allow it, you'll destroyed sign of your Sultanate will remain You'll be exiled You'll lose your honour You are intelligent and foresighted If you side with us, our states will be famous and your kingdom will survive I want a guarantee for that Tell Hussain Shah only talk means nothing Adil Shah got his guarantee He married Hussain Shah's daughter The others too sealed their alliance by arranging marriages among themselves They met in Sholapur to celebrate the marriages Now, that we are all inter-related peace can reign in the region Peace will reign when Rama Raya is defeated Why are you silent on hearing Rama Raya's name? Are you so scared of him? It is not fear It is not a pleasure to fight one's own benefactor Agreed he's your benefactor but you have had to pay the price He seized my forts because he felt I had betrayed him by siding with you In any case, I cannot forget his earlier generosity Nor can I! I too have tasted his graciousness Remember, we have no personal enmity ? Then why talk of war? Because we cannot forever grovel before Rama Raya We are independent rulers I ceded my forts to Vijayanagar so that its army may not trouble my people You are not thinking like a Sultan Your views are not foresighted enough Then what should we do? There has been a code among the Deccan states Rama Raya has violated every code He interferes in our internal matters He inhibits our relationships Not only that, he decides our borders We can complain to him about this Complaints are useless He wants to end our independence to make us his Nayaks Every ruler has ambition that if he has military strength, he can conquer the world He lords over us because he is militarily strong He has ruined the balance of power a mistake which Krishna Deva Raya never did If we do not stop him now, we'll never do it On our own, we cannot challenge him but together we can teach him a lesson together we can teach him a lesson Their alliance will not last over a couple of days They will all run to me for help This time the matter is more serious They have cemented their alliance with marriage The spies say that Hussain's daughter Chand Bibi has married Adil Shah The other daughter Jamila has married Ibrahim Adil's sister Hadia has wedded Hussain's son Murtaza Their combined army is ready to attack Nothing will happen Soon they will be fighting one another I beg you to take the matter seriously Before they enter our land and destroy our villages and harass peasants Destroy their combined army Our people look to you for protection Have mercy on them All right! Ask the Nayaks to assemble with their units Give them expensive gifts Tirumala! Collect your forces at the fort near River Krishna Don't let them cross the river I'll march with the main army Bisalappa, look in to the preparations We'll show those dogs our real might We'll show those dogs our real might Forward march! And so the two armies marched to what is known as the battle of Talikota The two armies fought There was so much smoke they couldn't see each other At first it was a see-saw battle Then Rama Raya realized victory wouldn't be easy Hussain Shah realized victory was not close He staked his life to win the battle Erect my tent right here in the center What is this, my Lord? This is done when someone stakes his life Either I'll win or I'll die There's no turning back now Adil Shah faced Raya's brother Tirumala but Tirumala did not try to save himself When Tirumala deserted Adil Shah attacked Raya's army from behind Rama Raya was surrounded Behind him was Adil Shah and before him were Nizam Shah and Ibrahim Nizam Shah finally broke through Raya's guards Raya! Are you hurt? The Raya is here! Don't chat with him Kill him before Adil Shah comes and takes him away Take your revenge now I'll go and call Hussain Nizam Shah How are you Ibrahim? You have become a good Sultan I have a request, will you fulfill it? Raise your sword, Ibrahim No, Raya I want to die at my son's hand, Ibrahim It is my last request before they come Ibrahim! Rama Raya's head was placed on a spear and displayed Seeing their dead master, his army fled in panic Tirumala reached Vijayanagar unhurt He collected whatever wealth he could and leaving the city unprotected remained hidden at the Anegondi fort Six years later he founded the last Vijayanagar dynasty It lasted for a 100 years with Penuconda as capital The battle of Talikota of 1565 saw the conquest of Vijayanagar The 250-year-old empire had ended The splendid city was utterly destroyed After the fall of Vijayanagar the victorious allies fell out among themselves

Contents

History

Malik Ahmad was the son of Nizam-ul-Mulk Malik Hasan Bahri, originally a Hindu Brahmin from Beejanuggar (or Bijanagar) originally named Timapa.[4]:189 After the death of his father, he assumed the appellation of his father and from this the dynasty found by him is known as the Nizam Shahi dynasty. He founded the new capital Ahmadnagar on the bank of the river Sina. After several attempts, he secured the great fortress of Daulatabad in 1499.

After the death of Malik Ahmad in 1510, his son Burhan, a boy of seven was, installed in his place. In the initial days of his reign, the control of the kingdom was in the hands of Mukammal Khan, an Ahmadnagar official and his son. Burhan Shah I died in Ahmadnagar in 1553. He left six sons, of whom Hussain succeeded him. After the death of Hussain Shah I in 1565, his minor son Murtaza ascended the throne. During his minority, his mother Khanzada Humayun Sultana better known in history as Chand Sultana or Chand Bibi ruled as a regent for several years. Murtaza Shah annexed Berar in 1572. On his death in 1588, his son Miran Hussain ascended the throne. But his reign could last only a little more than ten months as he was poisoned to death. Ismail, a cousin of Miran Hussain was raised to the throne, but the actual power was in the hands of Jamal Khan, the leader of the Deccani/Habshi group in the court. Jamal Khan was killed in the battle of Rohankhed in 1591 and soon Ismail Shah was also captured and confined by his father Burhan, who ascended the throne as Burhan Shah. But Chand Bibi fought him. Winning the kingdom, Chand Bibi ascended the throne. After the death of Chand Bibi in July, 1600 Ahmadnagar was conquered by the Mughals and Bahadur Shah was imprisoned.

Although, Ahmadnagar city and its adjoining areas were occupied by the Mughals, an extensive part of the kingdom still remained in possession of the influential officials of the Nizam Shahi dynasty. Malik Ambar and other Ahmadnagar officials defied the Mughals and declared Murtaza Shah II as sultan in 1600 at a new capital Paranda. Malik Ambar became prime minister and Vakil-us-Saltanat of Ahmadnagar.[5] Later, the capital was shifted first to Junnar and then to a new city Khadki (later Aurangabad). Malik Amber died in 1626. In the meantime, Jahan Khan, the wazir of Nizam killed Nizam on the reasoning that the Nizam was an incapable and unwise ruler, who couldn’t take appropriate decisions and was easily deceived by some people. Jahan Khan greeted Shahaji with open hands and asked Shahaji to join him. Shahaji started leading Nizam’s forces. However, at that time, the Mughal forces on the order of Shah Jahan had slain all the men in relation to Nizam and also killed two pregnant women. This was done to finish off the Nizamshahi, as there wouldn’t be any Male heir to the throne of the Nizam. However, Shahaji, in order to establish swarajy he decided to crown a child named Murtuza, who was in relation with Nizam as the next Nizam. Shahaji assured Murtuza’s mother that he would not be harmed and vouched for his safety.shahaji crowned murtuza on shahagad(pemgiri fort) at pemgiri (sangamner) in ahmednagar district Soon, Shah Jahan ordered the Subhedar of Deccan, Mahabat Khan to finish off the Nizamshahi when the commander-in-chief, Shahaji Bhosale was away. Mahabat Khan and Sardar Ranoji Wable attacked Ahmadnagar and quickly killed Fateh Khan along with the boy prince Hussain Nizamshah III, his relatives as well as two pregnant women so that there would not be any male heir to the throne. But soon, Shahaji with the assistance of Bijapur, placed an infant scion of the Nizam Shahi dynasty, Murtaza on the throne and he became the regent. The scion Nizam and Shahaji's family was stationed in the Mahuli Fort. Shah Jahan quickly made an alliance with Mohammed Adilshah of Bijapur and the respective Mughal and Adilshahi generals, Khan Zaman (son of Mahabat Khan ) and Ranadulla Khan (father of Rustum-e-Zaman) besieged Mahuli. Shah Jahan dispatched a force of 48,000 to reduce Shahaji, Nizam and his ally Adilshah. Under such mounting attack Adilshah sued for peace. With the withdrawal of Adilshah's support, Shahaji could not hold much against the Mughals. His possessions were reduced quickly. Portuguese did not offer any help from naval side to Shajaji due to fear of the Mughals. In this war, Shahaji fought till the last. But, unfortunately Murtaza, the infant Nizam, was kidnapped by Mughals and for the purpose of saving the life of Nizam, it became necessary for Shahaji to make compromise. This compromise finished Nizamshahi. Shahaji, on the condition of protecting the life of little Mourtaza Nizam at any condition, handed him over to Shahajahan. Nizam was taken away by Sardar Ranoji Wable (regional sardar of Shah Jahan)to Delhi. He was inducted into Adilshahi. As a precaution Shahajahan, ensured that Shahaji was posted in deep south so as not to pose any challenge to Mughals. He finally became one of the top generals in the Adilshah's army, accepting a Jagir in his court, being based in Bengaluru (present-day Bangalore in Karnataka). Shahaji tried to break the siege externally several times, but failed. So Jijabai along with young Shivaji successfully escaped from Mahuli in disguise. However, the mother of scion Nizam, Sajeeda was caught while fleeing along with the Nizam. Nizam was brought before Shah Jahan and Mohammed Adilshah. Shah Jahan proposed to murder the boy Nizam so as to finish the Nizamshahi once and for all. But Shahaji intervened and requested Shah Jahan to change his decision. But Adilshah was adamant. After some thinking, Shah Jahan ordered Nizam's release much to the surprise of Adilshah. However, he set a condition that Shahaji would be placed in deep south so that he could not pose any challenge to Mughals. The Nizam was taken away by Shah Jahan to Delhi and was made a Sardar.[6]

Army of the Nizam Shahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar Sultanate

Hussain Nizam Shah I is known to have been one of the leading figurehead of the Deccan Sultanates during the Battle of Talikota. After his death Chand Bibi repulsed an invasion by the Mughal Empire with the reinforcements of Bijapur Sultanate and Golconda Sultanate.

Sabaji Koli

Sabaji Koli was commander in the army of Ahmednagar Sultanate during rule of Burhan Nizam Shah I and Hussain Nizam Shah I. He was honoured with the title of Parbat Rai (Parwat Rao) by sultan Burhan. When Ahmednagar Fort was seized by Aliya Rama Raya of Vijayanagara Empire, Sabaji was commanded against Vijayanagara army do he cut off the supplies of army. But Sultan Ali Adil Shah I of Bijapur Sultanate attacked at sabaji koli and defeated the ahmednagar army.[7][8][9][10]

Revenue System of Malik Ambar

The revenue system introduced by Malik Ambar was based on the revenue system introduced in Northern India and some parts of Gujarat and Khandesh subahs by Raja Todarmal. Lands were classified as good or bad according to their fertility and he took a number of years to ascertain accurately the average yield of lands. He abolished the revenue farming. At first, revenue was fixed as two-fifths of the actual produce in kind, but later the cultivators were allowed to pay in cash equivalent to approximately one-third of the yield. Although an average rent was fixed for each plot of land but actual collections depended on the conditions of crops and they varied from year to year.[5]

List of rulers

The treacherous Mughal Viceroy of the Deccan Khan Jahan Lodi was executed in the year 1630, for covertly allying himself with Burhan Nizam Shah III, against the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan[11]
The treacherous Mughal Viceroy of the Deccan Khan Jahan Lodi was executed in the year 1630, for covertly allying himself with Burhan Nizam Shah III, against the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan[11]

The following is the list of the Nizam Shahi rulers of Ahmadnagar:[12]

  1. Ahmad Nizam Shah I 1490–1510
  2. Burhan Nizam Shah I 1510–1553
  3. Hussain Nizam Shah I 1553–1565
  4. Murtaza Nizam Shah I 1565–1588
  5. Hussain Nizam Shah II 1588–1589
  6. Ismail Nizam Shah 1589–1591
  7. Burhan Nizam Shah II 1591–1595
  8. Ibrahim Nizam Shah 1595–1596
  9. Ahmad Nizam Shah II 1596
  10. Bahadur Nizam Shah 1596–1600
  11. Murtaza Nizam Shah II 1600–1610
  12. Burhan Nizam Shah III 1610–1631
  13. Hussain Nizam Shah III 1631–1633
  14. Murtaza Nizam Shah III 1633–1636
  • Mughal historians and Emperors never referred to them as Nizam Shahs but rather as Nizam-ul-Mulk, since they were not recognized as equals.

Lineage


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.
Ahmad Nizam Shah I
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1490–1509
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.
Burhan Nizam Shah I
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1509–1553
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3.
Hussain Nizam Shah I
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1553–1565
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad Khudabanda
 
 
 
 
 
Shah Ali
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4.
Murtaza Nizam Shah I
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1565–1588
 
Chand Bibi
Regent of Bijapur
1580–90
Regent of Ahmednagar
1596–99
 
7.
Burhan Nizam Shah II
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1591–1595
 
 
 
Shah Tahir
 
 
 
 
 
11.
Murtaza Nizam Shah II
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1600–1610
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
5.
Hussain Nizam Shah II
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1588–1589
 
 
 
6.
Isma'il Nizam Shah II
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1589–1591
 
8.
Ibrahim Nizam Shah
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1595–1596
 
9.
Ahmad Nizam Shah II
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1596
 
 
 
 
 
12.
Burhan Nizam Shah III
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1610–1631
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
10.
Bahadur Nizam Shah
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1596–1600
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
13.
Hussain Nizam Shah III
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1631–1633
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
14.
Murtaza Nizam Shah III
Sultan of Ahmadnagar
1633–1636

Art and architecture

Under the reigns of successive rulers of the dynasty, architecture and art flourished in the kingdom. The earliest extant school of painting in the Deccan sultanates is from Ahmadnagar.[12] Several palaces, such as the Farah Bakhsh Bagh,[13] the Hasht Bihisht Bagh, Lakkad Mahal were built, as were tombs, mosques and other buildings.[14] Many forts of the Deccan, such as the fort of Junnar (later renamed Shivneri), Paranda, Ausa, Dharur, Lohagad, etc. were greatly improved under their reign. Daulatabad, which was their secondary capital, was also heavily fortified and constructed in their reign.[15] Literature was heavily patronised in the kingdom, as seen through manuscripts such as the Tarif-i Husain Shah Badshah-i Dakan.[16] Sanskrit scholarship was also given a boost under their rule, as desmonstrated by the works of Sabaji Pratap[17] and Bhanudatta.[18] The city of Ahmadnagar, founded by the Nizam Shahs, was described as being comparable to Cairo and Baghdad, within a few years of its construction.[19] It was modeled along the great cities of the Persianate world, given the Shi'i leanings of the dynasty.[20]

References

  1. ^ Brian Spooner and William L. Hanaway, Literacy in the Persianate World: Writing and the Social Order, (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012), 317.
  2. ^ Stan Goron and J.P. Goenka, The coins of the Indian sultanates : covering the area of present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (New Delhi : Munshiram Manoharlal, 2001).
  3. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. p. 118. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  4. ^ Ferishta, Mahomed Kasim (1829). History of the Rise of the Mahometan Power in India, till the year A.D. 1612 Volume III. Translated by Briggs, John. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green.
  5. ^ a b Majumdar, R. C., ed. (2007) [first published 1969], The Mughal Empire, History and Culture of Indian People, Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, pp. 415–45, ISBN 978-8172764074
  6. ^ Shahaji Nizam
  7. ^ Shyam, Radhey (1966). The Kingdom of Ahmadnagar. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 9788120826519.
  8. ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Ahmadnagar. Printed at the Government Central Press. 1884.
  9. ^ Guha, Sumit (2 November 2006). Environment and Ethnicity in India, 1200–1991. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521028707.
  10. ^ Mahmud, Syed (1957). The India of Yesterday. Institute of Indo-Middle East Cultural Studies.
  11. ^ Jayapalan, N. (2001). History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Limited. p. 167. ISBN 9788171569281. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  12. ^ a b Michell, George & Mark Zebrowski. Architecture and Art of the Deccan Sultanates (The New Cambridge History of India Vol. I:7), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, ISBN 0-521-56321-6, p.274
  13. ^ Pushkar Sohoni. "Change and Memory in Farah Bagh, Ahmadnagar" in Journal of Deccan Studies, v. 5 no. 2 (Jul–Dec 2007), pp. 59–77.
  14. ^ Pushkar Sohoni. "Architecture of the Nizam Shahs" in Helen Philon (ed.), Silent Splendour: Palaces of the Deccan, 14th – 19th centuries (Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2010).
  15. ^ Sohoni, Pushkar (2015). Aurangabad with Daulatabad, Khuldabad and Ahmadnagar. Mumbai; London: Jaico Publishing House; Deccan Heritage Foundation. ISBN 9788184957020.
  16. ^ Aftabi (1987). Mate, M.S.; Kulkarni, G.T. (eds.). Tarif-i-Husain Shah, Badshah Dakhan. Pune: Bharat Itihas Samshodhan Mandal.
  17. ^ Gode, P.K. (1944). "Sabaji Prataparaja, a protege of Burhan Nizam Shah of Ahmadnagar, and his works between 1500 and 1560". The Indian Historical Quarterly. 20: 96.
  18. ^ Mishra, Bhanudatta (2009). Pollock, Sheldon (ed.). "Bouquet of rasa" & "River of rasa". New York: New York University Press. ISBN 9780814767559.
  19. ^ Astarabadi (Firishtah), Muḥammad Qāsim Hindū Shāh. Briggs, John (ed.). History of the Rise of the Mahomedan Power in India, vol 3. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green. p. 201.
  20. ^ Pushkar Sohoni. "Patterns of Faith: Mosque Typologies and Sectarian Affiliation in the Kingdom of Ahmadnagar" in David Roxburgh (ed.), Envisioning islamic art and architecture : essays in honor of Renata Holod (Leiden: Brill, 2014).

Further reading

  • Shyam, Radhe (2008). Kingdom of Ahmadnagar, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-2651-5
  • Sohoni, Pushkar (2010). "Local Idioms and Global Designs: Architecture of the Nizam Shahs" (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pennsylvania).
  • Sohoni, Pushkar(2015), Aurangabad with Daulatabad, Khuldabad and Ahmadnagar, Mumbai : Jaico Publishing House ; London : Deccan Heritage Foundation, ISBN 9788184957020
  • Chopra, R.M. (2012), The Rise, Growth And Decline in Indo-Persian Literature, Iran Culture House, New Delhi, Chapter on "Persian Literature in Ahmadnagar Sultanate".
This page was last edited on 4 May 2019, at 11:55
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