To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

Pest (organism)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection
Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection

A pest is any animal or plant detrimental to humans or human concerns, including crops, livestock and forestry, among others. The term is also used of organisms that cause a nuisance, such as in the home. An older usage is of a deadly epidemic disease, specifically plague. In its broadest sense, a pest is a competitor of humanity.[1][2]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    178 095
    11 213 919
    14 330 038
    930 896
    17 729
  • ✪ 5 Weirdest Ways Animals Reproduce
  • ✪ 9 Scariest Insects On Earth
  • ✪ First Animal to Survive in Space
  • ✪ These Termites Turn Your House into a Palace of Poop | Deep Look
  • ✪ Freshwater Aquarium MONSTERS! The Hydra

Transcription

5 Weirdest Ways Animals Reproduce. Number 5. Despite "the birds and the bees" being used as a gentle metaphor for sex, bee reproduction is actually pretty graphic. During copulation when the male is ready to inseminate the queen, its testicles totally explode, killing him. Fertilization in insects is a little different than how it happens with humans. Once a female gets sperm from a male, they hang onto it until they're ready to lay their eggs. Males have the ability to reach inside the female there and scoop out the sperm of their competitors. Bees avoid this competition with their exploding testicles. This breaks the penis off inside the female, which seals off any chance of another male getting a mating with her. Number 4. Anglerfish bring "being clingy" to crazy new levels. The anglerfish that everyone thinks of, with a bioluminescent antenna-like structure and the incredibly scary-looking teeth, is the female. Male anglerfish are much smaller and look very different. Because these fish live in such remote depths of the ocean, it's hard to find one another for mating. When they do come across one another, they need to stick together... literally. The male bites the female and latches on. Over time, the two actually fuse together, connecting their circulatory systems. The male, who isn't as good at finding food, gets his nutrition from the female. In turn, she is able to use his sperm when she wants to reproduce. Depending on the species of anglerfish, one female can have several males attached to her. Number 3. When it's time for the red-sided garter snake to mate, there's no messing around. A single female snake can be sought after by up to 100 males. Rather than line up in an orderly fashion for a chance at making their intentions known, things quickly get crazy with the formation of a "mating ball" in which everyone goes for it at once. Once she's done, the female will try rolling around in order to get the males off of her so she can make her escape. If the female isn't in good health, this sudden onset of attention can actually kill her. Number 2. Flatworms are hermaphrodites, meaning they possess both male and female reproductive organs. When it comes time to mate, it's a fight to see which one will take on which role. Because females have to dedicate time and resources to their young while the male can simply swim away afterward, being in the male role is clearly the most desirable. If a flatworm wants that role, they are going to need to fight for it. A mating pair will get in a duel with their penises, trying to stab the other one and inseminate them first. Number 1. Bed bug mating is no joke, and it's actually done through a process known as traumatic insemination. This cuts down on the amount of time they need to spend together, as males try to mate as often as they can. The male grabs ahold of the female, stabs into a special place in her abdomen, and inseminates her. This is traumatic for the females' exoskeletons, but fortunately, they evolved and have adapted ways of minimizing the damage and protecting themselves. Some male bedbugs can get a little too carried away and try to mate with other males. Sadly, they do not have the same adaptations as the females, and the trauma inflicted by the other male can be deadly.

Contents

Concept

A pest is any living organism, whether animal, plant or fungus, which is invasive or troublesome to plants or animals, human or human concerns, livestock, or human structures. It is a loose concept, as an organism can be a pest in one setting but beneficial, domesticated or acceptable in another.

Pests, such as these termites, often occur in high densities, making the damage they do even more detrimental.
Pests, such as these termites, often occur in high densities, making the damage they do even more detrimental.

Animals are called pests when they cause damage to agriculture by feeding on crops or parasitising livestock, such as codling moth on apples, or boll weevil on cotton. An animal could also be a pest when it causes damage to a wild ecosystem or carries germs within human habitats. Examples of these include those organisms which vector human disease, such as rats and fleas which carry the plague disease, mosquitoes which vector malaria, and ticks which carry Lyme disease.

A species can be a pest in one setting but beneficial or domesticated in another (for example, European rabbits introduced to Australia caused ecological damage beyond the scale they inflicted in their natural habitat). Many weeds are also seen as useful under certain conditions, for instance Patterson's curse is often valued as food for honeybees and as a wildflower, even though it can poison livestock.

The term "plant pest" has a specific definition in terms of the International Plant Protection Convention and phytosanitary measures worldwide. A pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products.[3] Plants may be considered pests themselves if an invasive species.

The animal groups of greatest importance as pests (in order of economic importance) are insects, mites, nematodes and gastropods.[4] Plant pests can be classed as monophagous, oligophagous, and polyphagous according to how many hosts they have. Alternatively, they can be divided by feeding type, whether biting and chewing; piercing and sucking; or Lapping and chewing. Another approach is to class them by population presence as * key pests, occasional pests, and potential pests. In terms of population biology, there are population growth rate (r) pests; carrying capacity (k) pests; and r-k pests.

Animals

Vertebrates

Birds

Amphibians

Mammals

Invertebrates

Insects and arachnids

Agricultural and domestic arthropods
Caterpillars cause crop damage
Caterpillars cause crop damage
Termites cause structural damage
Termites cause structural damage
Tree and forest pests
Ectoparasites

Nematodes

Gastropod molluscs

These include slugs and land snail pests:

Some slugs are pests in agriculture and gardens.[4] Deroceras reticulatum is a worldwide slug pest.[4] Local importance slug pests include: Deroceras spp.,[4] Milax spp.,[4] Tandonia sp.,[4] Limax spp.,[4] Arion spp.[4] and some species of Veronicellidae:[4] Veronicella sloanei.[9]

Plants and plant diseases

Weeds

Plant diseases

See also

References

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster dictionary, accessed 22 August 2012.
  2. ^ "Pest vermin". Britannica. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  3. ^ FAO Corporate Document Repository: Guidelines for Phytosanitary Certificates. Retrieved 1 August 2012
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Speiser B. (2002). "Chapter 219. Molluscicides". 506–508. doi:10.1201/NOE0824706326.ch219 PDF In: Pimentel D. (ed.) (2002). Encyclopedia of Pest Management. ISBN 978-0-8247-0632-6.
  5. ^ Lowe S., Browne M., Boudjelas S. and de Poorter M. (2000). 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species. A selection from the Global Invasive Species Database. The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG), a specialist group of the Species Survival Commission (SSC) of the World Conservation Union (IUCN), Auckland.
  6. ^ "ABC Wildwatch". Abc.net.au. Archived from the original on Aug 9, 2009. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  7. ^ Greenhall, Arthur M. 1961. Bats in Agriculture. A Ministry of Agriculture Publication. Trinidad and Tobago
  8. ^ Compare: Brakefield, Tom (1993). "Tiger: phantom in stripes". Big Cats. St.Paul, Minnesota: Voyageur Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781610603546. Retrieved 7 June 2019. [...] systematic wildlife observation in India began largely after the British had been there for some years, intensively hunting tigers for sport, pest control, and [...] social status.
  9. ^ a b c d
    PD-icon.svg
    Stange L. A. (created September 2004, updated March 2006). "Snails and Slugs of Regulatory Significance to Florida" Archived 2010-12-02 at the Wayback Machine. Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. Accessed 27 August 2010.
  10. ^ Villalobos M. C., Monge-Nájera J., Barrientos Z. & Franco J. (1995). "Life cycle and field abundance of the snail Succinea costaricana (Stylommatophora: Succineidae), a tropical pest". Revista de Biología Tropical 43: 181-188. PDF Archived 2011-07-17 at the Wayback Machine.
  11. ^ Barrientos Z. (1998). "Life history of the terrestrial snail Ovachlamys fulgens (Stylommatophora: Helicarionidae) under laboratory conditions". Revista de Biología Tropical 46(2): 369-384. PDF. HTM in the Google chache.

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 27 November 2019, at 03:45
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.