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Afro-Colombians

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Afro-Colombians
Total population
4,944,400 (2017)
(10.6% of Colombian population)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Predominantly in the Pacific Region of Colombia, some areas of the Caribbean natural region and urban areas across the country.
Languages
Colombian Spanish - San Andres Creole - Caribbean English - Yoruba - other African languages
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholic, minorities of Protestant.
Related ethnic groups
Afro-Guyanese, Afro-Venezuelans, Afro-Peruvian, Afro-Brazilian, Afro-Trinidadian and Tobagonian

Afro-Colombian refers to Colombian citizens of African descent; this article is about the influence they have had on Colombian culture. Colombia is considered to have the fourth largest Black African population in the western hemisphere, following Brazil, Haiti and the United States.

History

"Fiesta in Palenque" traditional African Colombian dance from San Basilio de Palenque, a former enclave, now considered by the UNESCO a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
"Fiesta in Palenque" traditional African Colombian dance from San Basilio de Palenque, a former enclave, now considered by the UNESCO a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

Africans first began coming as explorers in the first decade of the 16th century. By the 1520s, Africans were being imported into Colombia as slaves steadily, from places such as[2] Congo, Angola, Gambia, Nigeria, Cameroon, Liberia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Mali (West Africa, in other words),[3] to replace the rapidly declining Native American population. African slaves were forced to work in gold mines, on sugar cane plantations, cattle ranches, and large haciendas. African labor was essential in all the regions of Colombia, even until modern times. African workers pioneered the extracting of alluvial gold deposits and the growing of sugar cane in the areas that correspond to the modern day departments of Chocó, Antioquia, Cauca, Valle del Cauca, and Nariño in western Colombia.[citation needed]

In eastern Colombia, near the cities of Vélez, Cúcuta, Socorro, and Tunja, Africans manufactured textiles in commercial mills. Emerald mines, outside Bogotá, were wholly dependent upon African laborers. Also, other sectors of the Colombian economy like tobacco, cotton, artisanry and domestic work would have been impossible without African labor. In pre-abolition Colombian society, many Afro-Colombian captives fought the Spanish and their colonial forces for their freedom as soon as they arrived in Colombia. It is clear that there were strong free Black African towns called palenques, where Africans could live as cimarrones, that is, they who escaped from their oppressors. Afro Panamanians are also related to Afro-Colombians, some historians consider that Chocó was a very big palenque, with a large population of cimarrones, especially in the areas of the Baudó River. Very popular cimarrón leaders like Benkos Biojó and Barule fought for freedom. African people played key roles in the independence struggle against Spain. Historians note that three of every five soldiers in Simon Bolívar's army were African. Not only that, Afro-Colombians also participated at all levels of military and political life.

African Colombian fruit seller in Cartagena, Colombia.
African Colombian fruit seller in Cartagena, Colombia.

In 1851 the life of the African Colombians was very difficult. African Colombians were forced to live in jungle areas as a mechanism of self-protection. There, they learned to have a harmonious relationship with the jungle environment and to share the territory with Colombia's indigenous.

From 1851, the Colombian State promoted the ideology of mestizaje, or miscegenation. So in order to maintain their cultural traditions, many Africans and indigenous peoples went deep into the isolated jungles. Afro-Colombians and indigenous people were, and continue to be, the targets of the armed actors who want to displace them in order to take their lands for sugar cane plantations, for coffee and banana plantations, for mining and wood exploitation.

In 1945 the department of El Chocó was created; it was the first predominantly African political-administrative division. El Chocó gave African people the possibility of building an African territorial identity and some autonomous decision-making power.[4]

Demographics

The African Colombian population in Colombia is mostly concentrated in coastal areas.[5]  72.7% - 100%   45% - 72.6%   20.4% - 44.9%   5.8% - 20.3%   0% - 5.7%   Without data
The African Colombian population in Colombia is mostly concentrated in coastal areas.[5]
  72.7% - 100%
  45% - 72.6%
  20.4% - 44.9%
  5.8% - 20.3%
  0% - 5.7%
  Without data
Afro-Colombian children
Afro-Colombian children

In the 1970s, there was a major influx of Afro-Colombians into the urban areas in search of greater economic and social opportunities for their children. This led to an increase in the number of urban poor in the marginal areas of big cities like Cali, Medellín and Bogotá. Most Afro-Colombians are currently living in urban areas. Only around 25%, or 1.2 million people, are based in rural areas, compared to 75%, or 3.7 million people in urban zones. The 1991 Colombian Constitution gave them the right to collective ownership of traditional Pacific coastal lands and special cultural development protections. Critics argue that this important legal instrument has not been enough to completely address their social and developmental needs.

Afro-Colombians make up 10.6% of the population, almost 5 million people, according to a projection of the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE),[6] most of whom are concentrated on the northwest Caribbean coast and the Pacific coast in such departments as Chocó, whose capital, Quibdó, is 95.3% Afro-Colombian as opposed to just 2.3% mestizo or white.[7] Considerable numbers are also in Cali, Cartagena, and Barranquilla. Colombia is considered to have the fourth largest Black/African-descent population in the western hemisphere, following Haiti, Brazil and the USA.

It has been estimated that only 4.4 million Afro-Colombians actively recognize their own black ancestry, while many other African Colombians do not, as a result of inter-racial relations with white and indigenous Colombians.[8] Afro-Colombians may often encounter a noticeable degree of racial discrimination and prejudice, possibly as a socio-cultural left over from colonial times. They have been historically absent from high level government positions. Many of their long-established settlements around the Pacific coast have remained underdeveloped.[8] In Colombia's ongoing internal conflict, Afro-Colombians are both victims of violence or displacement and members of armed factions, such as the FARC and the AUC. African Colombians have played a role in contributing to the development of certain aspects of Colombian culture. For example, several of Colombia's musical genres, such as Cumbia and Vallenato, have African origins or influences. Some African Colombians have also been successful in sports.

Cultural Contribution

Musical

In the country of Colombia, the most popular native songs or musical genres are characterized by an exchange of multiple energetic and progressive musical processes. The bambuco, cumbia, and porro, among others, are examples of typical folkloric musical genres that can be traced to have an African origin, descent or are greatly influenced in the style.

Bambuco

The Bambuco displays a unique indigenous origin, as well as makes part of a multicultural compositions. The Bambuco is established in the central Andean and Cauca area of the country of Colombia and its played by string ensembles.[9] Although the Bambuco combines elements of notations that fluctuate between a 6
8
or 3
4
meter., demonstrating its extreme flexibility. It can be portrayed in different instrumental variants such the Bambuco fiestero (a faster more playful rhythm) or the contemporary Bambuco.

It is believed that the Bambuco is a musical genre that inevitability was brought by the Africans when the first slaves arrived to Cauca region.[10] There is also a relationship between Bambuco and the name of a town in French Sudan “Bambuk,” which can be theorized that this genre comes from that specific region.  Another piece of evidence is the syncopation which are different forms of rhythms within the same piece of music.[10] African music utilizes syncopated rhythms  just like bambuco does. Others theorized different appearances of Bambuco in different locations of the country, but they all coincide in an African origin or inspiration for the formation of this musical genre. For instance, in the western side of what is now Mali, a century ago, a nation named “Bambouk” existed [11] and potentially the name of bambuco was derived from this nation in Mali. In a country at the horn of Africa in Eritrea there is a town called Bambuco. In Angola, there is a town called Bambuca and very close to that town there is another one called Cauca. Like mentioned above, the Cauca department is argued to be the place where the Bambuco musical genre erupted.[10]  

A different branch of bambuco emerged in the Pacific Coast of Colombia, the contemporary Bambuco. The pacific coast (90%) and the northern coast (50%) of Colombia have an afro-Colombian population that surpasses the average in comparison to any other region in the country.  In the region of Cauca at the coast and in between the Magdalena river, the most traditional black population is settled. Many slaves came in through the Cauca river or through the Magdalena river if they were to come from the northern side of the country.[12] On the other hand, the argument that the Bambuco evolved in the pacific is supported by showing that the biggest population of afro Colombians in the country reside in the department of Choco, which is in the pacific coast. The pacific coast is the only place in the country were the absolute majority is of African descent.[12] The reason for the pacific coasts vast majority of Afro Colombian's population is not only due to its location and rapid entrance of transportation of boats and slaves during colonization but also during emancipation around the year 1815. The act of emancipation led for the pacific coast to become a refugee zone or and develop into a safe spot for slaves from the Choco area and the interior of the country as well; including the urban sites of the country.[13] This allowed for the afro Colombian population to grow in that side of the country and therefore develop within them certain cultural characteristics such musical genres that have African descent but are born or re-strengthened in Colombia. With this evidence, although the Bambuco is not original from Colombia, it became a national identity for many due to its multicultural composition and it being spread from west to north in the country.

Cumbia

The cumbiais another typical Colombian musical genre that emerges from the African slaves in Colombia. In this case, cumbia is a mixture of afro Colombians and indigenous native Colombians that conjoined rhythms to bring to Colombia a different style. Unlike the Bambuco, the cumbia is for certain originated in the northern part of Colombia and its instrumentation is the key evidence of its origin as well as the way its danced. In addition, the cumbia has a peculiar characteristic which is a typical Spanish dress just adapted to native resources. Again, it is a style with multicultural composition as well as multicultural exposition to the public. In the present day, is culturally expected to know about the cumbia and it is preserved among the culture. The main festival that celebrates cumbia nowadays is the Festival de la Cumbia in El Banco, Magdalena.[14] In order to preserve this folkloric rhythm, this genre is celebrated yearly in the Colombian coast.

Champeta

            Throughout the years the African heritage in music has been evolving from bambuco to porro to cumbia until champeta. Champeta is the more modern rhythm inspired by the African culture and music style. The Champeta is born through a blend of African and Caribbean rhythms, including the cumbia. The name champeta is derived by a form of bowie knife that only low income, rural workers, usually people of African descent would use due to the low socioeconomic status. These bowie knives are used to cut the grass and have yards or streets clean, and therefore this musical genre is associated with a status thus race.[15] This genre is native to the northern coast and many new rhythms are experimented through there which a lot of commerce started of occurring and much more music was listened to that came from the African continent. This is another example of the multicultural composition of musical genres base on the diaspora in the country of Colombia.

Current Issues Faced by Afro-Colombians

Ever since Afro-Colombians arrived to Colombia in the first decade of the 16th century, they have been considered a minority group by the Colombian government, which has exposed them to discrimination and inequality. Many advocacy groups, including the National Association of Displaced Afro-Colombians (AFRODES) or Chao Racismo, as well as various Afro-Colombian activists, have come together to fight for this ethnic group’s rights.[16] However, Afro-Colombians continue to protest for their rights and demand equality between themselves and all non-Afro Colombians in certain social aspects. Social issues concerning Afro-Colombians range from socio-economic inequalities to physical violence and other forms of inequality or discrimination.


Educational Disparities in Afro-Colombian Life

There is acknowledgment that there is a subtle racist undertone in Colombia. There is a lack on implementing the history of afro-colombian culture, language, and overall visibility within Colombian educational hubs. As a result of this, racism still exists, and causes many blocks for the afro-colombian people. One of these being the colombian education, on the creation of afro-colombians. Afro-colombians make up 26% of the Colombian population, and even so their History is not told properly to the Colombian people.[17] It is recorded that the African slaves that entered throughout the 15th to 18th century were not given their freedom by the republic but by their own accord. During religious festivals and other days slaves were permitted to work for their own profit. Then, they would save up their money to buy their freedom. This marked the beginning of afro-colombians and their relationship with Colombia. In 2007, the Colombian national government implemented a new section in the government for afrocolombians called “la Comisión Intersectorial para el Avance de la Población Afrocolombiana, Palenquera y Raizal.” This sector was intended for the advancement of the education of afrocolombians. Not only this but the Colombian government had also conducted specialized studies and 18 workshops across the cities of Colombia. Due to this, about 4000 afrocolombian community leaders came together to write recommendations to the government by May 2009.[18] However, after many years none of the strategies have worked and afro-colombians still lack the same opportunities as their whiter Colombian counterparts. The Colombian government has tried to help the afro-colombian people by creating more programs to further the education of afro-colombians past high school. The main program is the “Admisión Especial a Mejores Bachilleres de la Población Negra, Afrocolombiana, Palenquera y Raizal” which gives admission to about 200 afro-colombians per semester into the National Colombian University. This program can be compared to affirmative action in the United States, once again highlighting the imbalance of opportunities for afro-colombians. The Ministry of Education has attempted to make recommendations on the subject of the background and history of afrocolombians, when teaching colombian history. In hopes of incorporating more afrocolombian history, the ministry of education plans to add afro-colombian history on exams of the state.

Socio-Economic Inequalities

Afro-Colombians are a significant portion (almost one quarter) of Colombia’s overall population, yet they are one of the poorest ethnic groups of the country. More specifically, studies have shown that three quarters of the Colombian population which is classified as being “poor”, is composed of Afro-Colombians. This is reflected in some of the most basic, daily, aspects of their lives, such as the average annual salary of Afro-Colombians. While people from this ethnic group earn, on average, $500 dollars a year (or 1.5 million Colombian Pesos) people that are from White or Mestizo ethnic groups earn an average of $1500 dollars a year (or 4.5 million Colombian Pesos). This means that the average Afro-Colombian earns three times less than the average White/Mestizo Colombian.[19]

This issue roots primarily from the fact that in Colombia, blacks do not have the same educational, and economic opportunities as the rest of the population. They also have very few life opportunities such as limited access to jobs. These are the factors that contributes to an 80 percent rate of poverty among African descendants [20]. The World Bank recently reported that the percentage of Afro-Colombians that receive primary education is actually higher than the percentage of primary education received by the rest of Colombians, being 42% versus 32%, respectively. However, many Afro-Colombians are not able to receive any higher education besides primary level education because secondary education (or high school education) is only offered to 62% of Afro-Colombians, while this type of education is offered to 75% of all other Colombians. Furthermore, researchers have found that the overall educational quality of schools located in Afro-Colombian communities is much lower and poorer than those in other communities, mainly because of the lack of government support and investment in these areas. This was reflected in the results of the ICFES exam (national standardized exam), which showed that the average results for Afro-Colombians were significantly lower than the results of the rest of Colombians. Given that only a very few number of Afro-Colombians are able to reach college/university education, the range of jobs for most Afro-Colombians is very limited and obtaining high-level jobs with a good salary is very difficult for them to achieve.[19]

White Colombians in Bogota, strengthen already existing racial ladders and reinforce them in urban areas through spatial isolation—placing racism and racial discrimination external to their social worlds[21]. Discrimination based on race and spatial isolation affect the interaction between citizens in urban spaces.

Urban researchers have found drastic economic differences between the residents of Bogota. Suburbs are segregated and more uniform with people with similar incomes. This stratification has a racial and economic element to it. Afro-Colombians are segregated and live in all 19 sectors of the city, which are sectors with the two lowest stratum classification such as designations, Bosa, Kennedy, and Ciudad Bolivar, which are situated very far away from Zona Rosa, a city full of nightlife and entertainment[22].

Statistics on jobs and politics

According to a study, between 2002 and 2010 Afro-Colombian legislators proposed 25 bills directly affecting the Afro-Colombian community and only two bills were approved.[23]

According to a study done by the National Union School, 65% of Afro-Colombians in the informal sector and 29% in the formal sector make less than the minimum wage.[24]

Example of Social Inequality

The racism in Colombia is so extreme that it can get Afro-colombians stopped for just looking suspicious. It maximizes where they can go and where they can’t. For instance, afro-colombians are prevented from getting into some nightclubs and restaurants[25]. They are denied entrance to certain places where many elites and tourists usually go to. They are moved aside and questioned because of their skin color while other people are able to get in without further questioning. Bouncers usually tell them that they are hosting a private party and they need invitations to get in [26]. They use this as an excuse to stop them from entering these places.

Effects of the War on Afro-Colombians

Colombia’s civil war began in the year 1964 and finished in the year 2017, when a peace treaty between the guerrilla movement (FARC) and the government was concreted and signed. This long civil war affected and continues to affect most Colombians, however, according to the World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous People (WDMIP), some particular communities have been significantly more affected than others. One of these, says WDMIP, are Afro-Colombian communities, who have been strongly impacted by the civil war, mainly because of their vulnerability and lack of protection from the government. For years, the FARC guerrilla has sought areas to invade and gain possession of as many Colombian territory as they can. Territories that are occupied by minority groups such as indigenous groups and Afro-Colombians are typically the poorest and therefore seen as the easiest areas to invade. In fact, many Afro-Colombian regions have been “attacked” and taken over by the FARC, which has resulted in more than 2 million Afro-Colombians being displaced.[16] Most of them have been forced to migrate towards bigger cities (like Bogotá, Cali, or Medellín), which has increased their level of poverty (due to the higher cost of living in such urban areas), as well as their exposure to discrimination and violence. Even though the occurrences of these scenarios has significantly decreased since the peace treaty was signed last year, the people who were displaced continue to be affected by this situation and struggle to go back to their hometowns.

On another hand, the civil war has made Afro-Colombians victims of violence because Afro-Colombian territories, such as El Chocó, have become the combat zone between the FARC gueriilla and the Colombian government. More specifically, this means that they have been exposed to bombs, shootings, and deaths at a much higher level than all other Colombians. Because of this, many Afro-Colombians have been victims of collateral damage and have been killed due to this war, which has become another major reason for displacement to occur. According to a research done by one of Colombia’s official radio stations called Caracol Radio, over 25% of Afro-Colombians have left their hometown due to violence.[27]

Finally, another conflict that has been generated by the civil war is that of drug trafficking and prostitution. For years, the FARC guerrilla was seeking to recruit people that would do this for them at a low cost. Given that a high percentage of Afro-Colombians are extremely poor, young people from these communities are tempted by these options because they see them as the only way out to combat the poverty they live in. As a result, over 40% of the people in the guerrilla is composed of Afro-Colombians who now support the conflict and have been manipulated by the guerrilla to continue supporting their side of the conflict.[19]

Health Disparities

A recent study conducted by the London School of Economics revealed that Afro-Colombians are in extreme disadvantage in terms of being healthy when compared to the rest of the Colombian population. Furthermore, this study showed that there are many socio-economic factors that are involved in this and that contribute to such disparities. For example, the fact that Afro-Colombians are much poorer than the rest of the Colombian population is one of the main reasons that they are in a position of disadvantage when it comes to seeking health care services and being healthy in general. This is supported with their findings that showed that just under 5% of Afro-Colombians have a medical insurance, compared to almost 30% of all non Afro Colombians. Additionally, they found that most Afro-Colombians live in unsanitary conditions that increase exposure to a large variety of diseases as well as that a common trend among Afro-Colombians kids with bad health is having a mother that is uneducated.[28]

Health inequality has negatively affect many minorities in Colombia, especially those who come from a very low socioeconomic status such as Afro-Colombians. In comparison with the indigenous populations in Colombia, Afro-Colombians are at a greater disadvantage when it come to access to health care. Research from 2003 shows that 53.8% of blacks did not have access to health insurance compared 37.9% of the indigenous population. Only 10.64% of Afro-Colombians were affiliated to the subsidized regime in comparison with most of the indigenous population. Moreover, 65.8% vs. 74.6% of non-minorities groups characterized their health status as very good and good while 30.7% vs. 22.7% of indigenous and Afro-Colombians described it as fair and 3.5% vs. 2.8% as poor. This reveals the health disparities among minority groups in Colombia in comparison with the rest of the population.[29]

Researchers have found that the adult Afro-Colombian population is less likely to describe good health compared to the rest of the population. They are also more likely to report that they are sick and are dealing with chronic issues. This population is also less likely to obtain treatment if they are sick. Nevertheless, when the do look for medical treatment, they tend to receive it in the same numbers as non-Afro-Colombians. These results are not just explained by disadvantages in socioeconomic status, health insure or educational level, but by the discrimination that Afro-Colombians experience in their daily lives. Even when health insurance is given for free, Afro-Colombians are far less likely to be enrolled and this can be explained by structural and internalized discrimination.[30]

Raizals

The Raizal ethnic group is an Afro-Caribbean group living in Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina, speaking the San Andrés-Providencia Creole.

Notable Afro-Colombians

See also

References

  1. ^ Woods, Sarah; McColl, Richard (1 September 2015). Colombia. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 9781841629216.
  2. ^ "African Origins of AfroColombian Lastnames" (PDF). Clopedia Afrocolombiana.
  3. ^ "African Origins of AfroColombians". AfroColombia NY. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  4. ^ Gilberto Murillo, Luis (23 February 2001). "El Chocó: The African Heart of Colombia". Columbian Human Rights Network. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  5. ^ Fundación Hemera (2007). "Ethnic groups: Afro-Colombians". Ethnicities of Colombia (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 22 February 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2007.
  6. ^ "La visibilización estadística de los grupos étnicos colombianos" [The statistical visibility of Colombian ethnic groups] (PDF). Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (in Spanish). 2006. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  7. ^ "Perfil: Censo General 2005" [Profile: General Census 2005] (PDF). Colombian National Administrative Department of Statistics (in Spanish). 14 September 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  8. ^ a b Salazar, Hernando (25 May 2007). "¿Colombia hacia la integración racial?" [Is Colombia moving toward racial integration?] (in Spanish). BBC.com.uk. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  9. ^ Varney, John (2001). "An Introduction to the Colombian Bambuco". Latin American Music Review. 22 (2): 123–156. doi:10.1353/lat.2001.0017. ISSN 1536-0199.
  10. ^ a b c Isaacs, Jorge (2016). Maria. [CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform]. ISBN 9781537512471. OCLC 1040595091.
  11. ^ Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World. A complete pronouncing Gazetteer ... New edition ... enlarged, etc. J.B. Lippincott & Co. 1880. OCLC 560816137.
  12. ^ a b Hoffmann, Odile (4 June 2015), "Capítulo 2. La región del pacífico. Entre "marginalidad" y "particularidad"", Comunidades negras en el Pacífico colombiano : Innovaciones y dinámicas étnicas, Travaux de l'IFEA (in Spanish), Institut français d’études andines, pp. 51–62, ISBN 9782821844407, retrieved 1 March 2019
  13. ^ Gardiner, C. Harvey (April 1954). "Colonial Placer Mining in Colombia. By Robert C. West. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1952. Pp. x, 157. $3.00.)". The Americas. 10 (04): 506–507. doi:10.2307/977703. ISSN 0003-1615.
  14. ^ Davila, Deisy, "CARNAVAL, CUMBIA AND QUEENS: REPRESENTATIONS OF BLACKNESS", Studies in Symbolic Interaction, Emerald (MCB UP ), pp. 127–171, ISBN 9780762311866, retrieved 2 March 2019
  15. ^ CALLE, SEBASTIÁN RESTREPO; MEDINA, DIEGO PÉREZ, "INTRODUCCIÓN", En diálogo con la tierra. Por una Colombia sostenible, Editorial Universidad del Rosario, pp. 25–29, ISBN 9789587840063, retrieved 2 March 2019
  16. ^ a b Aidi, Hisham (18 July 2015). "Afro-Colombians face surge in racial violence". Aljazeera. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  17. ^ “Cátedra De Estudios Afrocolombianos.” Afrocolombianidad y Educacion Como Poltica De Estado - Ministerio De Educacion Nacional De Colombia, https://www.mineducacion.gov.co/1621/article-87286.html
  18. ^ “Afrocolombianidad y Educación Como Política De Estado.” Afrocolombianidad y Educacion Como Poltica De Estado - Ministerio De Educacion Nacional De Colombia, https://www.mineducacion.gov.co/1621/article-208086.html
  19. ^ a b c "Afro-Colombians". Minority Rights Group International. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  20. ^ Robinson, Lori S. “Fighting for Black Lives in Colombia: At War's End, the Search for a Seat at the Table.” The Root, The Root, 3 July 2017, www.theroot.com/fighting-for-black-lives-in-colombia-at-war-s-end-the-1796521962.
  21. ^ Castro, Fatimah Williams. “Afro-Colombians and the Cosmopolitan City: New Negotiations of Race and Space in Bogotá, Colombia.” Latin American Perspectives, vol. 40, no. 2, 2013, pp. 105–117. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/23466025.
  22. ^ Castro, Fatimah Williams. “Afro-Colombians and the Cosmopolitan City: New Negotiations of Race and Space in Bogotá, Colombia.” Latin American Perspectives, vol. 40, no. 2, 2013, pp. 105–117. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23466025.
  23. ^ Soendergaard, Maren. “How Political Exclusion Affects Colombia's Afro-Descendant Minority.” Colombia News | Colombia Reports, 26 Feb. 2015, https://colombiareports.com/afro-colombian-political-exclusion-effects-social-indicators/.
  24. ^ Hernández, Tanya Katerí. “Revealing the Race-Based Realities of Workforce Exclusion.” NACLA, 9 Feb. 2015, https://nacla.org/article/revealing-race-based-realities-workforce-exclusion/.
  25. ^ Robinson, Lori S. “Fighting for Black Lives in Colombia: At War's End, the Search for a Seat at the Table.” The Root, The Root, 3 July 2017, www.theroot.com/fighting-for-black-lives-in-colombia-at-war-s-end-the-1796521962.
  26. ^ Castro, Fatimah Williams. “Afro-Colombians and the Cosmopolitan City: New Negotiations of Race and Space in Bogotá, Colombia.” Latin American Perspectives, vol. 40, no. 2, 2013, pp. 105–117. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23466025
  27. ^ "El 25% de la población afrocolombiana en Quindío es desplazada por la violencia". Caracol Armenia. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  28. ^ Dedios, Maria Cecilia (31 October 2017). "Poor health outcomes amongst Afro-Colombians are driven by discrimination as well as economic disadvantage". London School of Economics. Retrieved 16 October 2018.
  29. ^ Bernal, Raquel, and Mauricio Cárdenas. "Race and ethnic inequality in health and health care in Colombia." https://www.repository.fedesarrollo.org.co/bitstream/handle/11445/811/WP_2005_No_29.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (2005).
  30. ^ Dedios, María C. “Poor Health Outcomes amongst Afro-Colombians Are Driven by Discrimination as Well as Economic Disadvantage.” LSE Latin America and Caribbean, 1 Nov. 2017, https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/latamcaribbean/2017/10/31/poor-health-outcomes-amongst-afro-colombians-are-driven-by-discrimination-as-well-as-economic-disadvantage/.

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