To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.

Affordable housing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Affordable housing is housing which is deemed affordable to those with a household income at or below the median[1] as rated by the national government or a local government by a recognized housing affordability index. Most of the literature on affordable housing refers to mortgages and a number of forms that exist along a continuum – from emergency homeless shelters, to transitional housing, to non-market rental (also known as social or subsidized housing), to formal and informal rental, indigenous housing, and ending with affordable home ownership.[2][3][4][5]

Housing choice is a response to an extremely complex set of economic, social, and psychological impulses.[6] For example, some households may choose to spend more on housing because they feel they can afford to, while others may not have a choice.[7]
Legends Park West Mixed-Income and Affordable Housing Redevelopment in Memphis Tennessee, USA

Definition and Measurement

There are several means of defining and measuring affordable housing. The definition and measurement may change in different nations, cities, or for specific policy goals.[8][9][10][11]


The definition of affordable housing may change depending on the country and context. For example, in Australia, the National Affordable Housing Summit Group developed their definition of affordable housing as housing that is "...reasonably adequate in standard and location for lower or middle income households and does not cost so much that a household is unlikely to be able to meet other basic needs on a sustainable basis."[12] Affordable housing in the United Kingdom includes "social rented and intermediate housing, provided to specified eligible households whose needs are not met by the market."[13] In some contexts, affordable housing may only mean subsidized or public housing whereas in other cases it may include naturally occurring affordable housing or "affordable" by different incomes levels from no income households to moderate income but cost-burdened households.[14][15][16]

Median multiple approaches

The median multiple indicator, recommended by the World Bank and the United Nations, rates affordability of housing by dividing the median house price by gross (before tax) annual median household income).

A common measure of community-wide affordability is the number of homes that a household with a certain percentage of median income can afford. For example, in a perfectly balanced housing market, the median household (the wealthier half of households) could officially afford the median housing option, while those poorer than the median income could not afford the median home. 50% affordability for the median home indicates a balanced market.[1]

Some countries look at those living in relative poverty, which is usually defined as making less than 60% of the median household income. In their policy reports, they consider the presence or absence of housing for people making 60% of the median income.

Housing costs as percentage of gross income

Determining housing affordability is complex and the commonly used housing-expenditure-to-income-ratio tool has been challenged. In the United States[17] and Canada,[18] a commonly accepted guideline for housing affordability is a housing cost, including utilities, that does not exceed 30% of a household's gross income.[19] Some definitions include maintenance costs as part of housing costs.[20] Canada, for example, switched to a 25% rule from a 20% rule in the 1950s. In the 1980s this was replaced by a 30% rule.[6] India uses a 40% rule.

Housing affordability index approaches

There are several types of housing affordability indexes that take a number of factors, not just income, into account when measuring housing affordability.[21][22]

The American National Association of Realtors and other groups measure market housing through a housing affordability index which measures whether or not a typical family could qualify for a mortgage loan on a typical home. This index calculates affordability based on the national median-priced single family home, the typical family median income, and the prevailing mortgage interest rate to determine if the median income family can qualify for a mortgage on a typical home.[23] To interpret the indices, a value of 100 means that a family with the median income has exactly enough income to qualify for a mortgage on a median-priced home.[23] An index over 100 signifies that family earning the median income has more than enough income for a mortgage loan on the median-priced home (assuming they have a 20 percent down payment).[23] For example, a composite HAI of 120.0 means a family earning the median family income has 120% of the income necessary to qualify for a conventional loan covering 80 percent of a median-priced existing single-family home.[23] An increase in the HAI shows that this family is more able to afford the median-priced home.[23]

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) developed a housing affordability index that attempts to capture the total cost of housing by several factors include employment accessibility, amenities, transportation costs and transit access, quality of schools, etc. In computing the index the obvious cost of rents and mortgage payments are modified by the hidden costs of those choices.[24] Other groups have also created amenity based housing affordability indexes.[25]

The Center for Neighborhood Technology developed the Housing + Transportation (H+T) Affordability Index provides a comprehensive view of affordability that includes both the cost of housing and the cost of transportation at the neighborhood level.[26] CNT notes that the 30% of household income affordability measurementment results in little over half (55%) of U.S. neighborhoods being considered “affordable” for the typical household.[26] They note that such a measurement fails to take into account transportation costs (such as multiple cars, gas, maintenance), which are usually a household’s second-largest expenditure.[26] When transportation costs are factored into the measurement, the number of affordable neighborhoods nationally drops to 26%, resulting in a net loss of 59,768 neighborhoods that Americans can truly afford.[26] Per CNT's measurement, people who live in location-efficient neighborhoods that are compact, mixed-use, and have convenient access to jobs, services, transit and amenities tend to have lower transportation costs.[26][27]

Household income and wealth approaches

Some analysts believe income is the primary factor – not price and availability, that determines housing affordability.[28] In a market economy the distribution of income is the key determinant of the quantity and quality of housing obtained. Therefore, understanding affordable housing challenges requires understanding trends and disparities in income and wealth. Housing is often the single biggest expenditure of low and middle income families. For low and middle income families, their house is also the greatest source of wealth.[29]

Another method of studying affordability looks at the regular hourly wage of full-time workers who are paid only the minimum wage (as set by their local, regional, or national government).[30] This methods attempts to determine if workers at that income can afford adequate housing.

Differing parameters and limitations in approaches

Each method of measuring or defining affordable housing has some weaknesses or limitations. Some organizations and agencies consider the cost of purchasing a single-family home; others look exclusively at the cost of renting an apartment. Many U.S. studies, for example, focus primarily on the median cost of renting a two-bedroom apartment in a large apartment complex for a new tenant. These studies often lump together luxury apartments and slums, as well as desirable and undesirable neighborhoods. While this practice is known to distort the true costs, it is difficult to provide accurate information for the wide variety of situations without the report being unwieldy.[citation needed]

Often, only legal, permitted, separate housing is considered when calculating the cost of housing. The low rent costs for a room in a single family home, or an illegal garage conversion, or a college dormitory are generally excluded from the calculation, no matter how many people in an area live in such situations. Because of this study methodology, median housing costs tend to be slightly inflated.[citation needed]

Costs are generally considered on a cash (not accrual) basis. Thus a person making the last payment on a large home mortgage might live in officially unaffordable housing one month, and very affordable housing the following month, when the mortgage is paid off. This distortion can be significant in areas where real estate costs are high, even if incomes are similarly high, because a high income allows a higher proportion of the income to be dedicated towards buying an expensive home without endangering the household's ability to buy food or other basic necessities.[citation needed]


Affordable housing, or low income housing, at the St. James Town neighborhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Affordable housing, or low income housing, at the St. James Town neighborhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Causes and consequences of rises in housing prices

Costs are being driven by a number of factors including:

  • demographic shifts
    • the declining number of people per dwelling
    • growing density convergence and regional urbanization
    • solid population growth (for example high prices in Australia and Canada as a rising population pushes up demand)[31]
  • supply and demand
    • a shortfall in the number of dwellings to the number of households
      • smaller family size
      • strong psychological desire for home ownership[32]
  • shifts in economic policies and innovations in financial instruments
    • reduced profitability of other forms of investment
    • ongoing gains in unimproved value of land, which is untaxed for residential land[33]
    • availability of housing finance[34]
    • low interest rates[34]
    • mortgage market innovations[34]
  • public policy
    • regulation
    • land use zoning
    • significant taxes, levies and fees by government on new housing (especially in Australia)

Supply and demand

In some countries, the market has been unable to meet the growing demand to supply housing stock at affordable prices. Although demand for affordable housing, particularly rental housing that is affordable for low and middle income earners, has increased, the supply has not.[35][36][37][38] Potential home buyers are forced to turn to the rental market, which is also under pressure.[39] An inadequate supply of housing stock increases demand on the private and social rented sector, and in worse case scenarios, homelessness.[40]

Affordable housing also has an effect on potential home buyers with an above average median income. For example, say that a community is being built that plans to be made up of 100% expensive housing. However, to respond to an increase in demand of affordable housing, the community decides to change the plans and have 90% expensive housing along with 10% affordable housing. By building the affordable housing, it causes a decrease in supply and an increase in demand of expensive housing (100% to 90%) resulting in the price of the expensive housing to go up. In this case, the potential home buyer with an above average median income now may not be able to afford the expensive housing due to the increase in price forcing them to search for a home elsewhere. This example shows the economic effects that policymakers must consider in regards to affordable housing.

Factors that affect supply and demand of housing stock

  • Demographic and behavioral factors
  • Migration (to cities and potential employment)
  • Increased life expectancy
  • Building codes[41]
  • A greater propensity for people to live alone
  • Young adults delaying forming their own household (in advanced economies)
  • Exclusionary zoning

Factors that affect tenure choices (ex. owner occupier, private rented, social rented)

  • Employment rates
    • Rising unemployment rates increase demand for market rentals, social housing and homelessness.
  • Real household incomes
    • Household incomes have not kept up with rising housing prices
  • Affordability of rents and owner occupation
  • Interest rates
  • Availability of mortgages
  • Levels of confidence in the economy and housing market
    • Low confidence decreases demand for owner occupation.[40]

Inequality and housing

A number of researchers argue that a shortage of affordable housing – at least in the US – is caused in part by income inequality.[42][43][44] David Rodda noted that from 1984 and 1991, the number of quality rental units decreased as the demand for higher quality housing increased.[42]: 148  Through gentrification of older neighbourhoods, for example, in East New York, rental prices increased rapidly as landlords found new residents willing to pay higher market rate for housing and left lower income families without rental units. The ad valorem property tax policy combined with rising prices made it difficult or impossible for low income residents to keep pace.[45]

Lack of affordable housing places a particular burden on local economies. As well, individual consumers are faced with mortgage arrears and excessive debt and therefore cut back on consumption. A combination of high housing costs and high debt levels contributes to a reduction in savings. These factors can lead to decreased investment in sectors that are essential to the long-term growth of the economy.[citation needed]

The geographic distribution of affordable housing and its respective restrictions provides a disproportionate distribution of benefits to certain economic groups. Research has found that cities are more likely to have zoning restrictions, which effectively limits the expansion of affordable housing units in these areas. [46] These zoning restrictions increase in housing prices, forcing the housing developers who create subsidized housing to look towards other options.[46] Zoning restrictions drive low-income families to live in neighborhoods with reduced opportunities, restricting access to metropolitan economies. [47] These patterns of zoning ultimately force the income divide between different socioeconomic groups to widen by creating enclaves of low-income and wealthy neighborhoods. [48] These enclaves dictate the distribution of labor, causing a geographical distribution of industries that disproportionately exclude low-income residents from lucrative industries.[47]

Affordable Housing and Urbanization

Affordable Housing and Sustainability

Labour market performance and transportation

Lack of affordable housing can make low-cost labor more scarce, and increase demands on transportation systems (as workers travel longer distances between jobs and affordable housing). "Faced with few affordable options, many people attempt to find less expensive housing by buying or renting farther out from their place of employment, but long commutes often result in higher transportation costs that erase any savings on shelter."[49] This has been called the "drive 'til you qualify" approach, which causes far-flung development and forces people to drive longer distances to get to work, to get groceries, to take children to school, or to engage in other activities.[49] A well located dwelling might save significant household travel costs and therefore improve overall family economics, even if the rent is higher than a dwelling in a poorer location.[12][50]

In both large metropolitan areas and regional towns where housing prices are high, a lack of affordable housing places local firms at a competitive disadvantage. They are placed under wage pressures as they attempt to decrease the income/housing price gap. Key workers have fewer housing choices if prices rise to non-affordable levels. Variations in affordability of housing between areas may create labour market impediments. Potential workers are discouraged from moving to employment in areas of less affordability. They are also discouraged from migrating to areas of high affordability as the low house prices and rents indicate low capital gain potential and poor employment prospects.[51] Lack of affordable housing can make low-cost labour scarcer (as workers travel longer distances).[52]

Public Health and Education

"In addition to the distress it causes families who cannot find a place to live, lack of affordable housing is considered by many urban planners to have negative effects on a community's overall health."[52] Improving thermal comfort at home especially for houses without adequate warmth and for tenants with chronic respiratory disease may lead to improved health and promote social relationships.[53] Housing cost increases in American cities have been linked to declines in enrollment at local schools.[54][55]

The American Journal of Public Health recognizes homelessness as a public health issue. [56] In a 2013 survey, a lack of affordable housing was the number one in the list of causes of homelessness amongst families with children and unaccompanied individuals.[57] Studies through the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry have shown that access to rapid permanent housing with treatment, rehabilitation, and support services have led to a decrease in Shelter and emergency department costs.[58]

Affordable Housing is found to reduce the likelihood that a family will be forced to move due to financial challenges such as eviction, foreclosure, or rent increase.[59] A study focusing on the effects of foreclosure on student academic performance within the Boston public school system, found a relationship that suggests foreclosures have a small negative association with individual students' test score and attendance, controlling for the student's previous test score or attendance.[60] A 1996 technical report also found that teachers that teach students that have had to move with a high frequency have had to include a reduction in instructional pacing and more review in order to accommodate variation and uncertainty in student learning.[61]

Affordable Housing and Sustainability

A new subsection of affordable housing has emerged: sustainable affordable housing. Many researchers have contributed to this subsection, discovering innovative methods to make affordable housing less environmentally detrimental.[62][63][64] One method emphasized is creating disaster-resistant affordable housing units to reduce the impact of climate change-related natural disasters.[62] This method includes using weather-resistant housing materials and placing affordable housing units in disaster-resistant geographical locations.[62] Another method is creating new standards for affordable housing developments such as energy efficiency and location efficiency.[63] A study by Albert Chan and Michael Adabre on the relationship between sustainable housing and affordable housing found that setting standards for energy and location would help reduce environmental stressors like greenhouse gas emissions. [63] Improving the sustainability of affordable housing units is found to provide benefits such as reductions in energy costs, an increase in the economic value of sustainable housing, and increased comfort for sustainable housing residents.[64]

Home values

According to a 2022 study, LIHTC projects in the United States increase land value in surrounding neighborhoods.[65]

Affordable housing and public policy


Policy makers at all levels – global, national, regional, municipal, community associations – are attempting to respond to the issue of affordable housing, a highly complex crisis of global proportions, with a myriad of policy instruments.[66] These responses range from stop-gap financing tools to long-term intergovernmental[67] infrastructural changes. There has been an increase among policy makers in affordable housing as the price of housing has increased dramatically creating a crisis in affordable housing.[40] Additionally, the process of weighing the impacts of locating affordable housing is quite contentious and may have race and class implications.

Affordable housing policy has political, philosophical, and ethical elements. In the simplest of terms, affordability of housing refers to the amount of capital one has available in relation to the price of the goods to be obtained. Public policies are informed by underlying assumptions about the nature of housing itself. Is housing a basic need, a right, an entitlement, or a public good? Or is just another household-level consumer choice, a commodity or an investment within the free market system? [68][69] "Housing Policies provide a remarkable litmus test for the values of politicians at every level of office and of the varied communities that influence them. Often this test measures simply the warmth or coldness of heart of the more affluent and secure towards families of a lower socio-economic status."[70]

To combat slums, homelessness, and other social and economic impacts of a housing unaffordability, many groups have argued for a "right to housing". Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to housing as part of the right to an adequate standard of living.[71] Article 11(1) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) also guarantees the right to housing as part of the right to an adequate standard of living.[71] Many housing rights groups also attempt to combat social and political issues which relate to access to quality affordable housing such as housing discrimination, redlining, and lack of access to amenities in areas with affordable housing including food deserts and transit deserts.[72][73][74][75][76][77]

Market-based approaches

One potential means of addressing affordable housing is through public policy instruments that focus on the demand side of the market, programs that help households reach financial benchmarks that make housing affordable. This can include approaches that simply promote economic growth in general – in the hope that a stronger economy, higher employment rates, and higher wages will increase the ability of households to acquire housing at market prices. Federal government policies define banking and mortgage lending practices, tax and regulatory measures affecting building materials, professional practices (ex. real estate transactions).[67] The purchasing power of individual households can be enhanced through tax and fiscal policies that result in reducing the cost of mortgages and the cost of borrowing. Public policies may include the implementation of subsidy programs and incentive patterns for average households.[67] For the most vulnerable groups, such as seniors, single-parent families, the disabled, etc. some form of publicly funded allowance strategy can be implemented providing individual households with adequate income to afford housing.

Currently, policies that facilitate production on the supply side include favorable land use policies such as inclusionary zoning, relaxation of environmental regulations, and the enforcement of affordable housing quotas in new developments.[citation needed]

In some countries, such as Canada and the United States, municipal governments began to play a greater role in developing and implementing policies regarding form and density of municipal housing in residential districts, as early as the 1950s.[67] At the municipal level, promoted policy tools include zoning permissions for diverse housing types or missing middle housing types such as duplexes, cottages, rowhomes, fourplexes, and accessory dwelling units.[78][79][80][81] Some municipalities have also reduced the of the amount of parking that must be built for a new structure in order to reduce land acquisition and construction costs.[82][83][84][85][86][87][88] Other common strategies include reducing permitting costs and wait times for new housing, permitting small-lot development, multi-family tax exemptions, density bonuses, preserving existing affordable housing, and transit-oriented development.[89][90][91][92]

Existing housing that is affordable may be used, instead of building new structures. This is called "Naturally Occurring Affordable Housing", or NOAH.[93]

In a housing cooperative people join on a democratic basis to own or manage the housing facility in which they live. Generally these housing units are owned and controlled collectively by a corporation which is owned and controlled jointly by a group of individuals who have equal shares in that corporation.[94][95] In market rate cooperatives owners can accumulate equity and sell their share of the corporation at market rate. In a limited-equity housing cooperative there are restrictions on the profits members can earn from selling their share (such as caps on sale price) to meant to maintain affordable housing.[94]

Community land trusts are nonprofit corporation that holds land, housing, or other assets on behalf of a neighborhood or community. A community land trust acquires and maintains ownership of the land through a non-for-profit that holds the land in a trust.[96][97] Homeowners then purchase or build a home on land trust property but do not purchase the land thus reducing costs. If the homeowner sells, they may be limited on what they may sell the home for or the family may earn only a portion of the increased property value with the remainder kept by the trust to preserve affordable housing[97][98] There are over 225 community land trusts in the United States.[99]

Right to build

An article by libertarian writer Virginia Postrel in the November 2007 issue of Atlantic Monthly reported on a study of the cost of obtaining the "right to build" (i.e. a building permit, red tape, bureaucracy, etc.) in different U.S. cities. The "right to build" cost does not include the cost of the land or the cost of constructing the house. The study was conducted by Harvard economists Edward Glaeser and Kristina Tobio. According to the chart accompanying the article, the cost of obtaining the "right to build" adds approximately $600,000 to the cost of each new house that is built in San Francisco. The study, cited, published by Ed Glaeser and Joseph Gyourko, reached its conclusion about the value of the right to build in different localities based on a methodology of comparing the cost of single-family homes on quarter-acre versus half-acre lots to get a marginal land price and then comparing the selling price of homes to construction costs to get a price for the land plus other costs, with the difference between the two being attributed to the cost of zoning and other local government permitting and regulations.[100]

Government restrictions on affordable housing

Many governments put restrictions on the size or cost of a dwelling that people can live in,[citation needed] making it essentially illegal to live permanently in a house that is too small, low-cost or not compliant with other government-defined requirements. Generally, these laws are implemented in an attempt to raise the perceived "standard" of housing across the country. This can lead to thousands of houses across a country being left empty for much of the year even when there is a great need for more affordable housing; such is the case in countries like Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark, where there is a common tradition to have a summer house. This sometimes raises concerns for the respect of rights such as the right to utilize one's property.

In the United States, most cities have zoning codes that set the minimum size for a housing unit (often 400 square feet) as well as the number of non-related persons who can live together in one unit, resulting in having "outlawed the bottom end of the private housing market, driving up rents on everything above it."[101] In California in 2021, researchers estimated that parking requirements increase the cost of building affordable housing by up to $36,000 per unit, and up to $75,000 per unit in cities like Los Angeles and San Francisco.[102] Until 2018, in Los Angeles, for an affordable housing development to be allowed to be built, it required a "letter of acknowledgement" from the city councilperson in whose district it would be constructed. This allowed city council members to block affordable housing developments in their district without having to give any reason.[103][104]

Subsidy-based approaches

Subsidized housing is government or non-for-profit sponsored economic assistance aimed towards alleviating housing costs and expenses, generally for people with low to moderate incomes. Subsidy-based approaches may take the form of government sponsored rental subsidies, government sponsored rental supplements, tax credits, or housing provided by a non-for-profit.[105][106]

In a mutual-aid housing cooperative, a group of families forms a cooperative to collectively build, own, and manage land by participating in the process of constructing the housing for the cooperative.[107][108] Each family is responsible for contributing labor towards the construction of the housing complex to reduce costs and members take on responsibilities before, during, and after the construction. The Uruguayan Federation of Mutual Aid Housing Cooperatives (FUCVAM) has completed nearly 500 housing cooperatives housing more than 25,000 families.[109][110]

The George-Washington-Hof is protected public housing in Vienna
The George-Washington-Hof is protected public housing in Vienna

Public, state, or social housing approaches

Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is usually built and owned by a government authority, either central or local. In some countries, public housing is focused on providing affordable housing for low-income earners while in others, such as Singapore, citizens across a wide range of incomes live in public housing.[111][112] In Vienna, Austria, social housing may be completely government built and run or include a mixture of public land and private-sector construction and management.[113][114] Combined, the two types of housing represent about 46 percent of the city’s housing stock (26% government owned and managed and 20% a public/private partnership) and house people with a wide variety of incomes.[113][114] In South Korea the public Korea Land & Housing Corporation has provided homes to 2.9 million households which is 15% of the national total of 19.56 million households. This includes 2.7 million newly-built public housing units and 1.03 million rental homes of which 260,000 were purchased or rented by the Land and Housing Corporation.[115][116]

Affordable housing by country

Different countries and cities throughout the world have found unique ways to respond to the need for affordable housing. In some provinces within China, for example, local governments have instituted "tradable land quotas." These quotas allow developers to construct new housing units at the outer bounds of the city limits, and, in return, land outside of the city is protected from development. On the other hand, in Los Angeles, the city government recently instituted legislation that allows motels to be transformed into affordable housing units, regardless of zoning regulations. In Brussels, an architectural firm was able to repurpose a soap factory, creating affordable housing units that included 1-6 bedroom apartments, studios, lofts, and duplexes. These residential units are also energy-efficient, so have both social and environmental benefit.[117]

While innovative building practices have been incredibly successful in countries such as Nigeria and India, cities in more developed countries have found unique ways to increase affordable housing in dense urban areas through partnerships with private developers. For example, in Germany, cities including Berlin and Hamburg have established partnerships with private developers to construct new affordable housing units. In a 2011 agreement, developers in Hamburg agreed to build 3500 new housing units per year and 30% of these units would only be available to low and middle income households. To support the developer's work, Hamburg's city government agreed to provide city-owned land and acquire privately-owned land on which the units would be constructed. Additionally, Hamburg modified urban planning regulations in locations occupied predominantly by low-income individuals to simplify the process of affordable housing construction. On the other hand, in Berlin, the Alliance for Housing Construction, which was established in 2014, brought together Berlin's local government, private landlords, and public utility landlords to make rental units in the city more affordable. Public utility landlords such as non profit organizations agreed to build 3000 new dwellings each year. Between 300 and 1000 of these units would be provided as "non-serviced rents." Additionally, private landlords agreed to construct 6000 units each year, and between 600 and 1200 of these units would be provided as "non-serviced rents."[118]

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ a b Bhatta, Basudeb (15 April 2010). Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl from Remote Sensing Data. Advances in Geographic Information Science. Springer. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-642-05298-9.
  2. ^ "Definition Affordable Housing" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
  3. ^ CNHED Archived 4 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Queensland Affordable Housing Consortium [QAHC], Australia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2012.
  5. ^ Affordable Housing: Issues, Principles and Policy Options (PDF). Affordable Housing Summit. Canberra, Australia: Australian Council of Trade Unions. July 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 May 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  6. ^ a b Hulchanski, J. David (October 1995). "The Concept of Housing Affordability: Six Contemporary Uses of the Expenditure to Income Ratio" (PDF). Housing Studies. 10 (4). doi:10.1080/02673039508720833. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  7. ^ Luffman, Jacqueline (November 2006). "Measuring housing affordability". 7 (11). Statistics Canada. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ "WHO | Practical measurement of affordability: an application to medicines". WHO. Archived from the original on 29 January 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  9. ^ "Housing conditions - OECD". Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  10. ^ "Is There a Better Way to Measure Housing Affordability? | Joint Center for Housing Studies". Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  11. ^ "Defining Housing Affordability | HUD USER". Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  12. ^ a b "Definition: Affordable Housing" Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Queensland Affordable Housing Consortium, Australia
  13. ^ "Good practice and guidance, Reports and summaries". 29 November 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  14. ^ "Preserving the largest and most at-risk supply of affordable housing | McKinsey". Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  15. ^ Town of Chapel Hill (October 2017). "Affordable Housing Glossary of Terms". Town of Chapel Hill.
  16. ^ State of Oregon (1 May 2021). "Oregon Transit and Housing Study Glossary of Terms" (PDF). State of Oregon.
  17. ^ Washington State Labor Council (AFL-CIO) (2009). "Affordable Housing and Homelessness". Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  18. ^ Canada Mortgage; Housing Corporation (28 September 2011). "Affordable Housing: What is the common definition of affordability?". Government of Canada. Archived from the original (.cfm) on 7 May 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2011.
  19. ^ Christine C. Cook; Marilyn J. Bruin; Becky L. Yust (2018). "Chapter 10. Housing Affordability". In Carswell, Andrew T.; Anacker, Katrin B.; Tremblay, Kenneth R.; Kirby, Sarah D. (eds.). Introduction to Housing (2nd ed.). Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press. p. 171. ISBN 9780820349688. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  20. ^ Wheeler, Stephen M.; Rosan, Christina D. (2021). Reimagining Sustainable Cities: Strategies for Designing Greener, Healthier, More Equitable Communities. Oakland, California: University of California Press. p. 83. ISBN 9780520381216. Retrieved 26 August 2021.
  22. ^ Urban Institute. "Housing Affordability Local and National Perspectives" (PDF). Urban Institute.
  23. ^ a b c d e "Methodology". Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  24. ^ Measuring Housing Affordability (.html). The HAI Affordable Housing Index (Report). MIT Center for Real Estate. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
  25. ^ Fisher, Lynn M.; Pollakowski, Henry O.; Zabel, Jeffrey (December 2009). "Amenity-Based Housing Affordability Indexes". Real Estate Economics. 37 (4): 705–746. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6229.2009.00261.x. S2CID 155007018.
  26. ^ a b c d e "Housing + Transportation Affordability Index". Center for Neighborhood Technology. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  27. ^ Center for Transit-Oriented Development and Center for Neighborhood Technology. "The Affordability Index: A New Tool for Measuring the True Affordability of a Housing Choice" (PDF).
  28. ^ Tilly, Chris (2 November 2005). "10" (PDF). The Economic Environment of Housing: Income Inequality and Insecurity. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  29. ^ Tilly, Chris (2 November 2005). "10" (PDF). The Economic Environment of Housing: Income Inequality and Insecurity. Lowell, Massachusetts: Center for Industrial Competitiveness, University of Massachusetts. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  30. ^ Adamczyk, Alicia (14 July 2020). "Minimum wage workers cannot afford rent in any U.S. state". CNBC. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  31. ^ "House of horrors, part 2: The bursting of the global housing bubble is only halfway through". The Economist. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  32. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "A land value tax could fix Australasia's housing crisis".
  34. ^ a b c André, C. (28 January 2010). A Bird's Eye View of OECD Housing Markets (PDF) (Report). OECD Economics Department Working Papers.[dead link]
  35. ^ "Affordable housing". Government of Australia. Archived from the original on 28 March 2012.
  36. ^ "Housing supply and demand – UK Parliament". 6 May 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  37. ^ "Housing and Urban Policy". Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
  38. ^ Mostafa, Anirban; Wong, Francis K. W.; Hui, Chi Mun Eddie (2006). "Relationship between Housing Affordability and Economic Development in Mainland China – Case of Shanghai". Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 132 (62): 9. doi:10.1061/(asce)0733-9488(2006)132:1(62).
  39. ^ Judith Yates; Maryann Wulff (1999). "Housing Markets and Household Income Polarisation: A Metropolitan and Regional Analysis" (PDF). Retrieved 8 December 2011. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  40. ^ a b c Schmuecker, Katie (March 2011). The good, the bad and the ugly: Housing demand 2025 (PDF) (Report). Challenging ideas – Changing policy. Institute for Public Policy Research. Retrieved 16 December 2011.[permanent dead link]
  41. ^ Listokin, David; Hattis, David B., "Building Codes and Housing", Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, Volume 8, Number 1, 2005, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research
  42. ^ a b Rodda, David T. (1994). Rich Man, Poor Renter: A Study of the Relationship Between the Income Distribution and Low Cost Rental Housing (Thesis). Harvard University. p. 148. OCLC 34635540.
  43. ^ Vigdor, Jacob (2002). "Does Gentrification Harm the Poor?". Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs. 2002: 133–182. doi:10.1353/urb.2002.0012. S2CID 155028628.
  44. ^ Matlack, Janna L.; Vigdor, Jacob L. (2008). "Do Rising Tides Lift All Prices? Income Inequality and Housing Affordability" (PDF). Journal of Housing Economics. 17 (3): 212–224. doi:10.1016/j.jhe.2008.06.004.
  45. ^ Pushed Out: The Hidden Costs of Gentrification: Displacement and Homelessness (PDF) (Report). Institute for Children and Poverty. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2013.
  46. ^ a b Rodríguez-Pose, Andrés; Storper, Michael (February 2020). "Housing, urban growth and inequalities: The limits to deregulation and upzoning in reducing economic and spatial inequality". Urban Studies. 57 (2): 223–248. doi:10.1177/0042098019859458. ISSN 0042-0980. S2CID 191923573.
  47. ^ a b Metcalf, Gabriel (1 February 2018). "Sand Castles Before the Tide? Affordable Housing in Expensive Cities". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 32 (1): 59–80. doi:10.1257/jep.32.1.59. ISSN 0895-3309.
  48. ^ Zhu, Yushu; Yuan, Yue; Gu, Jiaxin; Fu, Qiang (23 November 2021). "Neoliberalization and inequality: disparities in access to affordable housing in urban Canada 1981–2016". Housing Studies: 1–28. doi:10.1080/02673037.2021.2004093. ISSN 0267-3037. S2CID 244569247.
  49. ^ a b Pollard, Trip (2010). Jobs, Transportation, and Affordable Housing: Connecting Home and Work (PDF) (Report). Southern Environmental Law Center/Housing Virginia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2012.
  50. ^ Bridge, Gary; Watson, Sophie (22 March 2011). The New Blackwell Companion to the City. John Wiley & Sons.
  51. ^ Gabriel, Michelle; Jacobs, Keith; Arthurson, Kathy; Burke, Terry; Yates, Judith (May 2005). Conceptualising and measuring the housing affordability problem (PDF) (Report). National Research Venture 3: Housing Affordability for Lower Income Australians. Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute. p. 3. ISBN 1-920941-76-2.
  52. ^ a b Bhatta, Basudeb (15 April 2010). Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl from Remote Sensing Data. Advances in Geographic Information Science. Springer. p. 42. ISBN 978-3-642-05298-9.
  53. ^ Thomson H, Thomas S, Sellstrom E, Petticrew M (28 February 2013). "Housing improvements for health and associated socio-economic outcomes" (PDF). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD008657. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008657.pub2. PMID 23450585.
  54. ^ "Deconstructing the Myths: Housing Development Versus School Costs" (PDF). Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  55. ^ Cleeland, Nancy (11 June 2006). "There Goes the Enrollment". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 January 2018.
  56. ^ Donovan, Shaun; Shinseki, Eric K. (2013). "Homelessness Is a Public Health Issue". American Journal of Public Health. 103 (Suppl 2): S180. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301727. PMC 3969122. PMID 24256062.
  57. ^ Hunger and Homelessness Survey. The United states Conference of Mayors (published December 2014). 2014. p. 2.
  58. ^ Ly, Angela; Latimer, Eric (November 2015). "Housing First Impact on Costs and Associated Cost Offsets: A Review of the Literature". The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 60 (11): 475–487. doi:10.1177/070674371506001103. ISSN 0706-7437. PMC 4679128. PMID 26720505.
  59. ^ Bartlett, Sheridan (April 1997). "The significance of relocation for chronically poor families in the USA". Environment and Urbanization. 9 (1): 121–132. doi:10.1177/095624789700900101. ISSN 0956-2478. S2CID 154584773.
  60. ^ Boston, Federal Reserve Bank of (21 November 2013). "The Effect of Foreclosure on Boston Public School Student Academic Performance". Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
  61. ^ Kerbow, David (October 1996). "CRESPAR Report #5: Patterns of Urban Student Mobility and Local School Reform". Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk. 5.
  62. ^ a b c Gan, Xiaolong; Zuo, Jian; Wu, Peng; Wang, Jun; Chang, Ruidong; Wen, Tao (September 2017). "How affordable housing becomes more sustainable? A stakeholder study". Journal of Cleaner Production. 162: 427–437. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.06.048. ISSN 0959-6526.
  63. ^ a b c Chan, Albert P.C.; Adabre, Michael Atafo (March 2019). "Bridging the gap between sustainable housing and affordable housing: The required critical success criteria (CSC)". Building and Environment. 151: 112–125. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2019.01.029. ISSN 0360-1323. S2CID 115806327.
  64. ^ a b Olanrewaju, AbdulLateef; Tan, Seong Yeow; Abdul-Aziz, Abdul-Rashid (4 July 2018). "Housing providers' insights on the benefits of sustainable affordable housing". Sustainable Development. 26 (6): 847–858. doi:10.1002/sd.1854. ISSN 0968-0802. S2CID 158672166.
  65. ^ Voith, Richard; Liu, Jing; Zielenbach, Sean; Jakabovics, Andrew; An, Brian; Rodnyansky, Seva; Orlando, Anthony W.; Bostic, Raphael W. (2022). "Effects of concentrated LIHTC development on surrounding house prices". Journal of Housing Economics. 56: 101838. doi:10.1016/j.jhe.2022.101838. ISSN 1051-1377. S2CID 247788358.
  66. ^ The Housing of Good Intentions: The Naya Pakistan Housing Program. Housing & Community Development Law eJournal. Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Accessed 31 January 2020.
  67. ^ a b c d Hulchanski, David J. (June 2006). "10. What Factors Shape Canadian Housing Policy? The Intergovernmental Role in Canada's Housing System" (PDF). In Young, Robert; Leuprecht, Christian (eds.). Canada: The State of the Federation 2004: Municipal-Federal-Provincial Relations in Canada. Institute of Intergovernmental Relations. McGill-Queen's University Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  68. ^ UNESCAP; UN-HABITAT; OHCHR; COHRE; CODI (2004). Meeting Report Regional Dialogue on Housing Rights (PDF) (Report). Bangkok, Thailand. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  69. ^ Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights OHCHR. "Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Article 25.1".
  70. ^ Bacher, John C. (1993). Keeping to the Marketplace: The Evolution of Canadian Housing Policy. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 16.
  71. ^ a b Edgar, Bill; Doherty, Joe; Meert, Henk (2002). Access to housing: homelessness and vulnerability in Europe. The Policy Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1-86134-482-3.
  72. ^ "How Stable, Affordable Housing Can Help Tackle Food Insecurity". Housing Matters. 2 October 2019. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  73. ^ "Housing and Food Insecurity | HUD USER". Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  74. ^ "USDA ERS - Access to Affordable, Nutritious Food Is Limited in "Food Deserts"". Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  75. ^ Williams, Joseph P. (4 April 2018). "Stranded Without Transit: Millions of people lack adequate access to transportation, and the consequences could be dire". US News.
  76. ^ Name (4 September 2017). "In the US, transit deserts are making it hard for people to find jobs and stay healthy". City Monitor. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  77. ^ "Policy objective: Reducing housing discrimination". Local Housing Solutions. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  78. ^ "The 'Missing' Affordable Housing Solution". AARP. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  79. ^ Wegmann, Jake (2 January 2020). "Death to Single-Family Zoning…and New Life to the Missing Middle". Journal of the American Planning Association. 86 (1): 113–119. doi:10.1080/01944363.2019.1651217. ISSN 0194-4363.
  80. ^ "MRSC - Affordable Housing". Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  81. ^ "Missing Middle Housing Initiatives across the US". Missing Middle Arlington. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  82. ^ Litman, Todd (5 June 2020). "Parking Requirement Impacts on Housing Affordability" (PDF). Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
  83. ^ "Regional Housing Task Force". Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  84. ^ "People Over Parking". American Planning Association. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  85. ^ "Reduced parking requirements". Local Housing Solutions. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  86. ^ "Reducing parking means increasing affordability in eTOD". Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  87. ^ "STALLED OUT: How Empty Parking Spaces Diminish Neighborhood Affordability" (PDF). Center for Neighborhood Technology.
  88. ^ "A Map of Cities That Got Rid of Parking Minimums". Strong Towns. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  89. ^ "Evaluating Affordable Housing Development Strategies". Planetizen - Urban Planning News, Jobs, and Education. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  90. ^ "Housing Innovations Program". Puget Sound Regional Council. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  91. ^ "The Housing Affordability Toolkit". Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  92. ^ "Housing Innovations Program (HIP) Complete Housing Toolkit" (PDF). Puget Sound Regional Council Housing Innovations Program.
  93. ^ Calisle, Corey (1 August 2017). "NOAH: The New Housing Acronym You Need to Learn". ABA Banking Journal. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  94. ^ a b "National Association of Housing Cooperatives (NAHC) » Buying into a Housing Cooperative". Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  95. ^ "What Is a Co-Op? The Benefits and Drawbacks to Cooperative Housing". Real Estate News & Insights |®. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  96. ^ "Leasing Land for Affordable Housing". LILP. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  97. ^ a b "Community Land Trusts (CLTs)". 21 June 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  98. ^ "Community land trusts". Local Housing Solutions. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  99. ^ "StackPath". Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  100. ^ “A Tale of Two Town Houses”, Atlantic Monthly, November 2007
  101. ^ Badger, Emily (18 July 2013). "Is It Time to Bring Back the Boarding House?". CityLab – The Atlantic Monthly Group. Archived from the original on 14 November 2017. Retrieved 13 November 2017. Politically, it's a coalition of the greedy and the well-meaning that led to the banning of private-sector affordable housing in our cities," he says. The well-meaning folks were appalled by the living conditions of poor and working-class families. The greedy folks were appalled by the prospect of living next to them. Together, this awkward alliance helped advocate laws that established minimum living conditions not simply for safety but also to define how much space an individual should reasonably be expected to live in.
  102. ^ Hansen, Louis (6 April 2021). "Fewer parking spaces for new homes, shops? It could happen - Pro-housing groups push reform to mandatory parking minimums". San Jose Mercury News. Researchers at UC Berkeley’s Terner Center for Housing Innovation found parking requirements can add up to $36,000 to the cost of a single affordable housing unit — more than the cost of using environmentally-friendly materials or paying city development fees. In San Francisco and Los Angeles, parking requirements can add up to $75,000 per unit.
  103. ^ Wagner, David (17 October 2018). "LA City Council Members Just Lost A Way To Block Affordable Housing In Their Districts". LAist. Archived from the original on 3 November 2018.
  104. ^ The Times Editorial Board (1 August 2018). "Editorial: L.A. City Council members don't deserve unilateral veto power over homeless projects they don't like". Los Angeles Times.
  105. ^ "Types of Housing Subsidies". Tenants Union. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  106. ^ "A blueprint for addressing the global affordable housing challenge" (PDF). McKinsey Global Institute. October 2014.
  107. ^ "Solutions to an Unjust Housing System". Shelterforce. 30 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  108. ^ "Latin America's Co-ops Are an Alternative to Housing Crisis". Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  109. ^ "South-South Cooperation: international transfer of the FUCVAM model of mutual aid housing cooperatives". World Habitat. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  110. ^ Ibán Díaz Parra, Pablo Rabasco Pozuelo (27 November 2013). "¿Revitalización sin gentrificación? Cooperativas de vivienda por ayuda mutua en los centros de Buenos Aires y Montevideo". Cuadernos Geográficos. 52 (2): 99–118.
  111. ^ ""But what about Singapore?" Lessons from the best public housing program in the world". Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  112. ^ "Public Housing | / U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)". Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  113. ^ a b Merrifield, Will; attorney. "How European-Style Public Housing Could Help Solve The Affordability Crisis". Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  114. ^ a b Holeywell, Ryan (February 2015). "Governing: The International Issue: Haus Beautiful" (PDF). Governing.
  115. ^ "Welcome to KOREA LAND & HOUSING CORPORATION". Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  116. ^ Herald, Korea (4 June 2013). "LH strives to expand supply of affordable housing". The Korea Herald. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  117. ^ "10 ways cities are tackling the global affordable housing crisis". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  118. ^ Granath Hansson, Anna (6 February 2017). "City strategies for affordable housing: the approaches of Berlin, Hamburg, Stockholm, and Gothenburg". International Journal of Housing Policy. 19: 95–119. doi:10.1080/19491247.2017.1278581. S2CID 214625694 – via Virgo.
This page was last edited on 10 August 2022, at 02:18
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.