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Affiliate marketing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Affiliate marketing is a type of performance-based marketing in which a business rewards one or more affiliates for each visitor or customer brought by the affiliate's own marketing efforts.[1]

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  • How to Start Affiliate Marketing for Beginners - EASY!
  • $2,000 BEGINNER Affiliate Marketing CHALLENGE (Success Story)
  • How to Start Affiliate Marketing STEP by STEP for Beginners!
  • How To Make $5 Over & Over Again WIth Affiliate Marketing As Beginner (Make Money Online)


- In this video, I'm gonna teach you how to start affiliate marketing in order to generate some passive income. You don't need any of your own products or services, you can just recommend stuff like headphones that you already use every single day and earn commission off of it, stay tuned. (trendy electronic music) - [Female] ODi productions. (engine starting and revving) Hey, what is up guys, ODi Productions and I am back with a new video. I got my man, Mark, helping me out who's my new assistant, say hi Mark. - [Mark] What's up. - Here, you can show 'em, you can show yourself. - What's up, guys? - Alright cool, that's my man. He's gonna be helping out with videos. He's gonna help me create more content for you guys so it's a win-win. I'm gonna be cranking out two videos per week. You guys can hold me to it, I'm definitely gonna be more consistent with pumping out content that is meant to educate and entertain you guys all in one. So anyways, today the topic of the video as you saw in the intro is I'm gonna teach you guys how to start earning passive income with affiliate marketing, which is my main business model. And for those who don't know me, if you're new to the channel my name is Odi, I'm 25 years old and I was born and raised in San Diego, California. Basically, if you saw in the intro that basically gave my story how I dropped out of UCLA. I actually got a nice little UCLA sign right here which my cousin did get me, so that's pretty awesome. Anyways, I dropped out of UCLA three years ago with a 3.5 GPA my senior year, literally was two quarters away from graduation but I was working on businesses on the side. In fact, I actually have my first business right here which is which is an affiliate marketing website where I reviewed headphones. So basically I was working on that on the side and I got it up to a certain level and I actually chose to drop out of school in order to burn the boats so to speak and then pursue entrepreneurship full-time. Now three years later I've been able to do a lot of cool stuff. I have other videos on my channel where I talk about making money. One of them, which tells my story, I made $45,000 in a single week, one calendar year after getting fired from my 9-5 job. So that's a really cool one to check out if you wanna learn more about me. But anyways, that's it and the gist so today we're gonna go grab lunch really quick. It's not gonna take too long, and then we're gonna jump into the video. I'm gonna share with you guys three methods that you can start, even today, for free to start generating some passive income through affiliate marketing. And for anyone who's not familiar with what affiliate marketing is, it's basically just getting money through referrals. So like I said in the intro, if you recommend these headphones to someone using Amazon Associates, which is the largest affiliate program in the world, then you will receive a commission of, I think it's about 4% on the price of these headphones and these are about $350 so 4% of that is a pretty nice chunk for making one sale. You don't need any products, you don't need any inventory, you don't need to actually have the headphones in stock, you don't need to ship them out. The company, for example Amazon takes care of all of that for you so it's less hassle, less headaches, no customer service, and you just get a check at the end of the day. So, pretty awesome. Anyways we're about to head down to the garage. We're going to be taking the Lamborghini today because I haven't driven it in two weeks, I've been traveling. I'll give you guys more updates when we're in the car, so... I'm about to pick, okay so if you're new to the channel I also daily drive a 911 Turbo and this is the Lambo, oh-- Uh oh, okay so I know what you guys are thinking, that the car is a rental, right? But actually, no, this is from my stay at the Montage in LA a couple weeks ago for business so I had it valeted, had it sitting out front so yeah. So internet detectives, zero. ODi Productions, one. And by the way, I just got these new-- I literally just got them in today so I'm really excited. I have a few pairs of sunglasses, I actually just lost a pair but I think these are pretty cool. Let me know how I look in the comments below. So anyways, we're about to head out. I'm ready, are you hungry? I'm ready to go. - [Mark] Dude, I'm starving man. Let's go. - Alright, let's get it. Before we head out guys, I just wanna show you guys the fit of the day. I'm rockin' the Nike off-white Air Max collab if you wanna check those out right there. Been getting a lot of compliments on these so I'm pretty stoked about them, I always loved them from the first time I saw them pre-released. I got Nike Tech Fleece joggers, these are in a green color that I haven't really seen before but I got them I think off Eastbay or something and I'm just rocking a Topman shirt. Topman's like my favorite place, I have like literally a dozen shirts from Topman. It's cheap, they look good, they're fashionable. And then, got the new shades so yeah, fit of the day. Not rocking any watches or anything today, but yeah. Alright, we're up here in the garage. If you're new to the channel, this is my daily driver. It's a custom Porche 911 Turbo, love this thing, love it to death. I drive this-- I choose this nine times out of ten. I actually haven't driven the Lambo in like two weeks just because, I don't know, it's a bit of an event. So anyways, we're gonna unravel this and then we're gonna take it out for lunch today. Should be pretty fun, so let's check it out. (piano music) - [Female] ODi Productions. (hip hop music) - [Mark] Get it - Check out this cold start, it hasn't been started two weeks let's hear it. It's gonna be loud. (engine revving loudly) Alright, what up guys in the Superleggera. As you heard in that startup clip it's pretty loud so we have to put the windows up and even then I still think that you can probably hear the engine in the background, I'm trying to keep the RPMs low. But anyways, I wanna give you guys a couple updates on where I've been, what I've been up to. I know I haven't really been uploading the past couple weeks like here and there, I haven't really made an affiliate marketing video in a while and I just wanted to let you guys know what I've been up to. I've been doing a ton of traveling, I went from Chicago to Orlando, back to Chicago to San Diego, up to LA, over to Orange County for some business meetings. Then I went back down to San Diego, flew to New York for a business meeting, some of you guys may have seen that on my Instagram. I'm here with Ryan Serhant who is the star of Million Dollar Listing: New York and also the founder of the number one real estate brokerage team in New York City. Flew back here to San Diego from New York so it's been pre-- Oh, and I just came back from Chicago two days ago, by the way, so I've been going all around honestly. I've been doing a lot of business and a lot of stuff behind the scenes which is something I want to talk about because I actually just started a new business venture that I had to keep under wraps for now but honestly, it's gonna be big. And so I'm looking forward to sharing that with you guys once it's built. It's already begun, the development for the web development and everything so I'm really excited about that but I'm also excited to basically just get back into the swing of making content for you guys. I'm real excited to make more YouTube videos to inspire, to motivate you guys and also give you guys some real, tactical info for how you can make passive income because that's something I've been able to do. Wow, this AC is really loud, turn that down a little bit. So anyways, that's just to get that out of the way where, what I've been up to but I'm gonna start uploading twice a week, I have a schedule. I have Mark helping me out behind the camera. It's gonna help me to create a lot more content more regularly for you guys. But anyways, so another thing I wanna talk about is I'm going to be doing a giveaway in this video, and I'm gonna be giving you guys the instructions right here, right now. I'm gonna be PayPal-ing $200 to the winner of this giveaway. We're upping the ante, I've done giveaways in the past where I've given $100. To get entered into this giveaway today, all you have to do is like the video, hit that thumbs up button, and then subscribe and hit the notification bell to my channel. We're almost at 100k, I'm so excited to hit that. It's gonna be a really good milestone. And anyways, after you do that comment below why you want to start affiliate marketing. So I'm teaching you guys how to start affiliate marketing but I wanna know why you guys want to take up affiliate marketing, online business, entrepreneurship, like what is your reason for pursuing this? Like, why do you want to make passive income? Is it so that you can have the freedom to go do cool stuff, spend more time with family, go travel, go on vacations, not have to work a nine to five job, let me know in the comments below. I wanna hear your guys' reasons why because honestly reading stuff like that really motivates me because I used to be in the same shoes that you guys were. I mean, I was a college dropout. I dropped out of UCLA, I used to work a 9-5 job, I got fired from that job and I had to make things work, and online businesses honestly were what saved me and basically, has given me all the things I have today so I owe everything to entrepreneurship and I just wanna hear you guys' story as well. So anyways that's the details for the giveaway. We're gonna go get lunch right now. I'm gonna show you guys a little bit about what we eat. We're gonna go back home and then I promise I'm gonna give you guys the three methods for how you can start affiliate marketing even today, for free, and then a couple other methods as well, ,so stay tuned. (electronic music) - [Female] ODi Productions. - Alright what's up, we just got back to the crib. I'm gonna hop into the computer, show you guys the three methods for how you can start affiliate marketing today. It's real easy, honestly I promise you it's really not that hard to get started. The thing is, you guys just really have to take that first step, that's the most important thing. So anyways, before we jump in I want to say that if you are interested in affiliate marketing, if you are interested in learning with sort of a road map you can join my free course in the description below. Honestly, it cost nothing but your email. You can get started, you can learn all of the fundamentals and get started with affiliate marketing today. So it's a really good primer for those who are brand new to the world of entrepreneurship and online business, affiliate marketing, so anyways let's begin the tutorial. If you come here on, if you come to my computer right now and I'm gonna show you guys Amazon Associates which is the number one affiliate program in the world and it's obviously by Amazon which is one of the largest companies in the world. And basically, Amazon Associates is a program that you can join, you sign up for it you apply for it, and it allows you to take any product that Amazon sells, and I'll show you guys an example in a minute, and you can basically promote it with your links. So you put these links on your website, you can put them in the description of your YouTube channel and if you ever watch like a tech review, someone reviews headphones and you see an Amazon link in the description, that I guarantee you is an Amazon Associates link and they are earning commission off of each product. Now, how much commission can you earn? It depends on the product category. So for example, these are headphones and you earn a 6% commission for selling headphones. And let me just show you guys right now if we hop into my computer and show you guys this is Amazon Associates. If you just search Amazon Associates on Google, you should come into this website and you'll see that you can earn up to 10% advertising fees. So what is an advertising fee? Basically, an advertising fee is a percentage of the product's total cost. So for example, these are $350, pretty pricey I know. So these are some really good V-Moda Crossfade 2 wireless headphones. And you can actually see my first affiliate marketing business and website, Recording Now, which I'll show you guys later in this video. And if you sell these through Amazon Associates you get 6%. So six percent of $350 is $21 and honestly that's pretty good considering that you don't have to buy the product and ship it out and hold inventory. Basically, Amazon takes care of everything for you. Now obviously, I had to buy these, but the thing is I already owned these before doing these videos and stuff which is my first method I wanna share with you guys. Which is, to review products that you already own and then promote them via Amazon Associates. So this is an easy easy way, let me just show you guys a product that I have right here. This is a vacuum, it's actually the brand is called VonHaus. It's a German brand, so you know we got foreign everything. We got the foreign sports car, we got the foreign vacuum. And basically this vacuum right here, if you come to the computer I'm gonna show you guys, so it's available off Amazon, that's where I bought it. And let me just show you guys the screen real quick. This is the same one and you can see it sells for about $35, you know, same exact one, $35. And so if you join Amazon Associates right here, these are the rates for everything by the way. Zoom in, and show you guys the different rates. As you can see, headphones is the 6% I was talking about. Now, the vacuum on the other hand I would guess this would be considered home improvement, home? Okay 8%, so you get 8% off $35 so let's do the math real quick. So you get $2.80 for every single vacuum you sell. This is what it looks like when you actually sign up for Amazon Associates. Basically, you just go right here to this quick search and I can type in VonHaus vacuum. So you can look up any product that Amazon sells. You click that, it's gonna search it up, and boom you guys can see that exact same vacuum for $35 right here. All you have to do is get the link, just hit that. Boom, copy and paste this into your YouTube description or your website and from there, that's when you can start earning commission with Amazon Associates and from affiliate marketing. So you put that link and if somebody clicks the link what happens is they get a cookie attached to their IP that lasts 24 hours. Now here's the cool part, with Amazon Associates if they buy anything within that 24 hour period you actually get commission on every single thing that's in their cart. So it doesn't even have to be this vacuum. For example, if you were to link these headphones right? And they're kinda pricey, so let's say that not everyone buys them. However, let's say a customer-- They had this vacuum in their cart already and you took them to Amazon and they're like eh, I'll think about the headphones but I'm gonna buy the vacuum, they decide to check out, boom you just made $2.80 from a link on your YouTube channel or a YouTube video or from your website and you didn't have to anything. You don't have to ship anything out, you don't have to deal with customer service. You basically just get $2.80. Now, that doesn't sound like a lot of money but get this, when people rely on Google AdSense, the problem is you only get paid roughly $2 for every 1000 views. Now the thing is, getting thousands of views isn't exactly easy so to make $2.80 off selling a vacuum cleaner right here is actually a much much better deal if you do the math. Cause, you know, if you were to get 1000 views on a video, okay you get two bucks and that's the end of it. Now if you were to get 1000 views on a review of this product and you happen to sell 10 of them right off the bat you make over 20 bucks and to get that with Google Adsense you have to get over 10,000 views. So now if you were to take things further and let's say you did get 10,000 views and then you sold 10 of these for every 1000 views you got or so that's when things start to rack up and that's when affiliate marketing starts to get really exciting. So my first method, really easy, something that any of us can do today. Look around your house, look for stuff that is sold on Amazon which is basically everything here other than this Lamborghini and the Porche. These sunglasses, you can probably find them off Amazon. These were pretty expensive so these would get a really nice commission. These headphones, again, $350. You get $21 for every time you sell one of these bad boys so you don't really need to sell too much to make hundreds of dollars. Again, even something like a vacuum. It doesn't have to be high ticket. Now I recommend that you promote high ticket items because obviously the bigger the cost of something then the more commission you get, but that doesn't mean you should neglect items like this which can easily sell. They're a much easier sell, I mean $35 you know it's not really too hard of a decision for someone to buy this and it's a great vacuum. This is the second one I bought, I had the same one in my Chicago place. So just look around your house, find something and review it. And when you review it, one thing that you should do is review it using a camera or using your phone. Honestly, phone's are so good these days, I don't know if you guys have seen portrait mode on the iPhone X and the iPhone 8, but they take better pictures than my big DSLRs sometimes. And so if you guys want to, you can also just get a tripod, get your iPhone, and start reviewing something and it's that simple. And again, it doesn't have to be some crazy tech stuff that costs thousands of dollars, it could literally be a vacuum. So that's how you get started for free and that's how to get started today just as quick as possible. Now the other methods I'm gonna share with you guys are going to be a little more intensive. They're gonna require a little more planning and a little more leg work but if you do these correctly this is how you start to make the big big money with affiliate marketing. And the third method is how I've been able to generate over $1000 profit per day from affiliate marketing specifically. So let's jump into method number two. Alright alright, so method number two let's move on to the next one. So in the first one, you know, I said just look around your house and start to review products that you already own. So right off the bat, I mean this vacuum, these sunglasses, this camera, the camera he's holding, this webcam, these headphones, this mouse is specifically only sold on Amazon, this USB hub thing also sold on Amazon, and everything that's attached to it pretty much stuff that I bought off Amazon. So now let's go on to number two. So how do we take things a step further? So number two is another free method. This one is taking things a little bit further, doing a little more work by creating an actual brand. And brands are important, and the best kind of brand is a personal brand. So we're creating a personal brand using YouTube which is a free platform, it doesn't cost you anything to make videos, to upload them, it's all free. But you can create something very powerful if you build that personal brand. For example, my YouTube I actually transitioned from just a company which was reviewing headphones. I actually transitioned into ODi Productions as, you know, the entrepreneur. I started to share my story, I went on camera and I basically would share my journey of entrepreneurship from when I was a student at UCLA to dropping out to working the 9-5 gig, fired from 9-5 and then finally after years, seeing success. Honestly, I think we all have a story and a personality that we can share with the world. And if you do this, the plus side is that you get to build trust and a connection, a personal connection that is not really achievable by not being an actual personal brand. If you were to just do the first method and you review these things, you may bet lucky and you get a video that gets tens of thousands of views which can very well happen if you're reviewing something very popular like for example this Logitech webcam right here. But where the real money starts to come in is when you become an authority figure. When people trust you, because when people trust you you have influence, people listen to what you have to say. So if I were to become an authority and I said that these are the best headphones of 2018 that I have tested then you guys are more likely to buy this, right? And boom, that's $21 right there from every single sale I get of these headphones. Now the thing is, building a personal brand is not as hard as it seems. Now I know if you're a beginner, you're looking at this, you're looking at me, you're like hey man, I'd love to do that but I don't have a following. I don't have expertise, I'm not an expert in anything. That doesn't matter, trust me guys. You guys can get started today, you don't have to be an expert. You just have to be passionate. And you just have to share your personal thoughts on a product. So if you were to review this camera, you don't really have to be the world's expert or like the best videographer or photographer on the planet. You just have to be a person who's willing to give some valuable information to the next guy and say hey, I'm a beginner, I just started making YouTube videos, this is the best vlogging camera that I've found on the market. Boom, right there, that's enough to sell this camera. You don't really have to do some crazy cinematics or anything like that. You just have to be personable, you have to develop that connection, develop trust, and then that's when people will buy from you. So, yeah, building that YouTube once you get to a certain point I see some YouTubers who start to implement affiliate marketing by including affiliate links from Amazon Associates of their camera gear. Now, there's pros and cons to this. The pro is you want to have some sort of affiliate links in your description no matter what company it is, Amazon's a good one, because everyone shops on Amazon. Well, everyone that I personally know, and if someone buys something from Amazon then you get commission, it doesn't actually have to be the camera. It doesn't have to be what you actually linked, it can be anything else. So I've seen some people implement that and that's like step one but if you want to take things even further you need to create consumer focused content. So what does this mean? Basically, if I wanted to sell these headphones I wouldn't just have them on the desk and be like, oh here's a link to my headphones. I would actually be like, hey guys, check it out. So I've owned 12 pairs of headphones within the last two years and these are by far my favorite Bluetooth headphones. They have perfect usability, the sound quality is amazing. Really tight sub bass and the Bluetooth and the battery life is excellent. You know what I mean? I would actually create a review, because a review gets people when they're in that phase of okay, I'm gonna go purchase a pair of headphones rather than if you're just watching a vlog of mine and I'm just like oh yeah, those are my headphones. You're not really likely to buy a $350 pair of headphones, right? So you wanna create consumer focused content that really dials in when consumers are at that purchase decision when they're researching different products, they're comparing them, they're looking at reviews, that's where you want to capture your customer for the best chance of a sale. So that's number two, basically. Implement affiliate marketing into your personal brand, into an actual YouTube channel, focus on these products. You know, really create a brand and become an authority in your niche in your market. I wanna give one more example for the personal brand and in this entrepreneurship space obviously online courses is a really big thing. Online courses is actually a really good niche to become an affiliate for because the commissions are so high. Most of the commissions for most of the online courses that I'm aware of, they range from $100, $150, up to literally thousands of dollars for some of the really high end courses that cost $4000 and up. Basically, these commissions are crazy so if you want to be able to sell that course, the thing is-- The good news is you don't have to be the expert because if you're someone who is a student then you can give just as much of a valid opinion as the next person because you're a paying customer, you bought the course, and you can give your actual valid opinion on it. And based on how you come across and what you say in that video you can sell $1000 course and make a $400 commission, it's happened before. I've seen it time and time again, so many people are doing it, boom. Basically, that's an easy way to make hundreds of dollars. If you're part of any courses right now, if you can promote the course, boom. Honestly, just do a review on it. Doesn't even have to be all rainbows and butterflies. You can just be completely honest, throw it out there, who knows you might get a sale or two or three and boom, before you know it that's like $1000 right there. That's method number two, let's move on to number three. We're gonna take things one step further, I'm gonna hop into the computer and show you guys how you can actually create an affiliate marketing business that can earn $1000 a day or more. I'm gonna show you my actual real method, alright. Alright guys, we have hopped into my computer and as you see here, this is my baby. This is my first affiliate marketing website,, your #1 source for home recording where I focus on doing reviews. So headphones really was the bread and butter that took this website and business to the next level and as you guys can see here I have actual blog posts and articles of all of the headphone reviews that I did. So as you guys can see, I reviewd some Beats, I reviewed Sony, Sennheiser, Bose, Audio-Technica, Beats, et cetera, and some of these videos which are also on my YouTube channel. So what I would do is I would create a video on YouTube and I would also do an article right here on my website. So this requires a second step which is to create a website in addition to your YouTube channel because what we're trying to do with method number three is actually create a brand. Now this brand right here, RecordingNow, this became the authority when it came to home recording and when it came to specifically headphones. And because I reviewed and I tested so many different headphones people really trusted my expertise. And to be honest, I had been producing music for years so I really knew the solid characteristics and I knew how to describe things when it came to the world of audio. Now again, you don't have to really be an expert you just have to know enough to provide value to people. So for example, Beats, you don't have to be an audio expert to be able to recommend them to people who love hip hop. People who love bass, and who like that in your face sound quality, you know what I mean? So really what we're trying to do right here is we're really trying to create that long term brand and it's important that we do this because once you become an authority in a market then you are basically who people turn to to get their opinion on when they are ready to make a purchase decision. So when someone's in the market for headphones they're gonna be coming to me first asking me hey, what's your opinion on the new Sony headphones? And based on my advice, they're either going to purchase that product or not purchase that product. So as you guys can see here, I really built out a website and it really isn't that hard to create a website like this. I use WordPress, which is actually a free platform. Now, you do need web-hosting and I do have videos on my channel showing you how to create a WordPress website from scratch. I also had a video with a student who I taught her how to build her first affiliate marketing website and it's basically less than an hour long and we go from start to finish and we show the screen capture of us building her website out from scratch. So you guys should check that out if you are interested, that video just broke over a million views. People seem to love it, so check that out if you're interested in building your first affiliate marketing website. But again, method number three is really taking things a step further and investing in things like a website, a logo, actually aiming to become that authority figure in a market or niche. And if you do that, I promise you that you can create a very profitable website from something that you're passionate about. Like, for me, headphones, see I chose these not because I looked at the market and did research and was like hey, you know what, headphones make a lot of money. No, all I did was I looked around. I was like hey, I'm into music, why don't I just share my gift with the world? I started out with just one pair of headphones and I move on to the next one, and the thing is people are like hey, how do you buy all those headphones? Once I got to a certain level, companies started to send me headphones for free. Completely free, in order to test out, in order to review and give my take on it. And because I created this brand and I made it bigger than myself and bigger than just making one video, I actually would do tens of these review videos, and once I got to a certain point the companies started emailing me, telling me and asking me if I could review their newest line of headphones or their newest products. And it wasn't just headphones, I had companies coming to me asking me to review microphones and Bluetooth devices and just all sorts of random stuff as well. So that's the other plus side of affiliate marketing and creating a brand is that when you build an asset like this companies come to you and they start giving you free stuff. So it's honestly a win-win, you start to earn passive income and you get freebies, I mean what's not to love? Basically, that's method number three, we're gonna hop out the computer, we're gonna finish up this video. I hope you guys got value from that, alright let's move on to the next clip. Alright, what is up guys? I hope you enjoyed that little tutorial right there and those three methods. Honestly, that's all you need to get started today and if you wanna take things a step further, honestly creating that niche authority website, that brand really takes things to the next level. I really want you guys to think long-term. Really, if you want to succeed in this business you have to be thinking about the future. You can't just be chasing the quick cash, you can't be looking for get rich quick because it doesn't exist here. What we're trying to do is build actual sustainable business that will earn us passive income for months, if not years to come as I've been able to do. So if you are interested in getting into the fast lane, honestly you can join my free course in the description below, completely free. There's no strings attached if you want to learn the fundamentals and the basics of affiliate marketing, especially the way that I teach it, join that today. You get instant access for just putting your email in and now for the people who are interested in my program I do have to speak on that. First off, I want to apologize to people because the last couple weeks I've actually closed up my program for the most part and I didn't announce it or anything. I didn't tell people that hey, I'm going to be shutting the program down but because of the new business venture that I have to keep under wraps but I have begun development on it, because of that new business venture and because I want to focus on the students that I have right now and I want to actually create a second version of my program and just revise things and make things even better. We have to shut things down temporarily, it might be for a few months, it could be longer, who knows. But I do want to give you guys a fair warning, which I didn't give you guys before. So I apologize to anyone who was trying to join the program and it was closed, they visited the website and they saw that they couldn't join. I just wanted to give you guys an actual announcement letting you guys know that the program will be closing soon and it will be closed for a few months while I focus on other business ventures and also bettering the actual program and the students that are in it. So if you are interested in that, check out the description below. There'll be a link there where you can learn more about it and if it's available, if there are spots open, you can join it but I'm just giving you guys a fair warning that it might be closed so I hope you guys enjoyed it. Again, please hit that thumbs up button and leave a comment below if you enjoyed this video. It will allow me to create more videos just like this in the future. If you have any questions, you have any feedback, leave it in the comments below. I read every single comment and I try to respond to every single one. I hope you guys have a blessed day. Take it easy, peace.



The industry has four core players:[citation needed]

The market has grown in complexity, resulting in the emergence of a secondary tier of players, including affiliate management agencies, super-affiliates, and specialized third party vendors.[citation needed]

Affiliate marketing overlaps with other Internet marketing methods to some degree, because affiliates often use regular advertising methods. Those methods include organic search engine optimization (SEO), paid search engine marketing (PPC – Pay Per Click), e-mail marketing, content marketing, and (in some sense) display advertising. On the other hand, affiliates sometimes use less orthodox techniques, such as publishing reviews of products or services offered by a partner.[citation needed]

Affiliate marketing is commonly confused with referral marketing, as both forms of marketing use third parties to drive sales to the retailer. The two forms of marketing are differentiated, however, in how they drive sales, where affiliate marketing relies purely on financial motivations, while referral marketing relies more on trust and personal relationships.[citation needed]

Affiliate marketing is frequently overlooked by advertisers.[2] While search engines, e-mail, and web site syndication capture much of the attention of online retailers, affiliate marketing carries a much lower profile. Still, affiliates continue to play a significant role in e-retailers' marketing strategies.[citation needed]



The concept of revenue sharing—paying commission for referred business—predates affiliate marketing and the Internet. The translation of the revenue share principles to mainstream e-commerce happened in November 1994,[3] almost four years after the origination of the World Wide Web.

The concept of affiliate marketing on the Internet was conceived of, put into practice and patented by William J. Tobin, the founder of PC Flowers & Gifts. Launched on the Prodigy Network in 1989, PC Flowers & Gifts remained on the service until 1996. By 1993, PC Flowers & Gifts generated sales in excess of $6 million per year on the Prodigy service. In 1998, PC Flowers and Gifts developed the business model of paying a commission on sales to the Prodigy Network.[4][5]

In 1994, Tobin launched a beta version of PC Flowers & Gifts on the Internet in cooperation with IBM, who owned half of Prodigy.[6] By 1995 PC Flowers & Gifts had launched a commercial version of the website and had 2,600 affiliate marketing partners on the World Wide Web. Tobin applied for a patent on tracking and affiliate marketing on January 22, 1996, and was issued U.S. Patent number 6,141,666 on Oct 31, 2000. Tobin also received Japanese Patent number 4021941 on Oct 5, 2007, and U.S. Patent number 7,505,913 on Mar 17, 2009, for affiliate marketing and tracking.[7] In July 1998 PC Flowers and Gifts merged with Fingerhut and Federated Department Stores.[8]

Cybererotica was among the early innovators in affiliate marketing with a cost per click program.[9]

In November 1994, CDNow launched its BuyWeb program. CDNow had the idea that music-oriented websites could review or list albums on their pages that their visitors might be interested in purchasing. These websites could also offer a link that would take visitors directly to CDNow to purchase the albums. The idea for remote purchasing originally arose from conversations with music label Geffen Records in the fall of 1994. The management at Geffen wanted to sell its artists' CD's directly from its website but did not want to implement this capability itself. Geffen asked CDNow if it could design a program where CDNow would handle the order fulfillment. Geffen realized that CDNow could link directly from the artist on its website to Geffen's website, bypassing the CDNow home page and going directly to an artist's music page.[10] (Amazon) launched its associate program in July 1996: Amazon associates could place banner or text links on their site for individual books, or link directly to the Amazon home page.[11]

When visitors clicked on the associate's website to go to Amazon and purchase a book, the associate received a commission. Amazon was not the first merchant to offer an affiliate program, but its program was the first to become widely known and serve as a model for subsequent programs.[12][13]

In February 2000, Amazon announced that it had been granted a patent[14] on components of an affiliate program. The patent application was submitted in June 1997, which predates most affiliate programs, but not PC Flowers & (October 1994), (October 1995), (January 1996), EPage (April 1996), and several others.[9]

Historic development

Affiliate marketing has grown quickly since its inception. The e-commerce website, viewed as a marketing toy in the early days of the Internet, became an integrated part of the overall business plan and in some cases grew to a bigger business than the existing offline business. According to one report, the total sales amount generated through affiliate networks in 2006 was £2.16 billion in the United Kingdom alone. The estimates were £1.35 billion in sales in 2005.[15] MarketingSherpa's research team estimated that, in 2006, affiliates worldwide earned US$6.5 billion in bounty and commissions from a variety of sources in retail, personal finance, gaming and gambling, travel, telecom, education, publishing, and forms of lead generation other than contextual advertising programs.[16]

In 2006, the most active sectors for affiliate marketing were the adult gambling, retail industries and file-sharing services.[17]:149–150 The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone, finance, and travel sectors.[17] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix.[17]:149–150

Web 2.0

Websites and services based on Web 2.0 concepts—blogging and interactive online communities, for example—have impacted the affiliate marketing world as well. These platforms allow improved communication between merchants and affiliates. Web 2.0 platforms have also opened affiliate marketing channels to personal bloggers, writers, and independent website owners. Contextual ads allow publishers with lower levels of web traffic to place affiliate ads on websites.[citation needed]

Forms of new media have also diversified how companies, brands, and ad networks serve ads to visitors. For instance, YouTube allows video-makers to embed advertisements through Google's affiliate network.[18][19] New developments have made it more difficult for unscrupulous affiliates to make money. Emerging black sheep are detected and made known to the affiliate marketing community with much greater speed and efficiency.[citation needed]

Compensation methods

Predominant compensation methods

Eighty percent of affiliate programs today use revenue sharing or pay per sale (PPS) as a compensation method, nineteen percent use cost per action (CPA), and the remaining programs use other methods such as cost per click (CPC) or cost per mille (CPM, cost per estimated 1000 views).[20]

Diminished compensation methods

Within more mature markets, less than one percent of traditional affiliate marketing programs today use cost per click and cost per mille. However, these compensation methods are used heavily in display advertising and paid search.

Cost per mille requires only that the publisher make the advertising available on his or her website and display it to the page visitors in order to receive a commission. Pay per click requires one additional step in the conversion process to generate revenue for the publisher: A visitor must not only be made aware of the advertisement but must also click on the advertisement to visit the advertiser's website.

Cost per click was more common in the early days of affiliate marketing but has diminished in use over time due to click fraud issues very similar to the click fraud issues modern search engines are facing today. Contextual advertising programs are not considered in the statistic pertaining to the diminished use of cost per click, as it is uncertain if contextual advertising can be considered affiliate marketing.

While these models have diminished in mature e-commerce and online advertising markets they are still prevalent in some more nascent industries. China is one example where Affiliate Marketing does not overtly resemble the same model in the West. With many affiliates being paid a flat "Cost Per Day" with some networks offering Cost Per Click or CPM.

Performance/affiliate marketing

In the case of cost per mille/click, the publisher is not concerned about whether a visitor is a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert, because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. This leaves the greater, and, in case of cost per mille, the full risk and loss (if the visitor cannot be converted) to the advertiser.

Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.

Affiliate marketing is also called "performance marketing", in reference to how sales employees are typically being compensated. Such employees are typically paid a commission for each sale they close, and sometimes are paid performance incentives for exceeding objectives.[21] Affiliates are not employed by the advertiser whose products or services they promote, but the compensation models applied to affiliate marketing are very similar to the ones used for people in the advertisers' internal sales department.

The phrase, "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business", which is often used to explain affiliate marketing, is not completely accurate. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. The sales team of the advertiser, however, does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect either a) signs the contract, or b) completes the purchase.

Multi-tier programs

Some advertisers offer multi-tier programs that distribute commission into a hierarchical referral network of sign-ups and sub-partners. In practical terms, publisher "A" signs up to the program with an advertiser and gets rewarded for the agreed activity conducted by a referred visitor. If publisher "A" attracts publishers "B" and "C" to sign up for the same program using his sign-up code, all future activities performed by publishers "B" and "C" will result in additional commission (at a lower rate) for publisher "A".

Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs; most are simply one-tier. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs.[citation needed]

From the advertiser's perspective

Advantages for merchants

Merchants favor affiliate marketing because in most cases it uses a "pay for performance" model, meaning that the merchant does not incur a marketing expense unless results are accrued (excluding any initial setup cost).[22]

Implementation options

Some merchants run their own (in-house) affiliate programs using dedicated software, while others use third-party intermediaries to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. There are two different types of affiliate management methods used by merchants: standalone software or hosted services, typically called affiliate networks. Payouts to affiliates or publishers can be made by the networks on behalf of the merchant, by the network, consolidated across all merchants where the publisher has a relationship with and earned commissions or directly by the merchant itself.

Affiliate management and program management outsourcing

Uncontrolled affiliate programs aid rogue affiliates, who use spamming,[23] trademark infringement, false advertising, cookie stuffing, typosquatting,[24] and other unethical methods that have given affiliate marketing a negative reputation.

Some merchants are using outsourced (affiliate) program management (OPM) companies, which are themselves often run by affiliate managers and network program managers.[25] OPM companies perform affiliate program management for the merchants as a service, similar to the role an advertising agencies serves in offline marketing.

Types of affiliate websites

Affiliate websites are often categorized by merchants (advertisers) and affiliate networks. There are currently no industry-wide standards for the categorization. The following types of websites are generic, yet are commonly understood and used by affiliate marketers.

  • Search affiliates that utilize pay per click search engines to promote the advertisers' offers (i.e., search arbitrage)
  • Price comparison service websites and directories
  • Loyalty websites, typically characterized by providing a reward or incentive system for purchases via points, miles, cash back
  • Cause Related Marketing sites that offer charitable donations
  • Coupon and rebate websites that focus on sales promotions
  • Content and niche market websites, including product review sites
  • Personal websites
  • Weblogs and websites syndication feeds
  • E-mail marketing list affiliates (i.e., owners of large opt-in -mail lists that typically employ e-mail drip marketing) and newsletter list affiliates, which are typically more content-heavy
  • Registration path or co-registration affiliates who include offers from other merchants during the registration process on their own website
  • Shopping directories that list merchants by categories without providing coupons, price comparisons, or other features based on information that changes frequently, thus requiring continual updates
  • Cost per action networks (i.e., top-tier affiliates) that expose offers from the advertiser with which they are affiliated with their own network of affiliates
  • Websites using adbars (e.g. AdSense) to display context-sensitive advertising for products on the site
  • Virtual currency that offers advertising views in exchange for a handout of virtual currency in a game or other virtual platform.
  • File-Sharing: Web sites that host directories of music, movies, games and other software. Users upload content to file-hosting sites and then post descriptions of the material and their download links on directory sites. Uploaders are paid by the file-hosting sites based on the number of times their files are downloaded. The file-hosting sites sell premium download access to the files to the general public. The websites that host the directory services sell advertising and do not host the files themselves.
  • Video sharing websites: YouTube videos are often utilized by affiliates to do affiliate marketing. A person would create a video and place a link to the affiliate product they are promoting in the video itself and within the description.

Publisher recruitment

Affiliate networks that already have several advertisers typically also have a large pool of publishers. These publishers could be potentially recruited, and there is also an increased chance that publishers in the network apply to the program on their own, without the need for recruitment efforts by the advertiser.

Relevant websites that attract the same target audiences as the advertiser but without competing with it are potential affiliate partners as well. Vendors or existing customers can also become recruits if doing so makes sense and does not violate any laws or regulations (such as with pyramid schemes).

Almost any website could be recruited as an affiliate publisher, but high traffic websites are more likely interested in (for their sake) low-risk cost per mille or medium-risk cost per click deals rather than higher-risk cost per action or revenue share deals.[26]

Locating affiliate programs

There are three primary ways to locate affiliate programs for a target website:

  1. Affiliate program directories,
  2. Large affiliate networks that provide the platform for dozens or even hundreds of advertisers, and
  3. The target website itself. (Websites that offer an affiliate program often have a link titled "affiliate program", "affiliates", "referral program", or "webmasters"—usually in the footer or "About" section of the website.)

If the above locations do not yield information pertaining to affiliates, it may be the case that there exists a non-public affiliate program. Utilizing one of the common website correlation methods may provide clues about the affiliate network. The most definitive method for finding this information is to contact the website owner directly if a contact method can be located.

Past and current issues

Since the emergence of affiliate marketing, there has been little control over affiliate activity. Unscrupulous affiliates have used spam, false advertising, forced clicks (to get tracking cookies set on users' computers), adware, and other methods to drive traffic to their sponsors. Although many affiliate programs have terms of service that contain rules against spam, this marketing method has historically proven to attract abuse from spammers.

E-mail spam

In the infancy of affiliate marketing, many Internet users held negative opinions due to the tendency of affiliates to use spam to promote the programs in which they were enrolled.[27] As affiliate marketing matured, many affiliate merchants have refined their terms and conditions to prohibit affiliates from spamming.

Malicious browser extensions

A browser extension is a plug-in that extends the functionality of a web browser. Some extensions are authored using web technologies such as HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Most modern web browsers have a whole slew of third-party extensions available for download. In recent years, there has been a constant rise in the number of malicious browser extensions flooding the web. Malicious browser extensions will often appear to be legitimate as they seem to originate from vendor websites and come with glowing customer reviews.[28] In the case of affiliate marketing, these malicious extensions are often used to redirect a user’s browser to send fake clicks to websites that are supposedly part of legitimate affiliate marketing programs. Typically, users are completely unaware this is happening other than their browser performance slowing down. Websites end up paying for fake traffic number, and users are unwitting participants in these ad schemes.

Search engine spam

As search engines have become more prominent, some affiliate marketers have shifted from sending e-mail spam to creating automatically generated web pages that often contain product data feeds provided by merchants. The goal of such web pages is to manipulate the relevancy or prominence of resources indexed by a search engine, also known as spamdexing. Each page can be targeted to a different niche market through the use of specific keywords, with the result being a skewed form of search engine optimization.

Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines, whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index.[29]

Websites consisting mostly of affiliate links have previously held a negative reputation for underdelivering quality content. In 2005 there were active changes made by Google, where certain websites were labeled as "thin affiliates".[30] Such websites were either removed from Google's index or were relocated within the results page (i.e., moved from the top-most results to a lower position). To avoid this categorization, affiliate marketer webmasters must create quality content on their websites that distinguishes their work from the work of spammers or banner farms, which only contain links leading to merchant sites.

Some commentators originally suggested that affiliate links work best in the context of the information contained within the website itself. For instance, if a website contains information pertaining to publishing a website, an affiliate link leading to a merchant's internet service provider (ISP) within that website's content would be appropriate. If a website contains information pertaining to sports, an affiliate link leading to a sporting goods website may work well within the context of the articles and information about sports. The goal, in this case, is to publish quality information on the website and provide context-oriented links to related merchant's websites.

However, more recent examples exist of "thin" affiliate sites that are using the affiliate marketing model to create value for Consumers by offering them a service. These thin content service Affiliates fall into three categories:

Consumer countermeasures

The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]


Although it differs from spyware, adware often uses the same methods and technologies. Merchants initially were uninformed about adware, what impact it had, and how it could damage their brands. Affiliate marketers became aware of the issue much more quickly, especially because they noticed that adware often overwrites tracking cookies, thus resulting in a decline of commissions. Affiliates not employing adware felt that it was stealing commission from them. Adware often has no valuable purpose and rarely provides any useful content to the user, who is typically unaware that such software is installed on his/her computer.

Affiliates discussed the issues in Internet forums and began to organize their efforts. They believed that the best way to address the problem was to discourage merchants from advertising via adware. Merchants that were either indifferent to or supportive of adware were exposed by affiliates, thus damaging those merchants' reputations and tarnishing their affiliate marketing efforts. Many affiliates either terminated the use of such merchants or switched to a competitor's affiliate program. Eventually, affiliate networks were also forced by merchants and affiliates to take a stand and ban certain adware publishers from their network. The result was Code of Conduct by Commission Junction/beFree and Performics,[31] LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,[32] and ShareASale's complete ban of software applications as a medium for affiliates to promote advertiser offers.[33] Regardless of the progress made, adware continues to be an issue, as demonstrated by the class action lawsuit against ValueClick and its daughter company Commission Junction filed on April 20, 2007.[34]

Trademark bidding

Affiliates were among the earliest adopters of pay per click advertising when the first pay-per-click search engines emerged during the end of the 1990s. Later in 2000 Google launched its pay per click service, Google AdWords, which is responsible for the widespread use and acceptance of pay per click as an advertising channel. An increasing number of merchants engaged in pay per click advertising, either directly or via a search marketing agency, and realized that this space was already occupied by their affiliates. Although this situation alone created advertising channel conflicts and debates between advertisers and affiliates, the largest issue concerned affiliates bidding on advertisers names, brands, and trademarks.[35] Several advertisers began to adjust their affiliate program terms to prohibit their affiliates from bidding on those type of keywords. Some advertisers, however, did and still do embrace this behavior, going so far as to allow, or even encourage, affiliates to bid on any term, including the advertiser's trademarks.

Compensation disclosure

Bloggers and other publishers may not be aware of disclosure guidelines set forth by the FTC. Guidelines affect celebrity endorsements, advertising language, and blogger compensation.[36]

Lack of industry standards

Certification and training

Affiliate marketing currently lacks industry standards for training and certification. There are some training courses and seminars that result in certifications; however, the acceptance of such certifications is mostly due to the reputation of the individual or company issuing the certification. Affiliate marketing is not commonly taught in universities, and only a few college instructors work with Internet marketers to introduce the subject to students majoring in marketing.[37]

Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. Although there are several books on the topic, some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm, which can quickly become out of date,[37] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers.[38]

Outsourced Program Management companies typically combine formal and informal training, providing much of their training through group collaboration and brainstorming. Such companies also try to send each marketing employee to the industry conference of their choice.[39]

Other training resources used include online forums, weblogs, podcasts, video seminars, and specialty websites.

Code of conduct

A code of conduct was released by affiliate networks Commission Junction/beFree and Performics in December 2002 to guide practices and adherence to ethical standards for online advertising.

Marketing term

Members of the marketing industry are recommending that "affiliate marketing" be substituted with an alternative name.[40] Affiliate marketing is often confused with either network marketing or multi-level marketing. Performance marketing is a common alternative, but other recommendations have been made as well.[citation needed]

Sales tax vulnerability

In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over sales to residents of New York, based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon.[41] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state, and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January 2009. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts.

Cookie stuffing

Cookie stuffing involves placing an affiliate tracking cookie on a website visitor's computer without their knowledge, which will then generate revenue for the person doing the cookie stuffing. This not only generates fraudulent affiliate sales but also has the potential to overwrite other affiliates' cookies, essentially stealing their legitimately earned commissions.

Click to reveal

Many voucher code web sites use a click-to-reveal format, which requires the web site user to click to reveal the voucher code. The action of clicking places the cookie on the website visitor's computer. In the United Kingdom, the IAB Affiliate Council under chair Matt Bailey announced regulations[42] that stated that "Affiliates must not use a mechanism whereby users are encouraged to click to interact with content where it is unclear or confusing what the outcome will be."

See also


  1. ^ "Affiliate marketing". Retrieved February 21, 2018.
  2. ^ Prussakov, Evgenii (2007). "A Practical Guide to Affiliate Marketing" (pp.16-17), 2007. ISBN 0-9791927-0-6.
  3. ^ Shashank SHEKHAR (2009-06-29). "Online Marketing System: Affiliate marketing". Feed Archived from the original on 2011-05-15. Retrieved 2011-04-20. During November 1994, CDNOW released its BuyWeb program. With this program CDNOW was the first non-adult website to launch the concept of an affiliate or associate program with its idea of click-through purchasing.
  4. ^ Chicago Tribune, October 4, 1995[full citation needed]
  5. ^ The Sunsentinal, 1991[full citation needed]
  6. ^ PC Week Article, January 9, 1995[full citation needed]
  7. ^ Business Wire, January 24, 2000[full citation needed]
  8. ^ Business Wire, March 31, 1999[full citation needed]
  9. ^ a b Collins, Shawn (2000-11-10). History of Affiliate Marketing. ClickZ Network, 10 November 2000. Retrieved on 2007-10-15 from Archived 2007-10-12 at the Wayback Machine..
  10. ^ Olim, Jason; Olim, Matthew; and Kent, Peter (1999-01). "The CDNOW Story: Rags to Riches on the Internet", Top Floor Publishing, January 1999. ISBN 0-9661032-6-2.
  11. ^ "What is the Amazon Associates program?". amazon associates. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-20. Amazon Associates is one of the first online affiliate marketing programs and was launched in 1996.
  12. ^ Frank Fiore and Shawn Collins, "Successful Affiliate Marketing for Merchants", from pages 12, 13 and 14. QUE Publishing, April 2001 ISBN 0-7897-2525-8
  13. ^ Gray, Daniel (1999-11-30). "The Complete Guide to Associate and Affiliate Programs on the Net". McGraw-Hill Trade, 30 November 1999. ISBN 0-07-135310-0.
  14. ^ US 6029141 
  15. ^ October 2006, Affiliate Marketing Networks Buyer's Guide (2006), Page 6,, retrieved June 25, 2007
  16. ^ Anne Holland, publisher (January 11, 2006), Affiliate Summit 2006 Wrap-Up Report -- Commissions to Reach $6.5 Billion in 2006, MarketingSherpa, retrieved on May 17, 2007
  17. ^ a b c "Internet Statistics Compendium 2007". e-Consultancy. February 2007. Archived from the original on 2005-03-10. Retrieved 2007-06-25.
  18. ^ Dion, Hinchcliffe. "Web 2.0′s Real Secret Sauce: Network Effects". Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  19. ^ Dion, Hinchcliffe. "Social Media Goes Mainstream". Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  20. ^ Colascione, John (2012). Mastering Your Website: Insider's Guide to Fully Understanding Your Website, Search Engine Optimization and Building Your Brand Online. New York: Searchen Networks Inc. p. 108. ISBN 1475155662.
  21. ^ CellarStone Inc. (2006), Sales Commission,, retrieved June 25, 2007
  22. ^ Tom Taulli (9 November 2005), Creating A Virtual Sales Force, Business. Retrieved 14 May 2007.
  23. ^ Danny Sullivan (June 27, 2006), The Daily SearchCast News from June 27, 2006,, retrieved May 17, 2007
  24. ^ Wayne Porter (September 6, 2006), NEW FIRST: LinkShare- Lands' End Versus The Affiliate on Typosquatting Archived 2006-10-17 at the Wayback Machine., ReveNews, retrieved on May 17, 2007
  25. ^ Jennifer D. Meacham (July/August 2006), Going Out Is In, Revenue Magazine, published by Montgomery Research Inc, Issue 12., Page 36
  26. ^ Marios Alexandrou (February 4th, 2007), CPM vs. CPC vs. CPA Archived 2007-11-14 at the Wayback Machine., All Things SEM, retrieved November 11, 2007
  27. ^ Ryan Singel (October 2, 2005), Shady Web of Affiliate Marketing,, retrieved May 17, 2007
  28. ^ Roger A. Grimes (2016-07-26). "3 ways websites get pwned -- and threaten you". CSO from IDG. Retrieved 2017-11-28.
  29. ^ Jim Hedger (September 6, 2006), Being a Bigdaddy Jagger Meister Archived 2007-12-23 at the Wayback Machine.,, retrieved on December 16, 2007
  30. ^ Spam Recognition Guide for Raters Archived 2007-07-03 at the Wayback Machine. (Word document) supposedly leaked out from Google in 2005. The authenticity of the document was neither acknowledged nor challenged by Google.
  31. ^ December 10, 2002, Online Marketing Service Providers Announce Web Publisher Code of Conduct (contains original CoC text),, retrieved June 26, 2007
  32. ^ December 12, 2002, LinkShare's Anti-Predatory Advertising Addendum,, retrieved June 26, 2007
  33. ^ ShareASale Affiliate Service Agreement,, retrieved June 26, 2007
  34. ^ April 20, 2007, AdWare Class Action Lawsuit against - ValueClick, Commission Junction and beFree, Law Firms of Nassiri & Jung LLP and Hagens Berman, retrieved from on June 26, 2007
  35. ^ Rosso, Mark; Jansen, Bernard (Jim) (August 2010). "Brand Names as Keywords in Sponsored Search Advertising". Communications of the Association for Information Systems. 27 (1): 81–98
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  37. ^ a b Alexandra Wharton (March/April 2007), Learning Outside the Box, Revenue Magazine, Issue: March/April 2007, Page 58, link to online version retrieved June 26, 2007
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  39. ^ March/April 2007, How Do Companies Train Affiliate Managers? Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. (Web Extra),, retrieved June 26, 2007
  40. ^ Vinny Lingham (11.October, 2005), Profit Sharing - The Performance Marketing Model of the Future Archived 2006-11-19 at the Wayback Machine.,Vinny Lingham's Blog, retrieved on 14.May, 2007
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  42. ^ IAB, Friday, 27 March 2009 IAB affiliate council strengthens voucher code guidelines Archived January 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.

External links

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