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Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Admiral of the Fleet
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
The flag of an admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals' flags.[1]
British Royal Navy OF-10-collected.svg
Insignia shoulder board and sleeve lace for Admiral of the Fleet
Country United Kingdom
Service branch Royal Navy
Rank groupFlag officer
RankFive-star
NATO rank codeOF-10
Formation1688
Next lower rankAdmiral
Equivalent ranks

Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy formally established in 1688.[2] The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995.

History

The origins of the rank can be traced back to John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, who was appointed 'Admiral of the King's Southern, Northern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360.[3] The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time; this evolved into the post of Admiral of the Fleet.[4] In the days of sailing ships the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy included distinctions related to the fleet being divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue. Each division was assigned at least one admiral, who in turn commanded a number of vice-admirals and rear admirals. While the full admirals were nominally equals, tradition gave precedence to the Admiral of the White who held the fleet rank in addition to his substantive role.[2]

Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

The Restoration era brought a general reorganisation of naval ranks and structure, including formalisation of the admiral of the fleet role. In a break with tradition the rank was awarded to the most senior Admiral of the Red, who retained this substantive rank while also serving as Admiral of the Fleet. Appointments were for life, remunerated via a £5 daily stipend and an annual allowance of £1,014 for the hiring and maintenance of servants. It was intended that only one officer would hold the rank at any time, with their presence aboard any naval vessel to be denoted by the flying of the Royal Standard from the main mast.[5]

The ranks of Fleet Admiral and Admiral of the Red were formally separated from 1805, with an announcement in the London Gazette that "His Majesty [has] been pleased to order the Rank of Admirals of the Red to be restored"[6] in His Majesty's Navy..." as a separate role. The same Gazette promoted 22 men to that rank.[7] From the nineteenth century onward there were also occasional variations to the previous requirement that only one Admiral of Fleet could serve at one time. In 1821 George IV appointed Sir John Jervis as a second admiral of the fleet, to balance Lord Wellington's promotion as a second Field Marshal in the British Army. In 1830 King William IV increased the number of admirals of the fleet to three, though these additional lifetime postings subsequently lapsed. Between 1854 and 1857 there was no admiral of the fleet at all as the most senior naval officer of the time – Admiral of the Red Thomas Le Marchant Gosselin – was mentally ill and had not served at sea for forty-five years.[8][9] In deference to Gosselin's seniority the position was instead left vacant until his death in 1857, whereupon it was filled by admiral Charles Ogle.[5]

In practice the rank had lost its formal authority from 1828, when the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904). Thereafter it was periodically granted to retiring First Naval Lords as an honorary promotion, only passing to the most senior Admiral if there was no other candidate. On occasion even this seniority principle was abandoned, as on the death of Provo Wallis in 1892 when the promotion went to John Edmund Commerell rather than the senior Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey.[10]

Twentieth century

The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, though the rank of admiral of the fleet was maintained. During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Sea Lord. e.g. Sir John Tovey.[11]

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh was created an Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal New Zealand Navy in 1954, following the coronation of his wife Elizabeth II as Queen. This promotion was to a New Zealand rank, separate from the Royal Navy rank.[12]

Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord. The rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet (as well as field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force), in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was also appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet.[13]

Admirals of the Fleet

Appointed
Image
Name
Born
Died
Notes
Reference
1688
George Legge, 1st Baron Dartmouth by John Riley.jpg
George Legge
(later Earl of Dartmouth)
1647 1691 [14]
1690
Gibson, Edward Russell.jpg
Edward Russell
(later Earl of Orford)
1652 1727 [15]
1696
George Rooke2.jpg
Sir George Rooke 1650 1709 circa [16]
13 January 1705
Sir Cloudesley Shovell, 1650-1707.jpg
Sir Cloudesley Shovell 1650 1707 [17]
8 January 1708
John Leake by Godfrey Kneller.jpg
Leake JohnSir John Leake 1656 1720 [18]
21 December 1708
Stafford Fairborne.jpg
Fairborne StaffordSir Stafford Fairborne 1666 1742 circa [19]
12 November 1709
MatthewAylmer.jpg
Aylmer MatthewSir Matthew Aylmer 1650 1720 [20]
14 March 1718
George Byng, 1st Viscount Torrington by Jeremiah Davison.jpg
Byng GeorgeSir George Byng
(later Viscount Torrington)
1663 1733 [21]
20 February 1734
Admiral Sir John Norris, cirka 1735.jpg
Norris JohnSir John Norris 1670 1749 [22]
1 July 1749
Chaloner Ogle.JPG
Ogle ChallonerSir Chaloner Ogle 1681 1750 [23]
22 November 1751
No image.svg
Steuart JamesJames Steuart 1690 1757 [24]
March 1757
No image.svg
Clinton GeorgeGeorge Clinton 1686 1761 [25]
30 July 1761
1stLordAnson.jpg
AnsonThe Lord Anson 1697 1762 [26]
17 December 1762
Williamrowley.jpg
Rowley WilliamSir William Rowley 1690 1768 circa [27]
15 January 1768
Edward Hawke 1.jpg
Hawke EdwardSir Edward Hawke
(later Lord Hawke)
1705 1781 [28]
24 October 1781
John Forbes portrait.jpg
Luke O'KeefeJohn Forbes 1714 1796 [29]
12 March 1796
Admiral of the Fleet Howe 1726-99 1st Earl Howe by John Singleton Copley.jpg
HoweThe Earl Howe 1726 1799 [30]
16 September 1799
Sir peter parker NMM.JPG
Parker PeterSir Peter Parker 1721 1811 [31]
24 December 1811
William IV by Sir Martin Archer Shee.jpg
Clarence and Saint AndrewsThe Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
(later King William IV)
1765 1837 [32]
19 July 1821
John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent by Francis Cotes.jpg
Saint VincentThe Earl of St Vincent 1735 1823 acting from May 1814 [33]
28 June 1830
Captain William Peere Williams.jpg
Williams-Freeman WilliamWilliam Williams-Freeman 1742 1832 [34]
22 July 1830
James Gambier.jpg
GambierThe Lord Gambier 1756 1833 [35]
22 July 1830
SirCharlesMoricePole.jpg
Pole CharlesSir Charles Pole 1757 1830 [35]
24 April 1833
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Charles Edmund Nugent.JPG
Nugent CharlesSir Charles Nugent 1759 1844 [36]
8 January 1844
HawkinsWhitshed.jpg
Hawkins-Whitshed JamesSir James Hawkins-Whitshed 1762 1849 [37]
9 November 1846
Admiral Sir George Martin.jpg
Martin GeorgeSir George Martin 1764 1847 [38]
13 October 1849
Portrait of Sir Thomas Byam Martin 1773-1854, Thomas Mackay, oil on canvas.jpg
Martin ThomasSir Thomas Byam Martin 1773 1854 [39]
1 July 1851
Sir George Cockburn.jpg
Cockburn GeorgeSir George Cockburn 1772 1853 [40]
8 December 1857
Admiral Sir Charles Ogle, Bart - Amiral sir Charles Ogle, Bart.jpg
Ogle CharlesSir Charles Ogle 1775 1858 [41]
25 June 1858
Admiral of the Fleet Sir John West.JPG
West JohnSir John West 1774 1862 [42]
20 May 1862
No image.svg
Gage WilliamSir William Gage 1777 1864 [43]
10 November 1862
No image.svg
Hamond GrahamSir Graham Hamond 1779 1862 [44]
27 April 1863
FrancisAusten.jpg
Austen FrancisSir Francis Austen 1774 1865 [45]
27 April 1863
Sir William Parker.jpg
Parker WilliamSir William Parker 1781 1866 [46]
11 January 1864
No image.svg
Curtis LuciusSir Lucius Curtis 1786 1869 [47]
12 September 1865
Thomas-john-cochrane.jpg
Cochrane ThomasSir Thomas Cochrane 1789 1872 [48]
30 November 1866
George Francis Seymour.jpg
Seymour GeorgeSir George Seymour 1787 1870 [49]
30 January 1868
Rear Admiral James Alexander Gordon.jpg
Gordon JamesSir James Gordon 1782 1869 on the Retired List [50]
15 January 1869
Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Bowles.JPG
Bowles WilliamSir William Bowles 1780 1869 [51]
2 July 1869
Conde de Penha Firme.JPG
Sartorious GeorgeSir George Sartorius 1790 1885 [52]
21 January 1870
Sir Fairfax Moresby.jpg
Moresby FairfaxSir Fairfax Moresby 1786 1877 [53]
20 October 1872
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Houston Stewart.JPG
Stewart HoustonSir Houston Stewart 1791 1875 [54]
11 December 1875
Provo Wallis.jpg
Wallis ProvoSir Provo Wallis 1791 1892 [55]
22 January 1877
Rear-Admiral Henry John Codrington (1808-1877), by Cato Lowes Dickinson.jpg
Codrington HenrySir Henry Codrington 1808 1877 [56]
5 August 1877
Admiral of the Fleet Sir Henry Keppel.jpg
Keppel HenrySir Henry Keppel 1809 1904 [57]
27 December 1877
No image.svg
LauderdaleThe Earl of Lauderdale 1803 1878 [58]
27 December 1877
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Rodney Mundy.JPG
Mundy RodneySir Rodney Mundy 1805 1884 [58]
15 June 1879
Admiral of the Fleet Sir James Hope.JPG
Hope JamesSir James Hope 1808 1881 [59]
15 June 1879
No image.svg
Symonds ThomasSir Thomas Symonds 1813 1894 [59]
10 June 1881
Admiral Alexander Milne (1808-1896), by Walter William Ouless.jpg
Milne AlexanderSir Alexander Milne, Bt. 1806 1896 on the Retired List [60]
1 December 1881
No image.svg
Elliot CharlesSir Charles Elliot 1818 1895 [61]
29 April 1885
Ryderpic.jpg
Ryder AlfredSir Alfred Ryder 1820 1888 [62]
18 July 1887
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg
WalesThe Prince of Wales
(later King Edward VII)
1841 1910 honorary to non-Navy royalty [63]
1 May 1888
Geoffrey Phipps Hornby.jpg
Hornby GeoffreySir Geoffrey Hornby 1825 1895 [64]
8 December 1888
Lordjohnhay.jpg
Hay JohnLord John Hay 1827 1916 First Sea Lord 1886 [65]
2 August 1889
Wilhelm II, German Emperor, by Russell & Sons, c1890.jpg
William IIHIM German Emperor William II 1859 1941 honorary, to foreign royalty [66]
13 February 1892
VCJohnEdmundCommerell.jpg
Commerell JohnSir John Commerell 1829 1901 [67]
3 June 1893
Alfred-sachsen-coburg-gotha.jpg
EdinburghThe Duke of Edinburgh
(later Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
1844 1900 [68]
20 February 1895
Richard Meade, 4th Earl of Clanwilliam.jpg
ClanwilliamThe Earl of Clanwilliam 1832 1907 [69]
23 August 1897
Algernon McLennan Lyons.JPG
Lyons AlgernonSir Algernon Lyons 1833 1908 [70]
29 November 1898
Admiral Frederick Richards, by Arthur Stockdale Cope.jpg
Richards FrederickSir Frederick Richards 1833 1912 First Sea Lord 1893–1899 [71]
13 January 1899
Nowell Salmon VC.JPG
Salmon NowellSir Nowell Salmon 1835 1912 [72]
3 October 1902
James Elphinstone Erskine.jpg
Erskine JamesSir James Erskine 1838 1911 [73]
30 August 1903
Charles Frederick Hotham.jpg
Hotham CharlesSir Charles Hotham 1843 1925 [74]
16 June 1904
LordWalterKerr.jpg
Kerr WalterLord Walter Kerr 1839 1927 First Sea Lord 1899–1904 [75]
20 February 1905
Sir Edward H. Seymour 2.jpg
Seymour EdwardSir Edward Seymour 1840 1929 [76]
5 December 1905
Adm. John Fisher.jpg
Fisher JohnSir John Fisher
(later Lord Fisher)
1841 1920 First Sea Lord 1905–1910 and 1914–1915 [77]
1 March 1907
Awilson.gif
Wilson ArthurSir Arthur Wilson 1842 1921 First Sea Lord 1910–1911 [78]
11 June 1908
Nicolas II de russie.jpg
Nicholas IIHIM Tsar Nicholas II of Russia 1868 1918 honorary, to foreign royalty [79]
2 December 1908
Gerard Noel.png
Noel GerardSir Gerard Noel 1845 1918 [80]
27 January 1910 Prinz Heinrich - as GrADM with baton - LC-B2- 2992-2(2).tiff Heinrich of PrussiaPrince Henry of Prussia 1862 1929 honorary, to foreign royalty [81]
30 April 1910
Adm. Sir A. Fanshawe (LOC).jpg
Fanshawe ArthurSir Arthur Fanshawe 1847 1936 [82]
6 May 1910
King George V 1911 color-crop.jpg
George V
King George V 1865 1936 [83]
20 March 1913
Portrait of William May.jpg
May WilliamSir William May 1849 1930 [84]
5 March 1915
Hedworth Meux 1915.jpg
Meux HedworthSir Hedworth Meux 1856 1929 [85]
2 April 1917
George Callaghan - Project Gutenberg eText 18334.jpg
Callaghan GeorgeSir George Callaghan 1852 1920 [86]
3 April 1919
John Jellicoe, Admiral of the Fleet.jpg
JellicoeThe Viscount Jellicoe
(later Earl Jellicoe)
1859 1935 First Sea Lord 1916–1918 [87]
3 April 1919
Vice Admiral Sir David Beatty.jpg
Beatty DavidSir David Beatty
(later Earl Beatty)
1871 1936 First Sea Lord 1919–1927 [88]
31 July 1919
Henry Bradwardine Jackson.jpg
Jackson HenrySir Henry Jackson 1855 1929 First Sea Lord 1915–1916 [89]
1 November 1919
Rosslyn Erskine Wemyss, Baron Wester Wemyss by Sir William Orpen.jpg
Wemyss RosslynSir Rosslyn Wemyss
(later Lord Wester Wemyss)
1864 1933 First Sea Lord 1918–1919 [90]
24 November 1920
Vice Admiral Cecil Burney (7307714298).jpg
Burney CecilSir Cecil Burney, Bt. 1858 1929 [91]
5 July 1921
Frederick Doveton Sturdee.jpg
Sturdee DovetonSir Doveton Sturdee, Bt. 1859 1925 [92]
19 August 1921
LudwigBattenberg.jpg
Milford HavenThe Marquess of Milford Haven 1854 1921 First Sea Lord 1912–1914. On the Retired List [93]
31 July 1924
Charles Madden.jpg
Madden CharlesSir Charles Madden, Bt. 1862 1935 First Sea Lord 1927–1930 [94]
8 May 1925
Admiral Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe (1922).jpg
Calthorpe SomersetSir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 1864 1937 [95]
24 November 1925
John Michael de Robeck.jpg
de Robeck JohnSir John de Robeck, Bt. 1862 1928 [96]
21 January 1928
Vice-admiral Sir Henry Francis Oliver, Kcb, Mvo Art.IWMART1763.jpg
Oliver HenrySir Henry Oliver 1865 1965 [97]
31 July 1929
Rear-admiral Osmond de Beauvoir Brock Cb Cmg Art.IWMART1722.jpg
Brock OsmondSir Osmond Brock 1869 1947 [98]
8 May 1930
Sir Roger Keyes.jpg
Keyes RogerSir Roger Keyes, Bt.
(later Lord Keyes)
1872 1945 [99]
21 January 1933
Frederick Field (Royal Navy officer).jpg
Field FrederickSir Frederick Field 1871 1945 First Sea Lord 1930–1933 [100]
31 July 1934
ReginaldTyrwhittportraitbyDodd.jpg
Tyrwhitt ReginaldSir Reginald Tyrwhitt, Bt. 1870 1951 [101]
8 May 1935
Echatfield.jpg
Chatfield ErnleSir Ernle Chatfield
(later Lord Chatfield)
1873 1967 First Sea Lord 1933–1938 [102]
21 January 1936
Edward Prince of Wales during his visit to Canada in 1919.jpg
Edward VIIIKing Edward VIII 1894 1972 [103]
12 July 1936 Kelly JohnSir John Kelly 1871 1936 [104]
11 December 1936
Georg VI England.jpg
George VIKing George VI 1895 1952 [105]
21 January 1938
William Boyle.jpg
CorkThe Earl of Cork and Orrery 1873 1967 [106]
7 July 1939
Rbackhouse.jpg
Backhouse RogerSir Roger Backhouse 1878 1939 First Sea Lord 1938–1939 [107]
31 July 1939
SirDudleyPound.jpg
Pound DudleySir Dudley Pound 1877 1943 First Sea Lord 1939–1943 [108]
8 May 1940
Charlesforbes1.JPG
Forbes CharlesSir Charles Forbes 1880 1960 [109]
21 January 1943
Andrew Cunningham.jpg
Cunningham AndrewSir Andrew Cunningham
(later Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope)
1883 1963 First Sea Lord 1943–1946 [110]
22 October 1943
Tovey-TR 002931.jpg
Tovey JohnSir John Tovey
(later Lord Tovey)
1885 1971 [111]
8 May 1945
INF3-77 pt8 Admiral Sir James Somerville.jpg
Somerville JohnSir James Somerville 1882 1949 [112]
21 January 1948
INF3-76 pt3 Admiral Sir John Cunningham Artist Tim.jpg
Cunningham JohnSir John Cunningham 1885 1965 First Sea Lord 1946–1948 [113]
22 October 1948
BruceFraser.JPG
Fraser of North CapeThe Lord Fraser of North Cape 1888 1981 First Sea Lord 1948–1951 [114]
20 March 1949 Willis AlgernonSir Algernon Willis 1889 1976 [115]
22 April 1952
Arthur Power.jpg
Power ArthurSir Arthur Power 1889 1960 [116]
1 June 1952
Philip Louis Vian.png
Vian PhilipSir Philip Vian 1894 1968 [117]
15 January 1953
Prince Phillip of Edinburgh.jpg
EdinburghThe Duke of Edinburgh 1921 2021 Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom 2011–2021 [118]
1 May 1953
Admiral McGrigor on HMS Norfolk 1945 IWM A 29405.jpg
McGrigor RhoderickSir Rhoderick McGrigor 1893 1959 First Sea Lord 1951–1955 [119]
22 April 1955
Rear Admiral George Creasy TR2627.jpg
Creasy GeorgeSir George Creasy 1895 1972 [120]
22 October 1956
Lord Mountbatten Naval in colour Allan Warren.jpg
Mountbatten of BurmaThe Earl Mountbatten of Burma 1900 1979 First Sea Lord 1955–1959 Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–1965 [121]
10 May 1960 Lambe CharlesSir Charles Lambe 1900 1960 First Sea Lord 1959–1960 [122]
23 May 1962 John CasparSir Caspar John 1903 1984 First Sea Lord 1960–1963 [123]
12 August 1968 Begg VarylSir Varyl Begg 1908 1995 First Sea Lord 1966–1968 [124]
30 June 1970 Le Fanu MichaelSir Michael Le Fanu 1913 1970 First Sea Lord 1968–1970 [125]
12 March 1971
Peter Hill-Norton (cropped).jpg
Hill-Norton PeterSir Peter Hill-Norton
(later Lord Hill-Norton)
1915 2004 First Sea Lord 1970–1971 Chief of the Defence Staff 1971–73 [126]
1 March 1974
Michael Pollock.jpg
Pollock MichaelSir Michael Pollock 1916 2006 First Sea Lord 1971–1974 [127]
9 February 1977 Ashmore EdwardSir Edward Ashmore 1919 2016 First Sea Lord 1977-1977 Chief of the Defence Staff 1977 [128]
6 July 1979 Lewin TerenceSir Terence Lewin
(later Lord Lewin)
1920 1999 First Sea Lord 1977–1979 Chief of the Defence Staff 1979–1982 [129]
1 December 1982 Leach HenrySir Henry Leach 1923 2011 First Sea Lord 1979–1982 [130]
2 August 1985 Fieldhouse JohnSir John Fieldhouse
(later Lord Fieldhouse)
1928 1992 First Sea Lord 1982–1985 Chief of the Defence Staff 1985–1988 [131]
12 April 1988
Olav V of Norway.jpg
King Olav V of Norway 1903 1991 honorary, to foreign royalty [132]
25 May 1989 Staveley WilliamSir William Staveley 1928 1997 First Sea Lord 1985–1989 [133]
2 March 1993 Oswald JulianSir Julian Oswald 1933 2011 First Sea Lord 1989–1993 [134]
10 July 1995
No image.svg
Bathhurst BenjaminSir Benjamin Bathurst 1936 Living First Sea Lord 1993–1995 [135]
16 June 2012
Carlos de Gales (2011).jpg
WalesThe Prince of Wales 1948 Living Honorary rank [136]
13 June 2014
Lord Boyce.jpg
Boyce MichaelThe Lord Boyce 1943 Living Chief of the Defence Staff 2001–2003. Honorary rank [137]

See also

References

  1. ^ Prothero, David (3 December 2002). "United Kingdom: Royal Navy rank flags". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 28 June 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
  2. ^ a b "Information sheet no 055: Squadron Colours" (PDF). nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy. 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  3. ^ 1, St. George Tucker. Vol. (1996). Blackstone's commentaries: with notes of reference to the constitution and laws, of the federal government of the United States, and of the Commonwealth of Virginia; with an appendix to each volume, containing short tracts upon such subjects as appeared necessary to form a connected view of the laws of Virginia as a member of the federal union (Originally published: Philadelphia : William Young Birch, and Abraham Small, 1803. ed.). Union, NJ: Lawbook Exchange. p. xxxiii. ISBN 9781886363168.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ "Trafalgar Ancestors, Glossary". nationalarchives.gov.uk. National Archives, 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  5. ^ a b Kemp, Peter, ed. (1993). The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 0192820842.
  6. ^ The Dictionary of National Biography (Volume 20, page 394) says of James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier that he "seems to have been as ignorant of naval history as careless of naval prestige, and must be considered one of the chief of the perpetrators of the official blunder which, in the warrant of 9 Nov. 1805 appointing admirals of the red, spoke of the rank as restored to the navy, whereas, in point of fact, it had never previously existed."
  7. ^ "No. 15859". The London Gazette. 5 November 1805. p. 1373.
  8. ^ O'Byrne, William Richard (1849). "Gosselin, Thomas Le Marchant" . A Naval Biographical Dictionary . John Murray – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney, eds. (1890). "Gosselin, Thomas le Marchant" . Dictionary of National Biography. 22. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  10. ^ "Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy) - The Dreadnought Project". www.dreadnoughtproject.org.
  11. ^ "No. 36255". The London Gazette. 19 November 1943. p. 5088.
  12. ^ Heald, Tim (1991). The Duke: A Portrait of Prince Philip. London: Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 264–267. ISBN 0-340-54607-7.
  13. ^ "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  14. ^ "Naval Ranks NMRN Portsmouth". www.nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy, Portsmouth. 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  15. ^ "Russell, Edward, Earl of Orford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  16. ^ "Rooke, Sir George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  17. ^ "Shovell, Sir Cloudesley". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Leake, Sir John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  19. ^ "Fairborne, Stafford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  20. ^ "Aylmer, Matthew". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  21. ^ "Byng, George, first Viscount Torrington". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  22. ^ Heathcote, p. 197
  23. ^ "No. 8864". The London Gazette. 4 July 1749. p. 6.
  24. ^ Heathcote p. 236
  25. ^ Heathcote, p. 45
  26. ^ "No. 10126". The London Gazette. 28 July 1761. p. 2.
  27. ^ "No. 10275". The London Gazette. 1 January 1763. p. 1.
  28. ^ Heathcote, p. 109
  29. ^ Heathcote, p. 87
  30. ^ "No. 13875". The London Gazette. 15 March 1796. p. 258.
  31. ^ Heathcote, p. 271
  32. ^ "No. 16554". The London Gazette. 21 December 1811. p. 2454.
  33. ^ "No. 17727". The London Gazette. 20 July 1821. p. 1511.
  34. ^ "No. 18701". The London Gazette. 2 July 1830. p. 1369.
  35. ^ a b "No. 18709". The London Gazette. 23 July 1830. p. 1539.
  36. ^ "No. 19042". The London Gazette. 26 April 1833. p. 793.
  37. ^ "No. 20305". The London Gazette. 16 January 1844. p. 146.
  38. ^ "No. 20660". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1846. p. 3994.
  39. ^ "No. 21037". The London Gazette. 13 November 1849. p. 3387.
  40. ^ "No. 21225". The London Gazette. 8 July 1851. p. 1769.
  41. ^ "No. 22071". The London Gazette. 11 December 1857. p. 4367.
  42. ^ "No. 22157". The London Gazette. 29 June 1858. p. 3090.
  43. ^ "No. 22627". The London Gazette. 20 May 1862. p. 2616.
  44. ^ "No. 22679". The London Gazette. 10 November 1862. p. 5343.
  45. ^ "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
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  103. ^ Heathcote, p. 69
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  105. ^ Heathcote, p. 99
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  112. ^ Heathcote, p. 233
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  118. ^ Heathcote, p. 210
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Sources

  • Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Pen & Sword Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-835-6.

External links

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