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A & C Black
Parent companyBloomsbury Publishing
FounderAdam Black and Charles Black
Country of originUnited Kingdom
Headquarters locationLondon
Publication typesBooks
Nonfiction topicsReference

A & C Black is a British book publishing company, owned since 2002 by Bloomsbury Publishing.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ The Last Light Before Eternal Darkness – White Dwarfs & Black Dwarfs


Humans can survive in this universe as long as we have an energy source Unfortunately the universe will die, it will happen slowly over many billions of years But it will happen. On a universal time scale, stars like our sun will be gone in no time Luckily there are places that will exist practically forever from a human perspective the corpses of Dead Stars White Dwarfs They could be humanity's last home right before the death of the universe What are these strange things and what happens when they finally die? How long stars live, varies drastically: Depending on how massive they are. For example really massive stars burn hot and fast dying violently in Supernova a few million years after birth But they're the exception 97% of all stars will end their existence as white dwarfs There are two ways this can happen: Small stars so-called red dwarfs burn out over trillions of years until they eventually quietly turn into white dwarfs Medium-sized stars like our sun are more interesting Imagine the sun as a huge pressure cooker that fuses hydrogen into helium in its core through its gravity The fusion of elements releases extreme amounts of energy that pushes outwards and stabilizes the star keeping it in a delicate balance When the sun is old, the hydrogen in the core is exhausted and the sun will begin to burn helium into heavier elements While doing so, it will shed its outer layers When this process is over more than half of the sun's mass will be lost into space as a spectacular planetary Nebula millions of kilometers across What remains will be its former core A white dwarf is born, a star corpse While its former self was about 100 times its diameter, now It's only about as big as Earth, but still with about half of its former mass This means it's extremely dense, a teaspoon of white dwarf is about as massive as a car Its surface gravity is over 100 thousand times higher than Earth's If you try to land on it, you'd immediately be compressed into a steaming puddle Life around a white dwarf is very unlikely, but possible Most of them that exist now were former stars that well, died which probably ruined any planets they once had But that's not all, since They are so small, a planet would need to orbit them about 75 times closer than earth is to the sun to have liquid water This proximity has up and down sides, for one it would tightly lock the planet giving it a permanent day and permanent night And the edges of these day and night Zones life could be possible But white dwarfs have a very stable energy output so they might actually be safe to live around the many red dwarfs This is still speculation at this point But if we could find the white dwarf with the right conditions to settle around, we could have a home for many billions of years But why do they shine so much longer than other star types? White dwarfs are very, very hot up to 40 times hotter than our sun Ranking among the hottest objects in the universe But they are not incredibly active All the heat inside of them is trapped and has nowhere to go only on its outer layer can it escape into space But space is mostly empty, so heat can't be transferred by conduction The only way energy can escape is by radiation This is so inefficient that white dwarfs will take trillions of years to cool down which may make them humanity's last refuge They might be the last sources of light and energy in a dying universe According to some estimates white dwarfs might shine as long as 100 billion billion years Ten billion times longer than the universe has existed so far into the future that no regular stars will shine any more galaxies will have evaporated and Only then will the first white dwarf turn into the first black dwarf When this happens the last hope for life will die off Black dwarfs will be inactive spheres with no energy left to give Still massive enough to kill you if you get too close So cold that they'll be near the coldest possible temperature in the universe so dark that they are practically invisible The universe will enter in its last stage heat death which will leave the universe unrecognizable An absolutely dark and cold graveyard with black holes and black dwarfs scattered over trillions of lightyears we don't know for sure what will happen with black dwarfs in the end If the Proton one of the fundamental parts of atoms has a limited lifespan black dwarfs will slowly evaporate over many trillions of years If the Proton does not decay, black dwarfs will probably turn into spheres of pure iron Via Quantum tunneling over a timespan So obscenely gigantic that calling it forever is okay These iron spheres will then travel completely alone through a dark universe Nothing new will happen anymore forever While this may sound kind of dark this is so far away that for our purposes today it might as well not happen at all It doesn't matter what happens in a billion trillion years right now we happen to exist at an excellent time able to be an or about a universe filled with endless stars and light and Planet And enough time to visit them one day Our music is finally available on spotify in itunes it's composed by our good friends at Epic Mountain To guides with the studio that make music for a living You can check them out here and follow them on Facebook and Twitter and if you like our videos Please consider supporting us on Patreon It really would be extremely helpful if you need an excuse to delay work a little bit longer. Here's a playlist with more space videos



Adam and Charles Black's 1863 edition of Woodstock, by Sir Walter Scott (first publ. 1826)
Adam and Charles Black's 1863 edition of Woodstock, by Sir Walter Scott (first publ. 1826)

The firm was founded in 1807 by Adam Black in Edinburgh, and moved to the Soho district of London in 1889. In 1851, the firm bought the copyright of Sir Walter Scott's Waverley novels for £27,000.

During the years 1827–1903 the firm published the 7th, 8th and 9th editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

Beginning in 1839, the firm published a series of travel guides known as Black's Guides.

The company was the publisher of the annual Who's Who (since 1849) and also, since 2002, the Whitaker's Almanack. Other notable works include Black's Medical Dictionary and the Know The Game series of sports rules and laws reference books.[1]

The firm also published the A. & C. Black Colour Books: Twenty Shilling Series (1901-21),[2] a "range of high-quality colour collectable picture books"[3] which are still collected by bibliophiles.[4]

In 1902 they published P. G. Wodehouse's first book, The Pothunters, and went on to produce many of his early works.

In 1989 A & C Black purchased both Christopher Helm Publishers and later the Pica Press, publishers of the Helm Identification Guides, from Christopher Helm.[5]

In 2000 A & C Black was purchased by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, which continued producing the former's range of reference works.

In June 2002, T. & A. D. Poyser and their back-list of around 70 ornithology titles were acquired from Elsevier Science.

A & C Black purchased Methuen Drama from Methuen Publishing in 2006, and acquired Arden Shakespeare from Cengage Learning in 2008.

In 2016, A & C Black Music list has moved to Collins Learning, a division of HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.

Notable books

World maps from A & C Black's 1854 General Atlas Of The World
World maps from A & C Black's 1854 General Atlas Of The World



  1. ^ Know The Game, Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  2. ^ A. & C. Black Colour Books: Twenty Shilling Series, Retrieved on 16 April 2017.
  3. ^ The History of A&C Black Publishers, Retrieved on 16 April 2017.
  4. ^ Cliff Tomaszewski, "A. & C. Black's 20/- Colour Books", Stella and Rose's Books. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  5. ^ FOB: Firms Out of Business, Retrieved 16 April 2017.

External links

This page was last edited on 1 January 2019, at 18:00
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