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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Acadians
Acadiens
Flag of Acadia.svg
Total population
~126,146–2,000,000
Regions with significant populations
 Canada
96,145[1][2]
 United States
901,260
 Quebec32,950
 New Brunswick25,400
 France20,400
 Nova Scotia11,180
 Ontario8,745
 Prince Edward Island3,020
 Maine30,000
 Louisiana (Including Cajuns)815,260
 Texas56,000
Languages
Acadian French (a dialect of French with 370,000 speakers in Canada),[3] English, or both; some areas speak Chiac; those who have resettled to Quebec typically speak Quebec French.
Religion
Predominantly Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups
French (Poitevin and Saintongeais), Cajuns, French-Canadians, Métis

The Acadians (French: Acadiens, IPA: [akadjɛ̃]) are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region.[a][4] The colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New one) Canadians, Acadia was a distinctly separate colony of New France. It was geographically and administratively separate from the French colony of Canada (modern-day Quebec). As a result, the Acadians and Québécois developed two distinct histories and cultures.[5] They also developed a slightly different French language. France has one official language and to accomplish this they have an administration in charge of the language. Since the Acadians were separated from this council, their French language evolved independently, and Acadians retain several elements of 17th-century French that have been lost in France. The settlers whose descendants became Acadians came from many areas in France, but especially regions such as Île-de-France, Normandy, Brittany, Poitou and Aquitaine.[6] Acadian family names have come from many areas in France. For example, the Maillets are from Paris; the LeBlancs of Normandy; the surname Melançon is from Brittany, and those with the surnames Bastarache and Basque came from Aquitaine.

During the French and Indian War (the North American theater of the Seven Years' War), British colonial officers suspected Acadians were aligned with France after finding some Acadians fighting alongside French troops at Fort Beausejour. Though most Acadians remained neutral during the French and Indian War, the British, together with New England legislators and militia, carried out the Great Expulsion (Le Grand Dérangement) of the Acadians during the 1755–1764 period. They deported approximately 11,500 Acadians from the maritime region. Approximately one-third perished from disease and drowning.[7] The result was what one historian described as an ethnic cleansing of the Acadians from Maritime Canada. Other historians indicate that it was a deportation similar to other deportations of the time period.

Most Acadians were deported to various American colonies, where many were forced into servitude, or marginal lifestyles. Some Acadians were sent to the Caribbean and some were deported to France. After being expelled to France, many Acadians were eventually recruited by the Spanish government to migrate to present day Louisiana state (known then as Spanish colonial Luisiana), where they developed what became known as Cajun culture.[8] In time, some Acadians returned to the Maritime provinces of Canada, mainly to New Brunswick because they were barred by the British from resettling their lands and villages in what became Nova Scotia. Before the US Revolutionary War, the Crown settled New England Planters in former Acadian communities and farmland as well as Loyalists after the war (including nearly 3,000 Black Loyalists, who were freed slaves). British policy was to assimilate Acadians with the local populations where they resettled.[7]

Acadians speak a dialect of French called Acadian French. Many of those in the Moncton area speak Chiac and English. The Louisiana Cajun descendants speak a dialect of American English called Cajun English, with many also speaking Cajun French, a close relative of the original dialect from Canada influenced by Spanish and West African languages.

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  • ✪ The Expulsion of the Acadians
  • ✪ "I am an Acadian." "Huh?"
  • ✪ Acadian Driftwood - The Band
  • ✪ 🍃What Happened to the Mi'kmaq and Acadians During the Deportation. French Mi'kmaq Friendship
  • ✪ Queen's CDS: Who are the Acadians?

Transcription

"Where is the thatch-roofed village, the home of Acadian farmers,— Men whose lives glided on like rivers that watered the woodlands, Darkened by shadows of earth, but reflecting an image of heaven?" So asked Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in his epic 1847 poem, "Evangeline, A Tale of Acadie." His answer was fittingly grim. "Waste are those pleasant farms and the farmers forever departed, scattered like dust and leaves." The story of the Acadians, the French colonists who in 1606 established themselves in present day Nova Scotia, that is prior to Jamestown, prior to Plymouth, warrants better understanding for several reasons. For one, this great upheaval, this movement, this attack on the French Acadians after almost 150 years of living there in Nova Scotia really qualifies as the first state-sponsored ethnic cleansing on the continent. Now in the early 1990s the United Nations Security Council created a commission of experts to explain exactly what ethnic cleansing is, and here's how they defined it. "Ethnic cleansing is a purposeful policy designed by one ethnic or religious group to remove by violent and terror inspiring means the civilian population of another ethnic or religious group from certain geographic areas. To a large extent it is carried out in the name of misguided nationalism, historic grievances, and powerful driving sense of revenge. This purpose appears to be the occupation of territory to the exclusion of the purged group or groups." The term definitely fits in this particular case. The British expulsion of the Acadians was a question of policy; it was thought about and designed for years. It was authorized and advanced by the highest leadership in England. It was conducted with ruthless efficiency in the effort to separate husband and wife and parents and children, as the Acadians were torn from the land that they had settled but then also scattered all the way from Nova Scotia all the way down to Louisiana so that their way of life was utterly eradicated. Why did this happen after almost 150 years of settlement of the French Acadians? Well for one thing, there's the natural British and French antipathy. The British were the ones who took it away from people who had originally been French. There was also the fact that the Acadians flouted convention; they lived sort of outside the perimeter of state authority for a long time. They also flouted social convention by intermarrying with and living with the native Mi'kmaq. The Mi'kmaq were the native nation that already lived in the Nova Scotia region at that time. At the heart of the action, though, was the simple fact that they had created a wealthy and prospering life and the British had guns and it was easier for the British to raid where it had been easier for the Acadians to trade, and so the British took what the Acadians had. This was a devastating event obviously for the Acadians, but it started a longer trend, a trend of ethnic cleansing that continued on the continent. When I say it was a devastating event, approximately 55 percent of the Acadians lost their lives in the removal from this area as they were scattered all along the continent from Nova Scotia all the way down to Louisiana. It may have been the first of its kind, the state-sponsored action, but it certainly wasn't the last. In the following centuries you see, particularly in the 19th century in the era of Indian removal, the same process done again by the state because it could, taking private property out of the hands of private individuals and moving it to other private individuals simply because the state had the power to do so. And it was in the state's interest to make sure that the property was in the hands of its supporters and citizens. The removal era includes a number of military actions that relocated and decimated dozens of native nations. Perhaps the best known is the Cherokee Trail of Tears in 1838 and 1839, which caused the lives of somewhere between a quarter and third of the entire Cherokee population. There are a couple of conclusions we can draw about this. The first is that the long tradition of state-sponsored theft, removal, and cultural obliteration that has existed in North America since this time. It's part of the fabric of U.S. history. In fact, it predates U.S. history. And the fact the British had this by virtue of theft really starts the U.S. story in the colonial era with this kind of action. Though ethnic cleansing would reach its peak later in U.S. history, it sort of begins the whole story. The unsettling fact of the scale and size of the action, the fact that it took place over really the entire continent when you think of how far the Acadians were scattered and that it wiped out over half of them, really speaks to the fact that the kind of frontier thesis we see out of Frederick Jackson Turner, the kind of manifest destiny we see out of latter-day supporters of the notion of U.S. exceptionalism, really doesn't apply in this case, because in this example, in this particular issue—ethnic cleansing—the United States is not exceptional, and even its colonial history is not exceptional. It is a part of a larger world trend of atrocities against human rights. There is a second reason that the Acadian story is important, and in some ways I think it's the more important of the two reasons. Not only did it start a trend of ethnic cleansing, but it also marked an end to what could be an alternate history that could have developed. The Acadian example offers a different picture of how North America might have looked if this tragic event hadn't taken place. Over 150 years, the Acadians developed a culture based not on conflict and conquest, but on mutual respect and accommodation and interaction among different peoples. In other words, it was a culture based on trade and not raid. The Acadians interacted with, intermarried with the local Mi'kmaq, shared their religion. They developed a syncretic religion that combined elements of both cultures. They developed a language that combined elements from both cultures. And in fact the name "Acadia" is partially taken from the French and partially taken from the Mi'kmaq. What's more, the peaceful Acadians grew wealthy because of their adherence to a policy of free trade across national and ethnic boundaries. They weren't special revolutionaries in any way. They were basically just semiliterate farmers, but they understood that they were on the border of imperial authority. They had, in other words, the area in which to move in a kind of autonomous way, and so they took advantage of this fact by offering free trade without all of the inconvenience of tariffs and regulations that came with the mercantilist policies of either Britain or France. So they moved rum, and they moved furs and food and finished products and all sorts of things through their economy to various groups that they traded with and thus became very prosperous. With this prosperity grew an almost organic notion of individual rights. They realized that they were doing this for themselves. They were working and they were seeing the benefits of this, and so, essentially, they didn't recognize the right of any government to take their stuff that they were creating there. At different points in time over this 150-year period the area was sometimes considered to be part of England and sometimes considered to be part of France, and they didn't really recognize either one. They insisted on a policy of neutrality with either of these powers and other powers as well. They side-stepped officials who wanted them to state their allegiance either to Britain or to France or to pay taxes to either one of those. In a sense, they were de facto revolutionaries ahead of their time. They weren't looking for independence; they didn't articulate it this way. They just wanted to be left alone in their peaceful homes doing their peaceful things peacefully with all of the people they were interacting with. These unsophisticated people managed to articulate the belief that because they were doing this for themselves—they'd exercised rights they had recognized their own liberty—that continuing to do so was their birthright and that other powers didn't have the authority to come in and take that away from them. By common-law right they recognized what they made was theirs. The same arguments would lead the British colonies in 1776 to declare independence from Great Britain. But as I said, they didn't push their independence—the Acadians—they were just looking to be left alone. The sad thing is they weren't. In 1755 the British decided to accept the flourishing Acadian community no longer. They effectively destroyed this alternate vision of how North America could have unfolded, how its history could have been told. So a French community of up to 18,000 people—intermarried with and part of also the local Mi'kmaq culture—was forcibly removed and scattered again from Nova Scotia all the way down to Louisiana with the sole purpose of taking the property that had been Acadian and redistributing it to British individuals and also to eradicate the very way of life that they had developed so that literally they could not come back together anywhere else on the continent. What we have here then is proof that the North American story wasn't written in stone in 1492;it wasn't written in stone in 1607. There was a different way that the story could have gone if tolerance and trade could lead to generations of peace and prosperity, if people had acted more like the French Acadians and less like the nationalistic British. I recommend John Mack Faragher's A Great and Noble Scheme as an excellent work on the subject if you would like to know more.

Contents

Pre-deportation history

Acadia (1754)
Acadia (1754)

During the early 1600s,[9] about sixty French families were established in Acadia. They developed friendly relations with the Wabanaki Confederacy (particularly the Mi'kmaq), learning their hunting and fishing techniques. The Acadians lived mainly in the coastal regions of the Bay of Fundy; farming land reclaimed from the sea through diking. Living in a contested borderland region between French Canada (modern Quebec) and British territories, the Acadians often became entangled in the conflict between the powers. Over a period of seventy-four years, six wars took place in Acadia and Nova Scotia in which the Confederacy and some Acadians fought to keep the British from taking over the region (See the four French and Indian Wars as well as Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's War).

While France lost political control of Acadia in 1713, the Mí'kmaq did not concede land to the British. Along with some Acadians, the Mi'kmaq from time to time used military force to resist the British. This was particularly evident in the early 1720s during Dummer's War but hostilities were brought to a close by a treaty signed in 1726.

Acadians at Annapolis Royal by Samuel Scott, 1751, earliest image of Acadians; the only pre-deportation image of Acadians
Acadians at Annapolis Royal by Samuel Scott, 1751, earliest image of Acadians; the only pre-deportation image of Acadians

The British Conquest of Acadia happened in 1710. Over the next forty-five years the Acadians refused to sign an unconditional oath of allegiance to Britain. Many were influenced by Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre, who from his arrival in 1738 until his capture in 1755 preached against the 'English devils'.[10] During this time period Acadians participated in various militia operations against the British and maintained vital supply lines to the French Fortress of Louisbourg and Fort Beausejour.[11] During the French and Indian War, the British sought to neutralize any military threat Acadians posed and to interrupt the vital supply lines Acadians provided to Louisbourg by deporting Acadians from Acadia.[12][13]

With the founding of Halifax in 1749 the Mi'kmaq resisted British (Protestant) settlements by making numerous raids on Halifax, Dartmouth, Lawrencetown and Lunenburg. During the French and Indian War, the Mi'kmaq assisted the Acadians in resisting the British during the Expulsion of the Acadians.[14]

Acadians by Samuel Scott, Annapolis Royal, 1751
Acadians by Samuel Scott, Annapolis Royal, 1751

Many Acadians might have signed an unconditional oath to the British monarchy had the circumstances been better, while other Acadians did not sign because they were clearly anti-British.[15] For the Acadians who might have signed an unconditional oath, there were numerous reasons why they did not. The difficulty was partly religious, in that the British monarch was the head of the (Protestant) Church of England. Another significant issue was that an oath might commit male Acadians to fight against France during wartime. A related concern was whether their Mi'kmaq neighbours might perceive this as acknowledging the British claim to Acadia rather than the Mi'kmaq. As a result, signing an unconditional oath might have put Acadian villages in danger of attack from Mi'kmaq.[16]

Deportation

St. John River Campaign: A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross (present day Gagetown, New Brunswick) by Thomas Davies in 1758. This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians.
St. John River Campaign: A View of the Plundering and Burning of the City of Grimross (present day Gagetown, New Brunswick) by Thomas Davies in 1758. This is the only contemporaneous image of the Expulsion of the Acadians.

In the Great Expulsion (le Grand Dérangement), after the Battle of Fort Beauséjour beginning in August 1755 under Lieutenant Governor Lawrence, approximately 11,500 Acadians (three-quarters of the Acadian population in Nova Scotia) were expelled, their lands and property confiscated, and in some cases their homes burned. The Acadians were deported throughout the British eastern seaboard colonies from New England to Georgia. Although measures were taken during the embarkation of the Acadians to the transport ship, some families became split up. After 1758, thousands were transported to France. Most of the Acadians who went to Louisiana were transported there from France on five Spanish ships provided by the Spanish Crown to populate their Louisiana colony and provide farmers to supply New Orleans. The Spanish had hired agents to seek out the dispossessed Acadians in Brittany and the effort was kept secret so as not to anger the French King. These new arrivals from France joined the earlier wave expelled from Acadia, creating the Cajun population and culture.

The Spanish forced the Acadians they had transported to settle along the Mississippi River, to block British expansion, rather than Western Louisiana where many of them had family and friends and where it was much easier to farm. Rebels among them marched to New Orleans and ousted the Spanish governor. The Spanish later sent infantry from other colonies to put down the rebellion and execute the leaders. After the rebellion in December 1769 the Spanish Governor O'Reilly permitted the Acadians who had settled across the river from Natchez to resettle on the Iberville or Amite river closer to New Orleans.[17]

A second and smaller expulsion occurred when the British took control of the North Shore of what is now New Brunswick. After the fall of Quebec the British lost interest and many Acadians returned to British North America, settling in coastal villages not occupied by American colonists. A few of these had evaded the British for several years but the brutal winter weather eventually forced them to surrender. Some returnees settled in the region of Fort Sainte-Anne, now Fredericton, but were later displaced by the arrival of the United Empire Loyalists after the American Revolution.

In 2003, at the request of Acadian representatives, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada issued a Royal Proclamation acknowledging the deportation and establishing July 28 as an annual day of commemoration, beginning in 2005. The day is called the "Great Upheaval" on some English-language calendars.

Geography

Present-day Acadian communities
Present-day Acadian communities

The Acadians today live predominantly in the Canadian Maritime provinces, as well as parts of Quebec, Louisiana and Maine. In New Brunswick, Acadians inhabit the northern and eastern shores of New Brunswick, from Miscou Island (French: Île Miscou) Île Lamèque including Caraquet in the center, all the way to Neguac in the southern part, Grande-Anse in the eastern part and Campbellton through to Saint-Quentin in the northern part. Other groups of Acadians can be found in the Magdalen Islands and throughout other parts of Quebec. Many Acadians still live in and around the area of Madawaska, Maine where the Acadians first landed and settled in what is now known as the St. John Valley. There are also Acadians in Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia such as Chéticamp, Isle Madame, and Clare. East and West Pubnico, located at the end of the province, are the oldest regions still Acadian.

The Acadians settled on the land before the deportation and returned to some of the same exact land after the deportation. Still others can be found in the southern and western regions of New Brunswick, Western Newfoundland and in New England. Many of these latter communities have faced varying degrees of assimilation. For many families in predominantly Anglophone communities, French-language attrition has occurred, particularly in younger generations.

The Acadians who settled in Louisiana after 1764, known as Cajuns, have had a dominant cultural influence in many parishes, particularly in the southwestern area of the state known as Acadiana.

Culture

Today Acadians are a vibrant minority, particularly in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Louisiana (Cajuns), and northern Maine. Since 1994, Le Congrès Mondial Acadien has united Acadians of the Maritimes, New England, and Louisiana.

August 15, the feast of the Assumption, was adopted as the national feast day of the Acadians at the First Acadian National Convention, held in Memramcook, New Brunswick in 1881. On that day, the Acadians celebrate by having the tintamarre which consists mainly of a big parade where people can dress up with the colours of Acadia and make a lot of noise.

The national anthem of the Acadians is "Ave, maris stella", adopted at Miscouche, Prince Edward Island in 1884. The anthem was revised at the 1992 meeting of the Société Nationale de l'Acadie, where the second, third and fourth verses were changed to French, with the first and last kept in the original Latin.

The Federation des Associations de Familles Acadiennes of New Brunswick and the Société Saint-Thomas d'Aquin of Prince Edward Island has resolved that December 13 each year shall be commemorated as "Acadian Remembrance Day" to commemorate the sinking of the Duke William and the nearly 2000 Acadians deported from Ile-Saint Jean who perished in the North Atlantic from hunger, disease and drowning in 1758.[18] The event has been commemorated annually since 2004 and participants mark the event by wearing a black star.

Today, there are cartoons featuring Acadian characters and an Acadian show named Acadieman.

Artistic commemorations of The Expulsion

A statue of Longfellow's Evangeline – at St. Martinville, Louisiana.
A statue of Longfellow's Evangeline – at St. Martinville, Louisiana.

In 1847, American writer Henry Wadsworth Longfellow published Evangeline, an epic poem loosely based on the events surrounding the 1755 deportation. The poem became an American classic, and contributed to a rebirth of Acadian identity in both Maritime Canada and in Louisiana.

In the early 20th century, two statues were made of Evangeline, one in St. Martinville, Louisiana and the other in Grand-Pré, Nova Scotia, which both commemorate the Expulsion. Robbie Robertson wrote a popular song based on the Acadian Expulsion titled Acadian Driftwood, which appeared on The Band's 1975 album, Northern Lights – Southern Cross.

Antonine Maillet's Pélagie-la-charette concerns the return voyage to Acadia of several deported families starting 15 years after the Great Expulsion.

The Acadian Memorial (Monument Acadien)[19] honors those 3,000 who settled in Louisiana.

Throughout the Canadian Maritime Provinces there are Acadian Monuments to the Expulsion, such as the one at Georges Island (Nova Scotia) and Beaubears Island.

Flags

Flag of the Acadiana region of Louisiana
Flag of the New England Acadians

The flag of the Acadians is the French tricolour with a golden star in the blue field (see above), which symbolizes the Saint Mary, Our Lady of the Assumption, patron saint of the Acadians and the "Star of the Sea". This flag was adopted in 1884 at the Second Acadian National Convention, held in Miscouche, Prince Edward Island.

Acadians in the diaspora have adopted other symbols. The flag of Acadians in Louisiana, known as Cajuns, was designed by Thomas J. Arceneaux of the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, and adopted by the Louisiana legislature as the official emblem of the Acadiana region in 1974.[20]

A group of New England Acadians attending Le Congrès Mondial Acadien in Nova Scotia in 2004, endorsed a design for a New England Acadian flag[21] by William Cork, and are advocating for its wider acceptance.

Prominent Acadians

Monument to Imprisoned Acadians at Bishops Landing, Halifax, overlooking Georges Island
Monument to Imprisoned Acadians at Bishops Landing, Halifax, overlooking Georges Island

Notable Acadians in the 18th century include Noël Doiron (1684–1758). Noel was one of more than 350 Acadians that perished on the Duke William on December 13, 1758.[22] Noel was described by the Captain of the Duke William as the "father of the whole island", a reference to Noel's place of prominence among the Acadian residents of Isle St. Jean (Prince Edward Island).[23] For his "noble resignation" and self-sacrifice aboard the Duke William, Noel was celebrated in popular print throughout the 19th century in Britain and America.[24][25][26] Noel also is the namesake of the village Noel, Nova Scotia.

Another prominent Acadian from the 18th century was militia leader Joseph Broussard who joined French priest Jean-Louis Le Loutre in resisting the British occupation of Acadia.

More recent notable Acadians include singers Angèle Arsenault and Edith Butler, singer Jean-François Breau, writer Antonine Maillet; film director Phil Comeau; singer-songwriter Julie Doiron; artist Phoebe Legere, boxers Yvon Durelle and Jacques LeBlanc; pitcher Rheal Cormier; former Governor General Roméo LeBlanc; former premier of Prince Edward Island Aubin-Edmond Arsenault, the first Acadian premier of any province and the first Acadian appointed to a provincial supreme court; Georges Hebert, guitarist - most notably having played with Anne Murray for over 30 years, as well as for the New Brunswick Playboys 1960s rock band; Aubin-Edmond Arsenault's father, Joseph-Octave Arsenault, the first Acadian appointed to the Canadian Senate from Prince Edward Island; Peter John Veniot, first Acadian Premier of New Brunswick; and former New Brunswick premier Louis Robichaud, who was responsible for modernizing education and the government of New Brunswick in the mid-20th century. Singers Beyoncé and Solange Knowles have Acadian ancestry.Yvette d'Entremont aka SciBabe is also Acadian.

Prominent Louisiana Acadians include Senator Dudley J. LeBlanc, singer-songwriter Zachary Richard, and historian and President of the Council for the Development of French in Louisiana (CODOFIL) William Arceneaux.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For information on Acadians who also have Indigenous ancestry, see:
    • Parmenter, John; Robison, Mark Power (April 2007). "The Perils and Possibilities of Wartime Neutrality on the Edges of Empire: Iroquois and Acadians between the French and British in North America, 1744–1760". Diplomatic History. 31 (2): 182. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2007.00611.x.
    • Faragher (2005), pp. 35-48, 146-67, 179-81, 203, 271-77
    • Paul, Daniel N. (2006). We Were Not the Savages: Collision Between European and Native American Civilizations (3rd ed.). Fernwood. pp. 38–67, 86, 97–104. ISBN 978-1-55266-209-0.
    • Plank, Geoffrey (2004). An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of Acadia. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 23–39, 70–98, 111–14, 122–38. ISBN 0-8122-1869-8.
    • Robison, Mark Power (2000). Maritime frontiers: The evolution of empire in Nova Scotia, 1713-1758 (PhD). University of Colorado at Boulder. pp. 53–84.
    • Wicken, Bill (Autumn 1995). "26 August 1726: A Case Study in Mi'kmaq-New England Relationships in the Early 18th Century". Acadiensis. XXIII (1): 20–21.
    • Wicken, William (1998). "Re-examining Mi'kmaq–Acadian Relations, 1635–1755". In Sylvie Depatie; Catherine Desbarats; Danielle Gauvreau; et al. Vingt Ans Apres: Habitants et Marchands [Twenty Years After: Inhabitants and Merchants] (in French). McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 93–114. ISBN 978-0-7735-6702-3. JSTOR j.ctt812wj.
    • Morris, Charles. A Brief Survey of Nova Scotia. Woolwich: The Royal Artillery Regimental Library. The people are tall and well proportioned, they delight much in wearing long hair, they are of dark complexion, in general, and somewhat of the mixture of Indians; but there are some of a light complexion. They retain the language and customs of their neighbours the French, with a mixed affectation of the native Indians, and imitate them in their haunting and wild tones in their merriment; they are naturally full cheer and merry, subtle, speak and promise fair,...
    • Bell, Winthrop Pickard (1961). The Foreign Protestants and the Settlement of Nova Scotia: The History of a Piece of Arrested British Colonial Policy in the Eighteenth Century. University of Toronto Press. p. 405. Many of the Acadians and Mi'kmaq people were mixed bloods, foreign aboriginals or métis example, when Shirley put a bounty on the Mi'kmaq people during King George's War, the Acadians appealed in anxiety to Mascarene because of the "great number of Mulattoes amongst them".

References

  1. ^ "Canadian census, ethnic data". Retrieved 18 March 2013. A note on interpretation: With regard to census data, rather than going by ethnic identification, some would define an Acadian as a native French-speaking person living in the Maritime provinces of Canada. According to the same 2006 census, the population was 25,400 in New Brunswick; 34,025 in Nova Scotia; 32,950 in Quebec; and 5,665 in 03-18
  2. ^ "Detailed Mother Tongue, Canada– Île-du-Prince-Édouard". Archived from the original on July 25, 2009.
  3. ^ "File not found - Fichier non trouvé". statcan.ca. Retrieved 2 April 2016.
  4. ^ Pritchard, James (2004). In Search of Empire: The French in the Americas, 1670-1730. Cambridge University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-521-82742-3. Abbé Pierre Maillard claimed that racial intermixing had proceeded so far by 1753 that in fifty years it would be impossible to distinguish Amerindian from French in Acadia.
  5. ^ Landry, Nicolas; Lang, Nicole (2001). Histoire de l'Acadie. Les éditions du Septentrion. ISBN 978-2-89448-177-6.
  6. ^ Griffiths, N.E.S. (2005). From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604-1755. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-7735-2699-0.
  7. ^ a b Lockerby, Earle (Spring 1998). "The Deportation of the Acadians from Ile St.-Jean, 1758". Acadiensis. XXVII (2): 45–94. JSTOR 30303223.
  8. ^ Han, Eunjung; Carbonetto, Peter; Curtis, Ross E.; Wang, Yong; Granka, Julie M.; Byrnes, Jake; Noto, Keith; Kermany, Amir R.; Myres, Natalie M. (2017-02-07). "Clustering of 770,000 genomes reveals post-colonial population structure of North America". Nature Communications. 8. doi:10.1038/ncomms14238. ISSN 2041-1723.
  9. ^ The Oxford companion to Canadian history. Hallowell, Gerald. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press. 2004. ISBN 0195415590. OCLC 54971866.
  10. ^ Parkman, Francis (1914) [1884]. Montcalm and Wolfe. France and England in North America. Little, Brown.
  11. ^ Grenier, John (2008). The Far Reaches of Empire: War in Nova Scotia, 1710–1760. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-8566-8.
  12. ^ Patterson, Stephen E. (1998). "Indian-White Relations in Nova Scotia, 1749–61: A Study in Political Interaction". In Buckner, Phillip Alfred; Campbell, Gail Grace; Frank, David. The Acadiensis Reader: Atlantic Canada Before Confederation. pp. 105–106.
  13. ^ Patterson, Stephen E. (1994). "1744–1763: Colonial Wars and Aboriginal Peoples". In Phillip Buckner; John G. Reid. The Atlantic Region to Confederation: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-4875-1676-5. JSTOR 10.3138/j.ctt15jjfrm.
  14. ^ Faragher (2005), pp. 110–112.
  15. ^ For the best account of Acadian armed resistance to the British, see Grenier, John. The Far Reaches of Empire. War in Nova Scotia, 1710-1760. Norman: U of Oklahoma P, 2008.
  16. ^ Reid, John G. (2009). Nova Scotia: A Pocket History. Fernwood. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-55266-325-7.
  17. ^ Holmes, Jack D.L. (1970). A Guide to Spanish Louisiana, 1762-1806. A. F. Laborde. p. 5.
  18. ^ Pioneer Journal, Summerside, Prince Edward Island, 9 December 2009.[full citation needed]
  19. ^ "Acadian Memorial - The Eternal Flame". Retrieved October 18, 2012.
  20. ^ "Acadian Flag". Acadian-Cajun.com. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
  21. ^ "A New England Acadian Flag". Archived from the original on 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
  22. ^ Scott, Shawn; Scott, Tod (2008). "Noel Doiron and East Hants Acadians". The Journal of Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society. 11: 45.
  23. ^ Journal of William Nichols, "The Naval Chronicle", 1807.
  24. ^ Frost, John (1846). The Book of Good Examples; Drawn From Authentic History and Biography. New York: D. Appleton & Co. p. 46.
  25. ^ Reubens Percy, "Percey's Anecdotes", New York: 1843, p. 47
  26. ^ "The Saturday Magazine", New York: 1826, p. 502.

References

Further reading

  • Chetro-Szivos, J. Talking Acadian: Work, Communication, and Culture, YBK 2006, New York ISBN 0-9764359-6-9.
  • Griffiths, Naomi. From Migrant to Acadian: a North American border people, 1604–1755, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2005.
  • Hodson, Christopher. The Acadian Diaspora: An Eighteenth-Century History (Oxford University Press; 2012) 260 pages online review by Kenneth Banks
  • Jobb, Dean. The Acadians: A People's Story of Exile and Triumph, John Wiley & Sons, 2005 (published in the United States as The Cajuns: A People's Story of Exile and Triumph)
  • Kennedy, Gregory M.W. Something of a Peasant Paradise? Comparing Rural Societies in Acadie and the Loudunais, 1604-1755 (MQUP 2014)
  • Laxer, James. The Acadians: In Search of a Homeland, Doubleday Canada, October 2006 ISBN 0-385-66108-8.
  • Le Bouthillier, Claude, Phantom Ship, XYZ editors, 1994, ISBN 978-1-894852-09-8
  • Magord, André, The Quest for Autonomy in Acadia (Bruxelles etc., Peter Lang, 2008) (Études Canadiennes - Canadian Studies, 18).
  • Griffiths, N.E.S. (1969). The Acadian Deportation: Deliberate Perfidy Or Cruel Necessity?. Copp Clark.
  • Runte, Hans R. (1997). Writing Acadia: The Emergence of Acadian Literature 1970–1990. Rodopi. ISBN 978-90-420-0237-1.

External links

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