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Abraham Baldwin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abraham Baldwin
Abraham Baldwin by Naegele.jpg
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
December 7, 1801 – December 13, 1802
Preceded byJames Hillhouse
Succeeded byStephen R. Bradley
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
March 4, 1799 – March 4, 1807
Preceded byJosiah Tattnall
Succeeded byGeorge Jones
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's at-large district
In office
March 4, 1793 – March 3, 1799
Preceded bydistrict created
Succeeded byJames Jones
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1789 – March 3, 1793
Preceded bydistrict created
Succeeded byConverted to at-large districts
President of the University of Georgia
In office
1785–1801
Preceded bynone
Succeeded byJosiah Meigs
Delegate from Georgia to the Congress of the Confederation
In office
1785 – 85, 1787–88
Personal details
Born(1754-11-22)November 22, 1754
Guilford, Connecticut
DiedMarch 4, 1807(1807-03-04) (aged 52)
Washington, D.C.
Resting placeRock Creek Cemetery, Washington, DC
Alma materYale College

Abraham Baldwin (November 22, 1754 – March 4, 1807) was an American minister, Patriot, politician, and Founding Father. Born and raised in Connecticut, he was a 1772 graduate of Yale College. After the Revolutionary War, Baldwin became a lawyer. He moved to the U.S. state of Georgia in the mid-1780s and founded the University of Georgia.

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Transcription

Contents

Early life, education and career

Abraham Baldwin was born in 1754 in Guilford, Connecticut into a large family, the son of Lucy (Dudley) and Michael Baldwin, a blacksmith. His half-brother, Henry Baldwin, was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. After attending Guilford Grammar School, Abraham Baldwin attended Yale College in nearby New Haven, Connecticut, where he was a member of the Linonian Society. He graduated in 1772.

Three years later after theological study, he was licensed as a Congregationalist minister. He also served as a tutor at the college. He held that position until 1779. During the American Revolutionary War, he served as a chaplain in the Connecticut Contingent of the Continental Army. He did not see combat while with the Continental troops.[1]

Two years later at the conclusion of the war, Baldwin declined an offer from Yale's new president, Ezra Stiles, to become Professor of Divinity. Instead, he turned to the study of law and in 1783 was admitted to the Connecticut bar.

Move to Georgia

Encouraged by his former commanding officer General Nathaniel Greene, who had acquired the plantation at Mulberry Hill where Eli Whitney would later invent the cotton gin, Baldwin moved to Georgia. He was recruited by fellow Yale Alumnus Governor Lyman Hall, another transplanted New Englander, to develop a state education plan. Baldwin was named the first president of the University of Georgia and became active in politics to build support for the University, which had not yet enrolled its first student. He was soon appointed as a delegate to the Confederation Congress and then to the Constitutional Convention; in September of 1787 he was one of the state’s two signatories to the U.S. Constitution.

Abraham Baldwin remained president of the University of Georgia during its initial development phase until 1801. During this period, he also worked with the legislature on the college charter.

In 1801, Franklin College, UGA's initial college, opened to students. Josiah Meigs was hired to succeed Baldwin as first acting president and oversee the inaugural class of students. The first buildings of the college were architecturally modeled on Baldwin's and Miegs's alma mater of Yale where they both had taught . (Later the university sports team adopted as its mascot, the bulldog, also in tribute to Baldwin and Miegs, as it is the mascot of Yale.)

Politics

Abraham Baldwin's draft copy of the U.S. Constitution
Baldwin's draft copy of the U.S. Constitution is held by the Georgia Historical Society. It is the second printed draft of the Constitution, printed by Dunlap and Claypoole on four folio leaves complete with Baldwin's signature and marginal notes. This second draft was produced by a Committee of Style and Arrangement, consisting of Alexander Hamilton of New York, William Samuel Johnson of Connecticut, Rufus King of Massachusetts, James Madison of Virginia, and Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania. It is one of only a handful still in existence. View the Georgia Historical Society’s finding aid for this item.

Baldwin was elected to the Georgia Assembly, where he became very active, working to develop support for the college. He was able to mediate between the rougher frontiersmen, perhaps because of his childhood as the son of a blacksmith, and the aristocratic planter elite who dominated the coastal Lowcountry. He became one of the most prominent legislators, pushing significant measures such as the education bill through the sometimes split Georgia Assembly.[1][2]

He was elected as representative to the U.S. Congress in 1788. The Georgia legislature elected him as U.S. Senator in 1799[3] (this was the practice until popular election in 1913.) He served as President pro tempore of the United States Senate from December 1801 to December 1802. He was re-elected and served in office until his death.

Death and legacy

On March 4, 1807, at age 52, Baldwin died while serving as a U.S. senator from Georgia. Later that month the Savannah Republican and Savannah Evening Ledger reprinted an obituary that had first been published in a Washington, D.C., newspaper: "He originated the plan of The University of Georgia, drew up the charter, and with infinite labor and patience, in vanquishing all sorts of prejudices and removing every obstruction, he persuaded the assembly to adopt it."[4]

His remains are interred at Rock Creek Cemetery in Washington, DC.[5]

Honors

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Wright, Jr., Robert K.; MacGregor Jr., Morris J. (1987). "Abraham Baldwin". Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution. Washington D.C.: United States Army Center of Military History. LCCN 87001353. OCLC 15549460. CMH Pub 71-25. Retrieved November 9, 2013.
  2. ^ Rowe, H.J. (2000). History of Athens & Clarke County. Southern Historical Press.
  3. ^ Congressional Biography
  4. ^ "Abraham Baldwin (1754–1807)", New Georgia Encyclopedia (January 6, 2009), Retrieved on July 21, 2013
  5. ^ Georgia Historical Society
  6. ^ Krakow, Kenneth K. (1975). Georgia Place-Names: Their History and Origins (PDF). Macon, GA: Winship Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-915430-00-2.
  7. ^ Odd Wisconsin Archives. Wisconsinhistory.org (March 29, 2006). Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  8. ^ "Special Report on the Abraham Baldwin Statue Initiative". UGA's External Affairs. n.d. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
New Seat
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's 2nd congressional district

March 4, 1789 – March 4, 1793
Succeeded by
Converted to At-Large districts
Preceded by
Converted from district seats
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Georgia's at-large congressional district

March 4, 1793 – March 4, 1799
Succeeded by
James Jones
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Josiah Tattnall
 U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Georgia
March 4, 1799 – March 4, 1807
Served alongside: James Gunn, James Jackson, John Milledge
Succeeded by
George Jones
Political offices
Preceded by
James Hillhouse
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
December 7, 1801 – December 13, 1802
Succeeded by
Stephen R. Bradley
This page was last edited on 20 May 2019, at 21:21
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