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Abilene, Texas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Abilene, Texas
Downtown Abilene
Downtown Abilene
Flag of Abilene, Texas
  • "The Key City"
  • "The Friendly Frontier"
Location in the state of Texas
Location in the state of Texas
Abilene, Texas is located in Texas
Abilene, Texas
Abilene, Texas
Abilene, Texas is located in the United States
Abilene, Texas
Abilene, Texas
Abilene, Texas is located in North America
Abilene, Texas
Abilene, Texas
Coordinates: 32°27′N 99°45′W / 32.450°N 99.750°W / 32.450; -99.750
Country United States
State Texas
CountiesTaylor, Jones
Incorporated (town)1881[1]
County seat1883[1]
Named forAbilene, Kansas[1]
County seatTaylor County
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City CouncilMayor Anthony Williams (R)[2]
Shane Price
Jack Rentz
Donna Albus
Weldon W. Hurt
Kyle McAlister
Travis Craver
 • Boss Daddy/Chief BallerCorry Jones
 • City112.09 sq mi (290.32 km2)
 • Land106.67 sq mi (276.27 km2)
 • Water5.42 sq mi (14.05 km2)
1,719 ft (527 m)
 • City125,182 Increase
 • Density1,157/sq mi (447/km2)
 • Metro
 • Demonym
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
79601-08 79697-99[5]
Area code325
FIPS code48-01000[6]
GNIS feature ID1329173[7]
U.S. RoutesUS 83.svg US 84.svg US 277.svg

Abilene (/ˈæbɪln/ AB-i-leen) is a city in Taylor and Jones Counties in Texas, United States. Its population was 125,182 at the 2020 census,[9] making it the 27th-most populous city in the state of Texas. It is the principal city of the Abilene metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 169,893, as of 2016. It is the county seat of Taylor County.[10] Dyess Air Force Base is located on the west side of the city.

Abilene is located off Interstate 20, between exits 279 on its western edge and 292 on the east. It is 150 miles (240 km) west of Fort Worth. The city is looped by I-20 to the north, US 83/84 on the west, and Loop 322 to the east. A railroad divides the city down the center into north and south. The historic downtown area is on the north side of the railroad.


An 1883 map of Abilene
An 1883 map of Abilene
The restored Texas & Pacific Railway depot in Abilene serves as the tourist information center.
The restored Texas & Pacific Railway depot in Abilene serves as the tourist information center.

Established by cattlemen as a stock shipping point on the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881, the city was named after Abilene, Kansas,[1][11] the original endpoint for the Chisholm Trail. The T&P had bypassed the town of Buffalo Gap, the county seat at the time. Eventually, a landowner north of Buffalo Gap, Clabe Merchant, known as the father of Abilene, chose the name for the new town. According to a Dallas newspaper, about 800 people had already begun camping at the townsite before the lots were sold. The town was laid out by Colonel J. Stoddard Johnson, and the auction of lots began early on March 15, 1881. By the end of the first day, 139 lots were sold for a total of $23,810, and another 178 lots were sold the next day for $27,550.[citation needed]

Abilene was incorporated soon after being founded in 1881,[1] and residents began to set their sights on bringing the county seat to Abilene. In a three-to-one vote, they won the county election to do so. In 1888, the Progressive Committee was formed to attract businesses to the area, and in 1890 renamed itself as the Board of Trade. By 1900, 3,411 people lived in Abilene. In that decade, the Board of Trade changed its name to the 25,000 Club, in the hope of reaching a population of 25,000 by the next census. By 1910, though, the population had increased only to 9,204. Another group was formed, the Young Men's Booster Club, which became the Abilene Chamber of Commerce in 1914.

The cornerstone was laid in 1891 for Simmons College, the first of three universities in Abilene.[1] It later developed as Hardin–Simmons University. Childers Classical Institute was founded in 1906,[1] and developed as Abilene Christian University, the largest of the three. In 1923, McMurry College was founded; it later expanded its offerings as McMurry University.[1]

In the late 20th century, Abilene succeeded in gaining branches of Texas State Technical College and Cisco College. Headquarters of the latter institution are located in the city.

In 1940, Abilene raised the money to purchase land to attract establishment of a U.S. Army base, southwest of town. It was named Camp Barkeley. When fully operational, it was twice the size of Abilene, with 60,000 men. When the base closed after World War II, many worried that Abilene could become a ghost town, but as the national economy boomed, many veterans returned to start businesses in Abilene.

In the early-1950s, to advocate for an Air Force base, residents raised US$893,261 (equivalent to about $9,325,416 in 2021) to purchase 3,400 acres (14 km2) of land. The Southern block of Congressmen gained approval for such a base here. For decades, Dyess Air Force Base has been the city's largest employer, with 6076 employees in 2007.[12][13]

From 1950 to 1960, Abilene's population nearly doubled, from 45,570 to 90,638. In 1960, a second high school was added to the city's school system, Cooper High School.

In 1966, the Abilene Zoo was established near Abilene Regional Airport. The following year, one of the most important bond elections in the city's history passed for the funding of the construction of the Abilene Civic Center and the Taylor County Coliseum, as well as major improvements to Abilene Regional Airport. In 1969, the Woodson elementary and high school for black students closed as the city integrated its school system, more than 10 years after the US Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional.

In 1982, Abilene became the first city in Texas to create a downtown reinvestment zone. Texas State Technical College opened an Abilene branch three years later. The 2,250-bed French Robertson Prison Unit was built in 1989. A half-cent sales tax earmarked for economic development was created after the decline in the petroleum business in the 1980s. A branch of Cisco College was located in the city in 1990.

Several major projects of restoration and new construction: The Grace Museum and Paramount Theatre, and development of Artwalk in 1992, sparked a decade of downtown revitalization. In 2004, Frontier Texas!, a multimedia museum highlighting the history of the area from 1780 to 1880, was constructed. That year an $8 million, 38-acre (150,000 m2) Cisco Junior College campus was built at Loop 322 and Industrial Boulevard. Simultaneously, subdivisions and businesses started locating along the freeway, on the same side as the CC campus. This area attracted Abilene growth on the Loop.

Abilene has become the commercial, retail, medical, and transportation hub of a 19-county area more commonly known as "The Big Country", but also known as the "Texas Midwest". It is part of the Central Great Plains ecoregion. By the end of 2005, commercial and residential development had reached record levels in and around the city.[14]


Timeline of Abilene, Texas


Abilene is located in northeastern Taylor County. The city limits extend north into Jones County. Interstate 20 leads east 149 miles (240 km) to Fort Worth and west 148 miles (238 km) to Midland. Three U.S. highways pass through the city. US 83 runs west of the city center, leading north 24 miles (39 km) to Anson and south 55 miles (89 km) to Ballinger. US 84 runs with US 83 through the southwest part of the city but leads southeast 52 miles (84 km) to Coleman and west with I-20 40 miles (64 km) to Sweetwater. US 277 follows US 83 around the northwest side of the city and north to Anson, but heads southwest from Abilene 89 miles (143 km) to San Angelo.

According to the United States Census Bureau, Abilene has a total area of 112.2 sq mi (290.6 km2), of which 106.8 sq mi (276.6 km2) are land and 5.4 sq mi (14.0 km2) are covered by water (4.82%). The water area is mainly from three reservoirs in the city: Lytle Lake southeast of downtown on the western edge of Abilene Regional Airport, Kirby Lake on the southeast corner of the US 83/84 and Loop 322 interchange, and Lake Fort Phantom Hill in Jones County in northern Abilene. Clear Creek runs through the city just east of downtown, flowing north to Elm Creek and ultimately part of the Brazos River watershed.

The fastest-growing sections of the city are in the southwest, along Southwest Drive, the Winters Freeway, and the Buffalo Gap Road corridor; the southeast, along Loop 322, Oldham Lane, Industrial Drive, and Maple Street; and in the northeast near the intersection of SH 351 and I-20. Many developments have begun in these three areas within the last few years with a citywide focus on the reinvigoration of downtown Abilene.[37]


According to the Köppen climate classification, Abilene lies at the edge of a humid subtropical climate, with areas to the west being semiarid.

Climate data for Abilene, Texas (1981−2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
Average high °F (°C) 56.8
Average low °F (°C) 33.0
Record low °F (°C) −9
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.02
Average snowfall inches (cm) 1.8
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 4.7 5.4 6.0 5.0 7.7 7.0 5.1 5.9 5.8 6.6 4.6 5.1 68.9
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.9 0.7 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.6 2.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 204.6 203.4 263.5 282.0 306.9 330.0 347.2 316.2 258.0 248.0 198.0 192.2 3,150
Source: National Weather Service, San Angelo[38] Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1961–1990)[39]

Notable architecture

Notable and historical buildings in Abilene include:

  • Hotel Wooten (1930) at 302 Cypress Street downtown, built by grocery entrepreneur H. O. Wooten, at 16 stories tall, is designed after the Drake Hotel in Chicago. It was restored in 2004 as a high-end apartment building.
  • First Baptist Church (1954) at 1442 North Second Street has a spire 140 feet from the ground. Pastor Dr. Jesse Northcutt oversaw the planning of this building of 325 tons of steel.
  • The Church of the Heavenly Rest, Episcopal, at 602 Meander Street, reflects surprising Gothic architecture on the West Texas Plains. Its plaque reads: "No man entering a house ignores him who dwells in it. This is the house of God and He is here."
  • The 20-story Enterprise Tower at 500 Chestnut Street, the highest structure in Abilene, rises to 283 feet above the Plains. It is the tallest building in west-central Texas and one of the five highest in the western two-thirds of the state.
  • The Taylor County Courthouse at 300 Oak Street, with its international architectural style of concrete and pink granite, resembles few other courthouses.
  • Paramount Theatre at 352 Cypress Street opened in 1930 and restored in 1986 had an original marquee 90 feet tall, with 1,400 lights.
  • Lincoln Junior High School, 1699 South First Street. In 2012, the Abilene Independent School District deeded the property to the City of Abilene. This property was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 28, 2012. Built in 1923, the architecture is Gothic Revival and includes two large gargoyles at the entrance and has Gothic and art deco motifs. It opened as Abilene High School in 1924, became Lincoln Junior High in 1955, and Lincoln Middle School in 1985. The campus closed in 2007. As of 2019, the Abilene Heritage Square was renovating the school into "a multipurpose center for learning, making, discovery, building community and innovating and encouraging our city's future businesses."[40] The Abilene Public Library will also use the restored building as the new main branch.[41]


Historical population
Census Pop.
U.S. Census Bureau[42]
Abilene racial composition as of 2020[43]
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[a]
Race Number Percentage
White (NH) 70,391 56.23%
Black or African American (NH) 12,242 9.78%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 496 0.4%
Asian (NH) 2,678 2.14%
Pacific Islander (NH) 141 0.11%
Some Other Race (NH) 388 0.31%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 5,212 4.16%
Hispanic or Latino 33,634 26.87%
Total 125,182

As of the census[6] of 2000, 115,930 people, 41,570 households, and 28,101 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,102.7 people per square mile (425.8/km2). The 45,618 housing units averaged 433.9 per square mile (167.5/km2). As of the 2010 census, Abilene had a population of 117,063. In 2020, its population was 125,182, with 43,607 households and 28,118 families residing in the city.[43]

In 2000, the racial makeup of the city was 78.07% white, 8.81% African American, 0.55% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 8.73% from other races, and 2.44% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 19.45% of the population. The racial and ethnic makeup of the population in 2010 was 62.4% non-Hispanic White, 9.6% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanic reporting some other race, 3.3% of two or more races, and 24.5% Hispanic or Latino. By 2020, its racial and ethnic composition was 56.23% non-Hispanic white, 9.78% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.14% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 0.31% some other race, 4.16% multiracial, and 26.87% Hispanic or Latino of any race.[43]

At the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the city was $33,007, and for a family was $40,028. Males had a median income of $28,078 versus $20,918 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,577. About 10.9% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.6% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. At the 2020 American Community Survey, the median household income in the city was $52,518.[46] The mean household income was $70,807.[47]


The economy in Abilene was originally based on the livestock and agricultural sectors,[1] but is now based strongly on government, education, healthcare, and manufacturing. The petroleum industry is prevalent in the surrounding area, also.[1] The city has established incentives to bring new businesses to the area, including job training grants, relocation grants, and more.[48]

Top employers

The top 15 employers in Abilene, as of December 2019, were:[49]

Rank Employer Employees Industry
1 Dyess Air Force Base 8400 Military
2 Hendrick Health System 3200 Healthcare
3 Abilene ISD 2450 Education
4 Abilene Christian University 1900 Education
5 City of Abilene 1300 Government
6 Abilene State Supported Living Center 1225 Mental Health
7 Texas Department of Criminal Justice 1190 Law Enforcement
8 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas Claims Center 1090 Call Center
9 Abilene Regional Medical Center 830 Healthcare
10 AbiMar Foods 680 Manufacturing
11 First Financial Bank (Texas) 540 Banking
12 Taylor County 560 Government
13 Wylie ISD 510 Education
14 Eagle Aviation Services 470 Aviation
15 Hardin-Simmons University 425 Education

Government and infrastructure

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) operates the Abilene District Parole Office in the city.[50] The Robertson Unit prison and the Middleton Unit transfer unit are in Abilene and in Jones County.[51][52][53]

The United States Postal Service operates the Abilene Post Office and the Abilene Southern Hills Post Office.[54][55]

On June 17, 2017, Abilene elected its first African-American mayor, Anthony Williams.

List of mayors of Abilene, Texas
  • D. B. Corley, 1883–1885[18]
  • G. A. Kirkland, 1885–1886
  • D. W. Wristen, 1886–1891
  • H. A. Porter, 1891–1893
  • D. W. Wristen, 1893–1897
  • A. M. Robertson, 1897–1899
  • John Bowyers, 1899–1901
  • F. C. Digby Roberts, 1901–1904
  • R. W. Ellis, 1904–1905
  • Morgan Weaver, 1905–1907
  • E. N. Kirby, 1906–1919
  • Dallas Scarborough, 1919–1923
  • Charles E. Coombes, 1923–1927
  • Thomas E. Hayden, 1927–1931
  • Lee R. York, 1931–1933
  • C. L. Johnson, 1933–1937
  • Will Hair, 1937–1947
  • B. R. Blankenship, 1947–1949
  • Hudson Smart, 1949–1951
  • Ernest Grissom, 1951–1953
  • C. E. Gatlin, 1953–1957
  • Jess F. (T-Bone) Winters, 1957–1959
  • George L Minter, 1959–1961
  • C. R. Kinard, 1961–1963
  • W. L. Byrd, 1963–1966
  • Ralph N. Hooks, 1966–1969
  • J. C. Hunter, Jr., 1969–1975
  • Fred Lee Hughes, 1975–1978
  • Oliver Howard, 1978–1981
  • Elbert E. Hall, 1981–1984
  • David Stubbeman, 1984–1987
  • Dale E. Ferguson, 1987–1990
  • Gary D. McCaleb, 1990–1999
  • Grady Barr, 1999–2004
  • Norm Archibald, 2004–2017


  • Anthony Williams, 2017–present


Primary Education

Abilene has two school districts within the city limits: Abilene Independent School District (AISD) and Wylie Independent School District (WISD). High schools include Abilene High School and Cooper High School of AISD, and Wylie High School of WISD.

Colleges and universities

Abilene is home to six colleges, three of which are religiously affiliated. Hardin–Simmons University is the oldest, founded in 1891. Abilene Christian University is the largest with 2012 undergraduate enrollment at 4,371.

Name Affiliation Founded Enrollment
Abilene Christian University Churches of Christ 1906 5,210[57]
Cisco College 1972[58] 3,806[59]
Hardin–Simmons University Baptist 1891 2,392[59]
McMurry University Methodist 1923 1,372[59]
Texas State Technical College West Texas 1985 1,049[59]
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Abilene Campus 2006 332

Health care

Hendrick Medical Center includes two large hospital campuses on the north and south sides of Abilene, and is one of the city's largest employers. It is one of seven healthcare institutions affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas.[60]

The Presbyterian Medical Care Mission was founded in 1983 as a medical and dental clinic. Its services are focused to low-income individuals and families without insurance.[61]


The cultural aspects of Abilene revolve around a mix of the local college and university campuses, the agriculture community of the surrounding area, and a growing nightlife scene in the downtown area. Abilene is also home to the restored Paramount Theatre, the Abilene Philharmonic Orchestra, the Grace Museum, the Center for Contemporary Arts, the National Center for Children's Illustrated Literature, The Abilene Zoo, Frontier Texas!, the 12th Armored Division Museum, the Taylor County Expo Center, the Abilene Convention Center, six libraries (three private, three public), 26 public parks, six television stations, a daily newspaper, and several radio stations, including one NPR station (89.5 KACU).



The Abilene Reporter-News is the primary daily newspaper of the city of Abilene and the surrounding Big Country area.



  • 88.1 FM KGNZ (Christian contemporary)
  • 89.5 FM KACU (Public Radio)
  • 90.5 FM KAGT (Christian contemporary)
  • 91.3 FM KAQD (Religious)
  • 91.7 FM KQOS (Religious)
  • 92.5 FM KMWX (Adult contemporary)
  • 93.3 FM KBGT (Tejano)
  • 94.1 FM KVVO (Inspirational Country)
  • 95.1 FM KABW (Country)
  • 96.1 FM KORQ (Farm, Country)
  • 98.1 FM KTLT (Active Rock)
  • 99.7 FM KBCY (Country)
  • 100.7 FM KULL (Classic hits)
  • 102.7 FM KHXS (Classic Rock)
  • 103.7 FM KCDD (Top 40)
  • 105.1 FM KEAN (Country)
  • 106.3 FM KKHR (Regional Mexican)
  • 106.9 FM KLGD (Country)
  • 107.9 FM KEYJ (Active Rock)
  • 1280 AM KSLI (Country)
  • 1340 AM KWKC (News Talk)
  • 1470 AM KYYW (News Talk)
  • 1560 AM KZQQ (Sports talk)


Major highways

A section of Business Loop 20 (formerly US 80) in Abilene
A section of Business Loop 20 (formerly US 80) in Abilene


The city of Abilene is served by Abilene Regional Airport.

Notable people

Sister cities

In popular culture

  • The movie Friday Night Lights features games with two AISD football teams, Abilene High and Cooper High. Some scenes were filmed at Shotwell Stadium, the location of both teams' home games.[citation needed]
  • The Grateful Dead song "Loser" references the town.[69]
  • The Daniel Johnston song "Spirit World Rising" references the town with the line 'I have been to Abilene, the spirit world rising. I have seen in Abilene the Devil has Texas.'[70]
  • The John Cale song Buffalo Ballet, taken from his 1974 album Fear.[71]
  • The television show The West Wing references the town in its season three episode titled "War Crimes," when a shooting takes place at a church in the town.

See also


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  2. ^ "Abilene Mayor | City of Abilene". Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  3. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  4. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2020 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Abilene city, Texas (revision of 10-24-2021)". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
  5. ^ "Look Up a Zip Code". Archived from the original on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
  6. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  7. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Archived from the original on 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  8. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  9. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Abilene city, Texas". Archived from the original on 2021-11-07. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
  10. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  11. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 22. ISBN 0-7884-0579-9.
  12. ^ [1] Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "History of Abilene "From railroad tracks to vapor trails"". Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  14. ^ [2] Archived October 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ a b c d "Significant Dates in Abilene History". City of Abilene, Texas. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  16. ^ a b "US Newspaper Directory". Chronicling America. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d Hellmann 2006.
  18. ^ a b "City of Abilene Mayors 1883-2004". City of Abilene. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  19. ^ a b c d "City Population History from 1850–2000: Abilene", Texas Almanac, Texas State Historical Association, 12 January 2011, archived from the original on 2017-08-25
  20. ^ "Historical Sketches of Texas Libraries: Abilene", Handbook of Texas Libraries, Austin: Texas Library Association, no. 1, 1904, hdl:2027/uc1.b4221835
  21. ^ a b c d e Fane Downs. "Abilene, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  22. ^ Vernon N. Kisling, Jr., ed. (2001). "Zoological Gardens of the United States". Zoo and Aquarium History. USA: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-3924-5. Archived from the original on 2017-02-16. (Chronological list)
  23. ^ a b c "Movie Theaters in Abilene, TX". Los Angeles: Cinema Treasures LLC. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  24. ^ Jack Alicoate, ed. (1939), "Standard Broadcasting Stations of the United States: Texas", Radio Annual, New York: Radio Daily, OCLC 2459636
  25. ^ Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.
  26. ^ "Texas: West Texas". Encyclopedia of Southern Jewish Communities. Jackson, Mississippi: Goldring / Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  27. ^ [3] video of Eisenhower in Abilene, timestamp 39:46
  28. ^ a b "United States TV Stations Texas", Yearbook of Radio and Television, New York: Radio Television Daily, 1964, OCLC 7469377, archived from the original on 2017-03-20 – via Internet Archive icon of an open green padlock
  29. ^ "About". Abilene Preservation League. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  30. ^ "Texas". Official Congressional Directory. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1979. hdl:2027/mdp.39015012846567 – via HathiTrust.
  31. ^ "City of Abilene, TX". Archived from the original on August 17, 2000 – via Internet Archive, Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ Kevin Hyde; Tamie Hyde (eds.). "United States of America: Texas". Official City Sites. Utah. OCLC 40169021. Archived from the original on August 24, 2000.
  33. ^ "World War II museum turns 15", Abilene Reporter-News, October 5, 2016, archived from the original on August 25, 2017
  34. ^ Reporter-News 2016.
  35. ^ "Abilene city, Texas". QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  36. ^ Civic Impulse, LLC. "Members of Congress". GovTrack. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
  37. ^ "Downtown Abilene Initiative | Shopping, Dining, Entertainment & More". Downtown Abilene Initiative. Retrieved 2018-11-25.
  38. ^ "Abilene Climate Data". National Weather Service, San Angelo. Archived from the original on 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2014-07-21.
  39. ^ "Climatological Normals of Abilene". Hong Kong SAR Government. Archived from the original on 2012-07-27. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
  40. ^ "Abilene Heritage Square". Abilene Heritage Square. Retrieved 2022-01-09.
  41. ^ "Library, event center, coffee shop, and more part of $41.5 million project at old Lincoln Middle School". KTAB - 2019-07-26. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
  42. ^ "Abilene population US Census". Archived from the original on 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
  43. ^ a b c "Explore Census Data". Retrieved 2022-05-20.
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  1. ^ Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.[44][45]


External links

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