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AC Transit
AC Transit logo (2014+) cropped.svg
ACTransit collage.jpg
A collage of AC Transit's buses
Headquarters1600 Franklin St,
Oakland, CA
LocaleEast Bay
Service areaWestern Alameda and Contra Costa counties
Service typebus service
Stopsapprox. 5,500[2]
Daily ridershipapprox. 178,851 ridership per year = approx. 55 million[2]
OperatorAlameda-Contra Costa Transit District
Chief executiveMike Hursh, General Manager

AC Transit (Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is an Oakland-based public transit agency serving the western portions of Alameda and Contra Costa counties in the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay Area. AC Transit also operates "Transbay" routes across San Francisco Bay to San Francisco and selected areas in San Mateo and Santa Clara counties. AC Transit is constituted as a special district under California law. It is governed by seven elected members (five from geographic wards and two at large). It is not a part of or under the control of Alameda or Contra Costa counties or any local jurisdictions.

Buses operate out of four operating divisions: Emeryville, East Oakland (Seminary), Hayward, and Richmond. The Operations Control Center is in Emeryville.[2] The Richmond operating division closed in 2011,[3] but opened again in early 2017 due to a revived economy.[4] The District is the public successor to the privately owned Key System.

Service area

The District encompasses the following cities and unincorporated areas: Oakland, Fremont, Hayward, Berkeley, Richmond, San Leandro, Alameda, Castro Valley, Newark, San Pablo, El Cerrito, San Lorenzo, Ashland, Albany, Cherryland, El Sobrante, Piedmont, Fairview, Emeryville, Kensington, and East Richmond Heights. The District's bus lines also serve parts of some other East Bay communities, including Milpitas, Pinole, and Union City.

AC Transit serves many colleges and universities including the University of California, Berkeley; Stanford University; California State University, East Bay; Chabot College; Holy Names University; Peralta Colleges (Laney College, College of Alameda, Berkeley City College, and Merritt College), Contra Costa College; Ohlone College; Northwestern Polytechnic University; and Mills College.

Most routes connect with regional train service, primarily BART (Bay Area Rapid Transit), in addition to ACE and Amtrak, including (among other trains) the Capitol Corridor. AC Transit routes also connect with several other regional transit services, including Union City Transit, SamTrans, WestCAT, the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni), Golden Gate Transit, the Alameda-Oakland Ferry, the Harbor Bay Ferry, Emery Go Round, SolTrans and FAST.

While most AC Transit service consists of local lines throughout the East Bay, the District also provides many Transbay lines. Most of these run across the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge to connect communities as distant as El Sobrante and Newark with San Francisco's Transbay Terminal (formerly the terminus of the Key System). Bus service is also provided across the San Mateo and Dumbarton bridges to the south.


AC Transit's primary hubs include BART stations, major shopping centers, and points of interest, which are spread throughout the East Bay. Most routes serve and/or terminate at BART stations. The hubs include:


AC Transit buses at Bay Fair BART Station.
AC Transit buses at Bay Fair BART Station.

Much of AC transit's ridership is skewed heavily towards a few heavily-trafficked local (as opposed to trans-bay) routes. As of 2013, the top five routes account for a third of all riders, and the top twelve routes account for more than half.[5]


Voters created the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in 1956 and subsequently approved a $16.5 million bond issue in 1959 enabling the District to buy out the failing privately owned Key System Transit Lines. In October 1960, AC Transit’s service began. The new District built up the bus fleet with 250 new “transit liner” buses, extended service into new neighborhoods, created an intercity express bus network, and increased Bay Bridge bus service.[6]

In 2003, the District introduced a San Mateo-Hayward Bridge route. Designated as Line M, the service connected the BART stations of Castro Valley and Hayward with Foster City and San Mateo's Hillsdale Caltrain station. A second San Mateo-Hayward Bridge route, Line MA, was added in 2006 and discontinued in 2007. (The M replaced the SamTrans 90E, which had been canceled in 1999.)

On June 30, 2003, a new "rapid bus" line operating on San Pablo Avenue was introduced. Designated as Line 72R (or San Pablo Rapid), the service connected Oakland with Richmond and operated at faster speeds than regular local service due to wide stop spacing and signal priority treatments.

In 2004, the District began service on Line U across the Dumbarton Bridge, connecting Stanford University with ACE and BART trains in Fremont. As part of a consortium of transit agencies (including AC Transit, BART, SamTrans, Union City Transit, and VTA), the District already operated Dumbarton Express bus service across the Dumbarton Bridge.

Beginning December 10, 2005, AC Transit began participating in the regional All Nighter network, providing 24-hour bus service throughout its service area to supplement BART service, which does not operate during owl hours. AC Transit had provided 24-hour service on many of its trunk lines prior to this date, except in the late 1990s due to budget limitations.

On July 30, 2007, AC Transit announced that it had entered into a 25-year partnership with SunPower, MMA Renewable Ventures, and PG&E to install solar energy systems at its facilities in an effort to reduce its carbon footprint, improve local air quality, and save money on energy costs that could be used instead to spend on transit service.[7]

On March 28, 2010, several major service changes were implemented to reduce a severe budget shortfall. Changes included reduced service on local and Transbay lines, elimination of unproductive routes, splitting of the 51 into two sections (called as lines "51A" and "51B"), and the introduction of limited-stop line 58L (which, as of 2016, is discontinued).[8][9]

Starting in February 2011, all buses on Line 376 were being escorted by a marked Contra Costa County Sheriff's patrol vehicle through the unincorporated community of North Richmond. Line 376 provides late-night service through North Richmond and the nearby cities of Richmond, San Pablo, and Pinole. The escorts were introduced to improve the safety of the service, which had five serious incidents between 5 January and 9 February.[10]

On December 13, 2013, AC Transit adopted a new fare policy that brought changes to the transit system July 2014, including a new day pass that is in line with other transit agencies including VTA and SamTrans.[11] The policy is also designed to speed boarding and help keep buses on schedule, provide greater convenience and value for customers, and encourage more customers to switch to Clipper[12]

Rapid Bus and Bus Rapid Transit

90th Avenue station under construction in December 2018
90th Avenue station under construction in December 2018

A rapid bus line was introduced on San Pablo Avenue on June 30, 2003. Designated as Line 72R (or San Pablo Rapid), it operates from 6 am to 7 pm at 12-minute intervals on weekdays, and 7 am to 7 pm at 15-minute intervals on weekends and holidays. Bus stops are spaced 2/3-mile apart on average, running between Jack London Square (via 20th Street and Broadway) in Oakland and Contra Costa College in San Pablo, and buses receive signal priority at several intersections. Although the line does have scheduled timepoints en route, most buses typically travel along the route as fast (or as slow) as traffic allows.

On June 24, 2007, the success of line 72R made it a model for another rapid bus line that was introduced.[13][14] Line 1R (or International Rapid) operated on weekdays between Berkeley Way and Oxford Street in Berkeley and Bay Fair BART station, mainly along Telegraph Avenue, International Boulevard, and East 14th Street. Weekend and holiday service operated between downtown Oakland and San Leandro only.

Line 1R was eliminated on June 26, 2016. AC Transit is currently constructing a Bus Rapid Transit line along International Blvd.[15] AC Transit’s Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) project will operate between Uptown Oakland and San Leandro. Approved in 2012 by both cities, BRT will feature level boarding, pre-paid ticketing, and dedicated transit lanes along much of the corridor. The project is funded by Alameda County Measure B, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the State of California, and the Federal Transit Administration. The project broke ground in August 2016[16] and is expected to begin revenue service in summer 2020.[17] There are no plans for bus rapid transit along the Telegraph Avenue alignment of the 1R; the section between uptown Oakland and U.C. Berkeley is mostly served by present-day local line 6.

Bus fleet

At its inception, AC Transit purchased the mixed White, Mack, and GM "old-look" bus fleet from its predecessor, the Key System. The ex-Key System buses were repainted in "clownface" livery, featuring a predominantly white (upper half) and orange (lower front) color scheme with teal side stripes, and AC Transit adopted a "wing" logo featuring the same colors. After its inception, the first new AC Transit orders were for GM New Look buses, which the agency advertised as "Transit Liners". AC Transit began New Look operation in late 1960.[18] AC Transit would continue to operate a mixed fleet of buses throughout the 1960s.[citation needed]

AC Transit also pioneered the use of articulated buses in the United States; in March 1966 it was the first transit agency to use the Super Golden Eagle long-distance coach (originally designed and built for Continental Trailways; AC Transit designated it XMC-77 and called it the "Freeway Train"), primarily on Transbay service.[19] By 1970, AC Transit was one of six agencies to participate in a "super bus project" coordinated by the National Transportation Center (Pittsburgh) to write a specification for a higher-capacity bus; once the specification had been written, two prototypes would be built and tested to select a winner for a large group procurement of 100 buses to keep per-unit costs low.[20] Two European-built articulated buses were tested in the summer of 1974: a Volvo B58, and a MAN SG 192 [de].[21][22] Riders received the M.A.N. bus favorably, and the specification was released for bid in 1975;[23] AC Transit placed an order for 30 buses in 1976 and deliveries began from the AM General/M.A.N. joint venture in 1978.[24]

For its rigid buses, AC Transit continued purchasing GM New Look buses through the early 1970s, then switched to purchasing Flxible New Look buses starting in 1974. Since the early 1980s, AC Transit began acquiring buses from Flyer, Neoplan, and Gillig. Around this time, AC Transit began ordering new buses in a "stripe" color scheme, featuring the same orange, teal, and white colors as the previous "clownface" livery. In the late 1990s, AC Transit added buses from NABI.[25] AC Transit supplemented these buses with a fleet of 45-foot over-the-road coaches purchased from Motor Coach Industries beginning in the early 2000s.

In 2003, AC Transit began purchasing low-floor buses from Van Hool. The Van Hool buses were assembled in Belgium and featured low floors and three doors (four doors on articulated models), which AC Transit touted as the key to bus rapid transit service between Berkeley and San Leandro along Shattuck, Telegraph, International Blvd, and East 14th Street.[26] At the same time, AC Transit rolled out a revised "stripe" livery featuring new colors (green and black), and a new logo.[27] The logo was simplified in 2014.[28]

After criticism over the use of federal funds to purchase foreign-made Van Hool buses and the tailoring of specification requirements to exclude domestic manufacturers,[29] AC Transit ordered locally-built Gillig buses in 2012.[30] In March 2013, AC Transit began operating the first of its new Gillig buses.[31] In August of the same year, AC Transit placed the first of its new New Flyer Xcelsior articulated buses into service.[32] Later that year, in November 2013, new Gillig buses with a suburban seating configuration and Transbay branding were introduced into service.[33]

All AC Transit buses are wheelchair accessible and have front-mounted bicycle racks. The MCI buses also feature luggage bay bicycle racks. AC Transit buses purchased after 2007 have air conditioning, as approved by the Board of Directors.[34]

Alternative power

In 1969, AC Transit received a grant and converted bus #666 to steam power, which ran in revenue service between 1971 and 1972. The propulsion system was designed by William Brobeck and used a triple-expansion reciprocating steam engine; power was improved compared to the original six-cylinder Detroit Diesel 6V71 engine and emissions were reduced, but fuel consumption was higher than the conventional diesel bus.[35] The steam system is a closed loop. Exhaust steam is condensed and returned to the steam generator, which is an externally-fired boiler that uses 1,400 feet (430 m) of coiled steel tubing.[36] Prior to entering service, the steam bus was exhibited in Washington DC[37] and to the public.[38] Bus #666 completed 3,403 miles (5,477 km) in revenue service when the trial ended in September 1972,[39] and the diesel engine was subsequently reinstalled in the bus.[40]

AC Transit is the lead agency of Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA), a consortium of five Bay Area transit agencies (AC Transit, Golden Gate Transit, SFMTA, SamTrans, and VTA) demonstrating fuel cell buses.[41] The District began the HyRoad program in 1999 and tested several fuel cell buses with new hydrogen fuelling infrastructure, including the Ballard/XCELLSiS ZEbus (a New Flyer F40LF with a Ballard fuel cell) in November 1999.[42] Three hydrogen-powered buses, based on the Van Hool A330, operated in revenue service from 2006 to 2010. AC Transit took delivery of 12 additional third-generation fuel cell buses, based on the Van Hool A300L in 2011. In 2019, AC Transit began operating 11 additional hydrogen fuel cell buses from New Flyer, one of which is a 60-foot articulated bus, and 5 battery electric buses from New Flyer.[43]

Active fleet

Current Fleet[2]
Year Manufacturer Model Length
Quantity Fleet Series Fuel Image
2003 MCI D4500 45 39 6041-6079 Diesel
AC Transit Commuter MCI.png
Van Hool A330 40 98 1001-1110
AC Transit 1044.JPG
2006 Van Hool A300K 30 51 5001-5051 Diesel
AC Transit route 52l.jpg
2007 Van Hool AG300 60 10 2101-2110 Diesel
60 14 2151-2165
AC Transit 2160.JPG
2008 Van Hool A300L 40 27 1201-1227 Diesel
A300K 30 39 5101-5139 Diesel
AC Transit 5101.JPG
2010 Van Hool AG300 60 9 2191-2199 Diesel
A300L FC 40 12 FC4-FC16 Hydrogen
AC Transit FC6.JPG
2013 Gillig Low Floor 40[44] 65 1301-1365 Diesel
AC Transit 1307.JPG
New Flyer Xcelsior XD60[32] 60 23 2201-2223 Diesel
AC Transit bus #2209 at 20th Street and Broadway in Oakland in February 2014.
Gillig Low Floor 40[45] 54 6101-6155 Diesel
An image of an AC Transit bus taken at the San Francisco Temporary Transbay Terminal in mid November 2013. The bus is the commuter-styled Gillig Low Floor Advantage bus with Wi-Fi, and was operating on the NL Transbay line.
2014 Gillig Low Floor 40 68 1401-1468 Diesel
AC Transit bus #1455 operating on the 18 line at its 20th and Broadway stop.
2015 ElDorado National Aerotech 220 24 10 3501-3510 Diesel
AC Transit bus #3403 waiting at the Transbay Temporary Terminal in San Francisco during the Labor Day 2015 BART Transbay Tube closure.
2016 Gillig Low Floor 40 55 1501-1555 Diesel
AC Transit bus #1505 at 20th Street and Broadway in Oakland.
Gillig Low Floor[46] 40 25 1556-1580 Diesel-Electric Hybrid
AC Transit bus #1559 Rockridge BART Station in Oakland.
2017 Gillig Low Floor 40 10 1581-1590 Diesel
2018 Alexander Dennis Enviro500 42 15 6201-6215 Diesel
Double-decker AC Transit bus in Emeryville, February 2019.jpg
New Flyer Xcelsior XD60 60 29 2224-2252 Diesel
AC Transit bus 2239 at Fruitvale BART on the O line.png
2019 Gillig Low Floor 40 1 1591 Diesel-Electric Hybrid
Gillig Low Floor 40 35[43] 1601-1635 Diesel
AC Transit bus 1618 heading towards Fruitvale on the 51A line.jpg
New Flyer Xcelsior XDE60
(BRT model)
60 27[43] 2301-2327 Diesel-Electric Hybrid
AC Transit BRT bus 2301 on display at Fruitvale BART.jpg
New Flyer Xcelsior XHE40 40 10[43] 7017-7026 Hydrogen Fuel Cell
AC Transit bus 7019 at Fruitvale BART on the 54 line.jpg
New Flyer Xcelsior XE40 40 5[43] 8001-8005 Battery Electric
AC Transit bus 8005 at Fruitvale BART on the 54 line.jpg
New Flyer Xcelsior XHE60 60 1[43] Hydrogen Fuel Cell
(pilot program)

Future Fleet

Future Fleet
Year Manufacturer Model Length
Quantity Fleet Series Fuel Image Notes
2020-2024 MCI D45 CRT LE [47] 45 137 (50 to be used by AC Transit) TBD Diesel

Retired fleet

Retired Fleet[48]
Year Manufacturer Model Length (feet) Quantity Fleet Series Fuel Image
1941–42 White 788[a] 33 23 815-898[b] Gasoline
Key System No. 896, White 788 s2-030-012-s (12092892923).jpg
1944–45 White 798[a] 35 91 900-999[c] Gasoline
1947–48 White 798[a] 35 75 1000-1074 Gasoline
1946 GM TGM-3609 Old Look[a] 30' 9" 45 1300-1344 Gasoline[d]
1946 GM TGM-3609 Old Look[a] 30' 9" 20 1200-1241 Diesel[e]
1947 GM TDH-4008 Old Look[a][f] 33 5 1401-1405 Diesel
AC Transit No. 1405, 1947 GMC TDH-4008 (4596838161).jpg
1944 GM TD-4006 Old Look[g] 33 5 1500-1504 Diesel
1940–41 GM TD-4001 Old Look[h] 33 5 1501-1504 Diesel
1947–48 GM TDH-4507 Old Look[a][f] 35 175 1700-1875[i] Diesel
AC Transit No. 1785, 1947 GMC TDH-4507 (4596838299).jpg
1949 GM TDH-4509 Old Look[a] 35 25 1900-1924 Diesel
AC Transit No. 1921, 1949 GMC TDH-4509 (4597453674).jpg
1950–51 GM TDH-5103 Old Look[a] 39' 6" 50 2000-2049 Diesel
1958 GM TDH-4801 Old Look[a] 37' 6" 21 2100-2120 Diesel
AC Transit No. 2105, 1958 GMC TDH-4801 (4597453842).jpg
1947 Mack C-41-GT[a] 33' 2" 60 2501-2560 Gasoline
Key System No. 2502, Mack C-41-GT Scan 164 (12193061953).jpg
1960–61 GM SDH-4501 New Look 35 57 100-156 Diesel
AC Transit No. 100, GM SDH-4501 New Look (43999382681).jpg
1961 GM SDM-4501 New Look 35 5 300-304[j] Diesel
1961 GM TDH-4516 New Look 35 50 400-449 Diesel
AC Transit No. 419, 1961 GMC TDH-4516 (4596838765).jpg
1961 GM TDH-5301 New Look 40 125 500-624 Diesel[k]
AC Transit No. 558, 1961 GMC TDH-5301 (4596838855).jpg
1961–62 GM TDH-4517 New Look 35 43 700-712; 720-749 Diesel
Ac Transit 725, GM TDH-4517 (21316714391).jpg
1963–66 GM TDH-5304 New Look 40 65 300-364 Diesel
AC Transit 314, GM New Look (21150030226) (cropped).jpg
1963–66 GM TDH-4519 New Look 35 55 750-804 Diesel
AC Transit 799, GM TDH 4519 (20663020503) (cropped).jpg
1968–69 GM T6H-5305 New Look 40 55 626-680 Diesel
AC Transit No. 657, 1969 GMC T6H-5305 (4597454298).jpg
1968 GM T6H-4532 New Look 35 5 805-809 Diesel
1971–72 GM T6H-5305 New Look 40 90 900-989 Diesel[l]
AC Transit No. 942, 1971 GMC T6H-5305 (20666028013).jpg
1973 GM T6H-5307N New Look 35 55 810-864 Diesel[l]
AC Transit No. 849, 1973 GMC T6h-5307N (4597454328).jpg
1961 (1974) GM TDH-4517 New Look 29 13 700S-712S[m] Diesel
AC Transit No. 707s, 1961-74 GM New Look shortened (20960158048).jpg
1974 Flxible 53102 New Look 40 120 180-299 Diesel
AC Transit No. 256, 1974 Flxble 53102 (4596839421).jpg
1975 Flxible 53102 New Look 40 36 8000-8035[n] Diesel
AC Transit 8015, Flxible New Look Scan 149 (12193431176).jpg
1976 Minibus MBD-8002 25 29 2200-2228 Diesel
AC Transit No. 2200, 1976 Minibus MBD-8002 ACT335 (12915655394).jpg
1978 M.A.N. SG 220 60 articulated 30 1600-1629 Diesel
AC Transit 1629, MAN SG-220 (21150030226) (cropped).jpg
1980–82 Flyer D901[o] 40 170 1000-1169 Diesel
AC Transit 1097, Flyer D901 (21258504311).jpg
1980 Flyer D901[o] 35 155 2000-2019 Diesel
1982–84 Gillig Phantom 40 226 1300-1390; 1400-1483; 1485; 1500-1549[p] Diesel
AC Transit No. 1545, 1984 Gillig Phantom 40TB966V92 ACT336 (12915229715).jpg
1982–83 Gillig Phantom 35 51 2049-2099 Diesel
1983 Neoplan AN440 40 61 1200-1260 Diesel
1984 Neoplan AN408 26 3 2300-2302 Diesel
1983 M.A.N. SG 310 60 articulated 15 1630-1644[q] Diesel
AC Transit 1630, 1983 MAN SC-310 Scan 278 (12193242023).jpg
1983 Crown-Ikarus 286 60 articulated 15 1700-1714[q] Diesel
1988 New Flyer D35HF 35 29 2400-2428 Diesel
AC Transit 2404, New Flyer D35HF (21276975902).jpg
1988–89 New Flyer D40HF 40 79 2500-2578 Diesel
AC Transit No. 2546, New Flyer D40 (42190254020).jpg
1989 New Flyer D60HF 60 articulated 30 1800-1829 Diesel
1990 Gillig Phantom 40 52 2601-2652 Diesel
1992 Gillig Phantom 30 62 2701-2762 Diesel
AC Transit 2718, Gillig Phantom PICT0101 (12193020104).jpg
1993 Gillig Phantom 40 60 2801-2860 Diesel
1997 New Flyer D60HF 60 articulated 30 1901-1930 Diesel
AC Transit 1909, New Flyer D60HF (20961572010).jpg
1997–98 NABI 416 40 204 2901-2971; 3001-3067; 3101-3166 Diesel
AC Transit 3122.JPG
2000 MCI D4500 45 30 6001-6030 Diesel
AC Transit bus #6023 at the Transbay Temporary Terminal in July 2014.
2001 MCI D4500 45 10 6031-6040 Diesel
AC Transit 6040.JPG
2000–02 NABI 40LFW 40 84 4001-4021; 4051-4090;[r] 7201-7223 Diesel
2003 Van Hool AG300
60 57 2001-2057 Diesel
AC Transit 2009.JPG
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Purchased from Key System in 1960.
  2. ^ Discontiguous range. 815, 816, 821, 822, 826, 831, 832, 837, 843, 854, 859, 864, 865, 867, 873, 875, 881, 884, 885, 887, 895, 896 and 898.
  3. ^ Discontiguous range. 901, 918, 923, 939, 942, 954, 962, 972, 979 not purchased.
  4. ^ 20 buses were repowered with diesel engines, renumbered into 1200 series
  5. ^ 20 buses were repowered with diesel engines in 1961, renumbered directly from former 13xx fleet numbers: 1200, 1202, 1203, 1205, 1209, 1212, 1213, 1215, 1217, 1220, 1224, 1228, 1230, 1232, 1233, 1234, 1235, 1236, 1238, and 1241.
  6. ^ a b Originally built for Omaha & Council Bluffs Railway, traded to Key System in 1951.
  7. ^ Purchased from Long Beach to provide parts for diesel conversion of 13xx. Used for storage afterwards.
  8. ^ Purchased from Fresno City Lines to provide parts for diesel conversion of 13xx. Originally from San Diego. Some were rebuilt and used for revenue service.
  9. ^ 1700-1859 were originally purchased by Key System; 1860-1874 were ex-Omaha buses.
  10. ^ Renumbered to 175-179 in 1963.
  11. ^ Replaced the 8xx, 9xx, 10xx White-manufactured buses purchased from Key System.
  12. ^ a b Fitted with Environmental Improvement Kit to control smog-forming emissions.[49]
  13. ^ Shortened from 700-712 for on-demand service; 708 served as the prototype.
  14. ^ Originally purchased under a contract with BART for shuttle service; after the contract was canceled, repainted in AC Transit livery.
  15. ^ a b Purchased after a contract with GMC for RTS buses fell through.
  16. ^ 1500-1549 were originally purchased for BART contract service and repainted into AC Transit livery at the end of that contract.
  17. ^ a b Originally built for VTA, sold to AC Transit in 1988.
  18. ^ 4089 and 4090 do not have a back window

Experimental and prototype fleet

Experimental and prototype fleet[48]
Year Manufacturer Model Length (feet) Quantity Fleet Series Fuel Image
1966 (1958) Kässbohrer A.G. Super Golden Eagle 60 articulated 1 XMC-77[a] Diesel
AC Transit XMC-77 ACT039 (11177809955).jpg
1967 GM TDH-5303 New Look 40 1 XMC-53 (625)[b] Diesel
AC Transit No. 625 or XMC-53, 1967 GMC TDH-5303 (4596839151).jpg
1971 (1969) GM T6H-5305 New Look 40 1 666[c] Steam
AC Transit 666, Steam Bus ACT268 (12915267905).jpg
1973 (1961) GM TDH-4517 New Look 29 1 708S[d] Diesel
AC Transit No. 708S, 1961-74 GMC TDH-4517 shortened (20629784924).jpg
1983 Neoplan Skyliner 40 1 [e] Diesel
AC Transit 1983 Neoplan Skyliner (4597454596).jpg
1986 (1963) GM/Flyer TDH-5304 New Look & D901 40 1 311[f] Diesel
1999 APS Systems Custom low-floor 40 1 999[g] Propane-Electric
AC Transit 999 PICT0120 (12192838653).jpg
2002 Thor ThunderPower 30 1 4285[h] Hydrogen
AC Transit 4285 PICT0109 (12193209626).jpg
  1. ^ Experimental articulated bus dubbed the "Freeway Train".[50] Trial began in March 1966.[19][51]
  2. ^ Originally built for Muni with GM's first eight-cylinder engine; after Muni testing was complete, tested by AC Transit and accepted into revenue service as 625.[52]
  3. ^ Developed under a 1969 grant.[35] Converted to and ran under steam power between Sept 27, 1971 and Sept 29, 1972. Power and acceleration were improved, but the reciprocating steam engine had higher fuel consumption.[53][36] Converted back to diesel after experiement concluded.
  4. ^ Sectioned and shortened to 29 feet (8.8 m) as a prototype for on-demand service.[54] The remaining 7xx series buses were also shortened.
  5. ^ Tested in April 1983. 73 seats total, 53 on upper level.[55]
  6. ^ Combined the chassis and cab of GM TDH-5304 #311 with the passenger section of a Flyer D901.
  7. ^ Battery electric bus with onboard propane-fired generator (Mazda 13B) for charging.[56] Tested in 1998; bus later tested by OCTA.[57]
  8. ^ Fuel cell bus initially built for SunLine Transit Agency. AC Transit tested the vehicle for one year starting in 2003.


AC Transit is funded with a mix of federal, state, and local government subsidies, as well as passenger fares.

In March 2004, voters throughout the San Francisco Bay Area approved Regional Measure 2, which funds regional transportation capital and operating programs through a US$1.00 surcharge on State-owned bridges operated by the BATA. (The Golden Gate Bridge is owned and operated by the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District.)[58]

In November 2004, voters approved Measure BB, which increased the parcel tax from US $24 to US$48 annually for 10 years beginning 1 July 2005, to help fund AC Transit services.[59]

In April 2005, a federal class-action lawsuit was filed against the Metropolitan Transportation Commission alleging that it discriminates against AC Transit's primarily minority riders by giving AC Transit disproportionately less money than BART and Caltrain. AC Transit is not party to the lawsuit, and the court sided with MTC in 2009.[60]

In November 2008, voters approved Measure VV, which increased the parcel tax by US$48 annually for 10 years beginning 1 July 2009, to help fund AC Transit services. Measure VV also extended the US$48 parcel tax approved under Measure BB so a total US$96 annual tax is effective through 30 June 2019.[61]

Internet access

AC Transit also offers wireless internet on many buses that serve Transbay lines.[62] These buses can be distinguished by their all-green livery, padded "commuter" seats, and Wi-Fi logos near the front entrance door and inside the bus.


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ a b c d e Ridership, Bus Fleet and Service
  3. ^ AC Transit cuts costs to balance budget
  4. ^ Grand Re-Opening of Richmond Division 3 Bus Facility/, January 27, 2017
  5. ^ Written 2013, accessed 2019:
  6. ^ History of AC Transit
  7. ^ AC Transit Turns on Solar Power Archived October 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, AC Transit External Affairs, 30 July 2007, retrieved 31 July 2007
  8. ^ Service Changes Set for March 28
  9. ^ Detailed List of Service Changes Archived March 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ North Richmond bus line gets police escort. Ted Trautman. Richmond Confidential. 24-02-2011. Retrieved 06-03-2011.
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External links

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