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7th United States Congress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

7th United States Congress
6th ←
→ 8th
USCapitol1800.jpg
March 4, 1801 – March 4, 1803
Senate PresidentAaron Burr (DR)
Senate President pro temAbraham Baldwin (DR)
Stephen R. Bradley (DR)
House SpeakerNathaniel Macon (DR)
Members34 senators
107 members of the House
2 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityDemocratic-Republican
House MajorityDemocratic-Republican
Sessions
Special: March 4, 1801 – March 5, 1801
1st: December 7, 1801 – May 3, 1802
2nd: December 6, 1802 – March 3, 1803

The Seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1801, to March 4, 1803, during the first two years of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. Both chambers had a Democratic-Republican majority, except during the Special session of the Senate, when there was a Federalist majority in the Senate.

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Transcription

Have you ever wondered who has the authority to make laws or punish people who break them? When we think of power in the United States, we usually think of the President, but he does not act alone. In fact, he is only one piece of the power puzzle and for very good reason. When the American Revolution ended in 1783, the United States government was in a state of change. The founding fathers knew that they did not want to establish another country that was ruled by a king, so the discussions were centered on having a strong and fair national government that protected individual freedoms and did not abuse its power. When the new constitution was adopted in 1787, the structure of the infant government of the United States called for three separate branches, each with their own powers, and a system of checks and balances. This would ensure that no one branch would ever become too powerful because the other branches would always be able to check the power of the other two. These branches work together to run the country and set guidelines for us all to live by. The legislative branch is described in Article 1 of the U.S. Constitution. Many people feel that the founding fathers put this branch in the document first because they thought it was the most important. The legislative branch is comprised of 100 U.S. Senators and 435 members in the U.S. House of Representatives. This is better known as the U.S. Congress. Making laws is the primary function of the legislative branch, but it is also responsible for approving federal judges and justices, passing the national budget, and declaring war. Each state gets two Senators and some number of Representatives, depending on how many people live in that state. The executive branch is described in Article 2 of the Constitution. The leaders of this branch of government are the President and Vice President, who are responsible for enforcing the laws that Congress sets forth. The President works closely with a group of advisors, known as the Cabinet. These appointed helpers assist the President in making important decisions within their area of expertise, such as defense, the treasury, and homeland security. The executive branch also appoints government officials, commands the armed forces, and meets with leaders of other nations. All that combined is a lot of work for a lot of people. In fact, the executive branch employs over 4 million people to get everything done. The third brand of the U.S. government is the judicial branch and is detailed in Article 3. This branch is comprised of all the courts in the land, from the federal district courts to the U.S. Supreme Court. These courts interpret our nation's laws and punish those who break them. The highest court, the Supreme Court, settles disputes among states, hears appeals from state and federal courts, and determines if federal laws are constitutional. There are nine justices on the Supreme Court, and, unlike any other job in our government, Supreme Court justices are appointed for life, or for as long as they want to stay. Our democracy depends on an informed citizenry, so it is our duty to know how it works and what authority each branch of government has over its citizens. Besides voting, chances are that some time in your life you'll be called upon to participate in your government, whether it is to serve on a jury, testify in court, or petition your Congress person to pass or defeat an idea for a law. By knowning the branches, who runs them, and how they work together, you can be involved, informed, and intelligent.

Contents

Major events

Major legislation

States admitted

United States Capitol with "Brick Oven"
United States Capitol with "Brick Oven"
  • Ohio was admitted as a state, having previously been a portion of the Northwest Territory. The exact date is unclear and in dispute, but it is undisputed that it was during this Congress. The official date when Ohio became a state was not set until 1953, when the 83rd U.S. Congress passed legislation retrospectively designating the date of the first meeting of the Ohio state legislature, March 1, 1803, as that date. However, on April 30, 1802, the 7th U.S. Congress had passed an act "authorizing the inhabitants of Ohio to form a Constitution and state government, and admission of Ohio into the Union." (Sess. 1, ch. 40, 2 Stat. 173) On February 19, 1803, the same Congress passed an act "providing for the execution of the laws of the United States in the State of Ohio." (Sess. 2, ch. 7, 2 Stat. 201) The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress states that Ohio was admitted to the Union on November 29, 1802, and counts its seats as vacant from that date.

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate

Although the Federalists had more Senators during the very brief March 1801 special session, by the time the first regular session met in December 1801, the Democratic-Republicans had gained majority control.

Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of the previous congress 11 21 32 0
Begin 14 18 32 0
End 17 152
Final voting share 53.1% 46.9%
Beginning of the next congress 22 9 31 3

House of Representatives

State shares of party representatives
State shares of party representatives
Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of the previous congress 49 56 105 1
Begin 64 40 104 2
End 41 1053
Final voting share 61.0% 39.0%
Beginning of the next congress 113 26 139 3

Leadership

Senate

President of the SenateAaron Burr
President of the Senate
Aaron Burr
President pro tempore of the SenateAbraham Baldwin
President pro tempore of the Senate
Abraham Baldwin

House of Representatives

Members

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate

Skip to House of Representatives, below

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, facing re-election in 1802; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1804; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1806.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives elected statewide on the general ticket or otherwise at-large, are preceded by an "At-large," and the names of those elected from districts, whether plural or single member, are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate

There was 1 death, 8 resignations, and 2 seats added for a new state.

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Rhode Island
(2)
Ray Greene (F) Resigned March 5, 1801, after being nominated for a judicial position. His successor was elected. Christopher Ellery (DR) Seated May 6, 1801
South Carolina
(2)
Charles Pinckney (DR) Resigned June 6, 1801, after being appointed Minister to Spain. His successor was elected. Thomas Sumter (DR) Seated December 15, 1801
New Hampshire
(2)
Samuel Livermore (F) Resigned June 12, 1801. His successor was elected. Simeon Olcott (F) Seated June 17, 1801
Pennsylvania
(3)
Peter Muhlenberg (DR) Resigned June 30, 1801. His successor was appointed July 13, 1801, and then elected December 17, 1801. George Logan (DR) Seated July 13, 1801
Vermont
(3)
Elijah Paine (F) Resigned September 1, 1801. His successor was elected. Stephen R. Bradley (DR) Seated October 15, 1801
Maryland
(3)
William Hindman (F) Resigned November 19, 1801. His successor was elected. Robert Wright (DR) Seated November 19, 1801
New York
(3)
John Armstrong Jr. (DR) Resigned February 5, 1802. His successor was elected. DeWitt Clinton (DR) Seated February 9, 1802
New Hampshire
(3)
James Sheafe (F) Resigned June 14, 1802. His successor was elected. William Plumer (F) Seated June 17, 1802
South Carolina
(3)
John E. Colhoun (DR) Died October 26, 1802. His successor was elected. Pierce Butler (DR) Seated November 4, 1802
Ohio
(1)
New seats Ohio was admitted to the Union on November 29, 1802. Vacant Not filled this Congress
Ohio
(3)
Vacant

House of Representatives

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[a]
Connecticut at-large Vacant Elizur Goodrich (F) resigned before the beginning of this Congress. Calvin Goddard (F) May 14, 1801
Massachusetts 14th Vacant Representative-elect George Thatcher declined to serve.
Successor elected June 22, 1801.
Richard Cutts (DR) December 7, 1801[3]
Massachusetts 4th Levi Lincoln (DR) Resigned March 5, 1801, after being appointed US Attorney General. Seth Hastings (F) January 11, 1802
New York 6th John Bird (F) Resigned July 25, 1801. John Peter Van Ness (DR) December 7, 1801
New York 5th Thomas Tillotson (DR) Resigned August 10, 1801, upon appointment as NY Secretary of State. Theodorus Bailey (DR) December 7, 1801
Massachusetts 12th Silas Lee (F) Resigned August 20, 1801. Samuel Thatcher (F) December 6, 1802
South Carolina 4th Thomas Sumter (DR) Resigned December 15, 1801, after being elected to the US Senate. Richard Winn (DR) January 24, 1803
Georgia at-large Benjamin Taliaferro (DR) Resigned sometime in 1802. David Meriwether (DR) December 6, 1802
New Hampshire at-large Joseph Peirce (F) Resigned sometime in 1802. Samuel Hunt (F) December 6, 1802
Maryland 2nd Richard Sprigg, Jr. (DR) Resigned February 11, 1802. Walter Bowie (DR) March 24, 1802
Mississippi Territory at-large Narsworthy Hunter Died March 11, 1802. Thomas M. Green, Jr. December 6, 1802
Georgia at-large John Milledge (DR) Resigned May 1802 after being elected Governor. Peter Early (DR) January 10, 1803
North Carolina 8th Charles Johnson (DR) Died July 23, 1802. Thomas Wynns (DR) December 7, 1802
Ohio at-large New seat Ohio was admitted to the Union on November 29, 1802. Vacant Not filled until next Congress
New York 6th John Peter Van Ness (DR) Seat declared forfeited January 17, 1803. Vacant

Committees

Lists of committees and their party leaders.

Senate

House of Representatives

Joint committees

Officers

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b This is the date the member was seated or an oath administered, not necessarily the same date her/his service began.

References

  1. ^ The official date when Ohio became a state was not set until 1953, when the 83rd U.S. Congress passed legislation retrospectively designating the date of the first meeting of the Ohio state legislature, March 1, 1803, as that date. However, on April 30, 1802, the 7th U.S. Congress had passed an act "authorizing the inhabitants of Ohio to form a Constitution and state government, and admission of Ohio into the Union." (Sess. 1, ch. 40, 2 Stat. 173) On February 19, 1803, the same Congress passed an act "providing for the execution of the laws of the United States in the State of Ohio." (Sess. 2, ch. 7, 2 Stat. 201) The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress states that Ohio was admitted to the Union on November 29, 1802, and counts its seats as vacant from that date.
  2. ^ a b Pennsylvania's 4th district was a plural district with two representatives.
  3. ^ "Seventh Congress March 4, 1801 to March 3, 1803". Office of the Historian, United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 11, 2019 – via History.house.gov.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

External links

This page was last edited on 4 June 2019, at 23:03
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