To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

474th Tactical Fighter Wing

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

474th Tactical Fighter Wing
Tacemblem.jpg
429th Tactical Fighter Squadron - General Dynamics F-16A Block 10A Fighting Falcon 79-0380.jpg
Active1943-1945; 1952–1954; 1957–1989
CountryUnited States
Branch United States Air Force
RoleFighter, Attack, Interdiction
Nickname(s)F-111A Roadrunners
EngagementsWorld War II
Korean War
Vietnam War[1]
DecorationsDistinguished Unit Citation
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Combat "V" Device
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation
Vietnamese Gallantry Cross with Palm[1]
Insignia
474th Fighter Group emblem [2]
474th Fighter Group World War II Patch.png
Patch with 474th Tactical Fighter Wing emblem (approved 14 November 1958)[1]
474thtfwemblem.jpg
Unofficial 474th TFW F-111 Road Runners Patch
Unofficial 474th TFW F-111 Road Runner Patch - New.jpg

The 474th Tactical Fighter Wing (TFW) is an inactive United States Air Force unit. Its last assignment was at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, where it trained combat-ready aircrews and maintained a rapid-reaction capability to execute fighter attacks against enemy forces and facilities in time of crisis. During its operational lifetime and under its various designations as a fighter or fighter bomber wing or group, the 474th was engaged in combat operations during World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. The 474th TFW was inactivated on 30 September 1989 but the 474th Air Expeditionary Group is currently deployed.

History

World War II P-38 Operations

P-38 Lightning at Aviation Nation Nellis AFB 2007[3]
P-38 Lightning at Aviation Nation Nellis AFB 2007[3]

The "474th" numbering of the Wing was initiated with the 474th Fighter Group, originally constituted on 26 May 1943 and activated on 1 August 1943 at Glendale, California. For the next several months the Group trained over the Mojave Desert in California for combat with the twin-engine P-38 Lightenings. It was moved to England during February–March 1944 where it was assigned to the Ninth Air Force. The Group included the 428th Fighter Squadron, 429th Fighter Squadron, and 430th Fighter Squadron. It operated out of Warmwell, Britain, and Saint Lambert, St. Marceau, and Peronne, France, Florennes, Belgium, and Strassfeld, Langensalza, Schweinfurt, and Stuttgart, Germany during the war. It provided bomber escort but the primary role was as an attack and interdiction fighter. It flew its first combat missions on 25 April 1944. The Group attacked bridges and railroads in France in preparation for the Normandy invasion, provided air cover for the invasion force, and flew bombing missions to support the landings on 5-6 June. German records state that on 6 July it attacked a German strong point and inflicted such damage that the Germans were unable to offer effective resistance when attacked.[4] Subsequently it conducted armed reconnaissance missions after D-Day and attacked highways and troops to support the Allied breakthrough at St Lo on 25 July.[5] The Group supported the British attack on Holland in Sep. 1944 with bombardment of flak positions near Eindhoven in advance of British 1 Airborne Division; the Battle of the Bulge Dec. 1944-Jan. 1945, including bomber escort missions and ground attack missions, including attacks on enemy transports around Malmedy, St. Vith and Schleiden; and the airborne assault across the Rhine in Mar 1945. It was awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation for a mission on 23 August 1944 in which, as part of a joint air-ground effort, they attacked retreating German forces in the Falaise-Argentan area. Targets included an immense quantity of enemy equipment massed and trapped along the Seine River and, despite severe fire from small arms and anti-aircraft artillery intended to defend two bridges and to cover the retreat, the Group repeatedly bombed and strafed the enemy motor transports, barges, bridges, and other objectives, thereby disrupting the evacuation and enabling Allied ground forces to capture German troops and equipment.[6][7][8] The Group was twice awarded the Order of the Day, Belgian Army (6 Jun-30 Sep 1944, 16 Dec 1944-25 Jan 1945) and Belgian Fourragere.[9] It saw action through the end of the War and remained in Europe until November-December 1945.[10] The 474th Fighter Group patch depicts a wolf riding a P-38, as do all of the associated fighter squadron patches.[11] All subsequent patches for the any of the 474th designations were standardized, generally reflecting the design depicted on the right with the exception of the wording - "474th Fighter Bomber Wing", "474th Fighter Bomber Group", "474th Tactical Fighter Wing", and "474th Air Expeditionary Group".

WWII Commanders

  • Col Clinton C Wasem: 1 Aug 1943
  • Lt Col Earl C Hedlund: c. 17 Feb 1945
  • Lt Col David L Lewis: Apr 1945-unkn.[12]

WWII Basing

  • Glendale, Calif: 1 Aug 1943
  • Van Nuys Metropolitan Aprt, Calif: 11 Oct 1943
  • Oxnard Flight Strip, Calif: 5 Jan-4 Feb 1944
  • Moreton, England: 12 Mar 1944
  • Neuilly, France: 6 Aug 1944. There is a monument at Neuilly-la-Foret dedicated in 1994 (50 years) to the 474th Fighter Group. The associated information sign states in English and in French - "Construction of the A11 airfield (A=American) was begun on the 22nd July 1944 by the 832nd Engineer Aviation Battalion. It was declared operational on 5 August 1944 and accommodated the 474th Fighter Group and the P-38 Lightnings (fighter bombers). About 100 planes parked on this aerodrome of around 200 hectares. Only three squadrons, with 25 fighter bombers in each one, were operational. The rest were used for liaison between the different aerodromes. On 23rd August, the 474th Fighter Group had its hour of glory, when it destroyed a significant quantity of equipment and materiel amassed along the Seine, behind the pocket of resistance of Falaise-Argentan. On 25 August, 23 pilots from the 474th Fighter Group took off from the aerodrome. 11 of them fell above the Oise after a huge combat with German fighters. On 5 September 1944, the land of the A11 airfield was returned to French authorities."[13]
  • St Marceau, France: 29 Aug 1944
  • Peronne, France: 6 Sep 1944
  • Florennes, Belgium: 1 Oct 1944
  • Strassfeld, Germany: 22 Mar 1945
  • Langensalza, Germany: 22 Apr 1945
  • Schweinfurt, Germany: 16 Jun 1945
  • Stuttgart, Germany: 25 Oct-21 Nov 1945
  • Camp Kilmer, NJ: 6-8 Dec 1945[14]

WWII Campaigns

  • Air Offensive, Europe
  • Normandy
  • Northern France
  • Rhineland
  • Ardennes-Alsace
  • Central Europe[15]

Korean War F-84E Operations

Maintenance on a 430th FBS F-84E at Taegu Air Base, 1954.
Maintenance on a 430th FBS F-84E at Taegu Air Base, 1954.

The 474th Fighter Bomber Wing (FBW) was established on 25 June 1952 as a part of the Tactical Air Command. On 10 July 1952, the 474th Fighter Bomber Wing was activated at Misawa Air Base, Japan, taking over the personnel and F-84E Thunderjets of the 116th FBW. The 474th included the 428th Fighter Bomber Squadron (FBS), 429th FBS, and 430th FBS. It was assigned to Tactical Air Command but attached to Far East Air Forces and the 5th Air Force for duty in the Korean War. On this date, in what was one of the largest air deployments of its kind, the 474th moved to Kunsan Air Base, Korea on the western side of the Korean peninsula, while the 474th Maintenance Squadron moved to Itazuke AB, Japan and integrated into the rear-echelon maintenance combined operations (REMCO) for ThunderJet fighters. Other support units remained at Misawa AB, attached to the Japan Air Defense Force.[16]

474th F-84E 4-Ship With 430th FBS in Lead
474th F-84E 4-Ship With 430th FBS in Lead

The 474th Fighter-Bomber Group initiated combat operations in the Korean War on 1 August 1952, under the Fifth Air Force. Fighter-bomber operations included night interdiction missions and targeted supply, transportation, and troop concentrations. Specific accomplishments included devastating strikes against troop concentrations near Pyongyang, disruption of a MiG attack, and major strikes against a munitions factory and destruction of a political/military instruction center. Missions included night interdiction missions against supplies and lines of communications, escorting B-26 Marauders on bombing operations in MiG Alley; air defense suppression; armed reconnaissance; and strafing and bombing troops in trenches, bunkers, and shelters, and heavy weapons positions. In January 1953 targeting shifted to communications, training complexes, and rebuilt North Korean assets, including: the Sinanju rail facilities, the Kyomipo industrial area, the Pyongyang Tank and Infantry School, the munitions processing plant near Sunchon, and enemy troop concentrations near Wonsan. On 1 April 1953, the 474th FBG, in a swap and name change only, assumed the personnel and equipment of the 49th FBG at Taegu AB under the operational control of the 58th FBW as a reinforced wing, as the 474th FBW was inactivated. This made the 58th FBW the largest FBW in Korea.[17] Only the 430th FS actually moved to Taegu.[18][19] With the coming of spring the 474th contributed significantly to "Operation Spring Thaw", a Fifth Air Force program to disrupt Communist efforts to move supplies to the front in bad weather. The 474th knocked out supply lines and inhibited their repair. During peak efforts, the 474th pilots often flew four or five missions per day. The 474th Fighter Bomber Group participated in a total of 2207 close support strike. The 474th Group participated in the destruction of North Korean airfields to prevent a last minute influx of enemy planes and material. "On 22 July 1953, in one mission led by Lt. Col. Douglas Montgomery, who was then executive officer of the 474th Group, 30 out of a total of 40 bombs were placed along the entire length of a runway at the Sunchon Airfield."[20] On the 27 July, just prior to the signing of the truce, the 474th attacked Chunggangjin Airfield in what was one of the last and one of the deepest penetrations of the War. When the hostilities stopped, the Armed Forces Assistance to Korea program was launched and the men of the 474th volunteered their off-duty time to work with local villagers in constructing and replenishing a new school building.[18][19] On 27 August 1954 a formal review and retreat ceremony was held at the Taegu Air Base. Lt. Gen. Roger M. Ramey, Fifth Air Force Commander, presented 474th with the Distinguished Unit Citation, 1 Dec 1952-30 Apr 1953. It was also awarded the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation: 10 Jul 1952-30 Mar 1953.[21][22]

Korean War Era Commanders

474th Fighter Bomber Wing Commanders
  • Col. William W. Ingenhutt, 10 July 1952-1 April 1953
474th Fighter Bomber Group Commanders
  • Lt Col William L Jacobsen, 10 Jul 1952
  • Lt Col Francis J Vetort, 29 Aug 1952
  • Col Joseph Davis Jr, 16 Dec 1952
  • Col Richard N Ellis, 1953
  • Col John S Loisel, May 1953-unkn
  • Col Franklin H Scott, May 1954[23]

Korean War Era Basing

  • Misawa, Japan, 10 Jul 1952
  • Kunsan, Korea, 10 Jul 1952
  • Taegu, Korea, 1 Apr 1953-22 Nov 1954[24]

Korean War Era Campaigns

  • Korea Summer-Fall, 1952
  • Third Korean Winter
  • Korea Summer-Fall, 1953[25]

Cold War F-86H and F-100D Operations

F-86H Sabre
F-86H Sabre

On 8 November 1954, the 474th Fighter Bomber Group was transferred to Clovis Air Force Base New Mexico from Taegu AB, South Korea after fighting in the Korean War. The 474th FBG became a second flying component of the 312th FBW on 22 Dec 1954, its mission to be a training organization until 8 October 1957. The 312th and subordinate 474th came under the 832nd Air Division under Tactical Air Command. The Group flew the North American F-86H Sabre.[26] The operational squadrons and colors of the 474th FBG were:[27]

  • 428th Fighter-Bomber Squadron (blue tail stripe and predominant Squadron emblem color)
  • 429th Fighter-Bomber Squadron (yellow tail stripe and predominant Squadron emblem color)
  • 430th Fighter-Bomber Squadron (red tail stripe and predominant Squadron emblem color)
  • 478th Fighter-Bomber Squadron (activated under 474th TFW October 1957) (green tail stripe and predominant Squadron emblem color)
474th F-100D at Cannon AFB
474th F-100D at Cannon AFB

On 8 June 1957 Clovis AFB was renamed Cannon Air Force Base. The 474th TFW was activated at Cannon AFB on 8 October 1957, including the previously listed squadrons, and it maintained proficiency in tactical fighter operations, deploying components, aircraft, and crews on a global basis in support of NATO, Pacific Air Forces, Alaskan Air Command, and other organizations flying the F-100D Super Sabre. The 474th TFW deployed three squadrons (44 aircraft) to Homestead Air Force Base Florida during the Cuban Missile Crisis on 24 Oct-9 Nov 1962 as part of the 1st Provisional Air Division under Brig. Gen. Gordon M. Graham. The entire wing, except for a deployed squadron in Southeast Asia, reverted to "paper" status on 15 September 1965, and the single detached squadron being reduced to "paper" status upon its return to the United States. The 429th TFS had been deployed with the F-100D to Bien Hoa Air Base in South Vietnam with the 3rd Tactical Fighter Wing on 13 July 1965. The Squadron flew 1627 missions before its return to the U.S. It returned to the U.S. to be inactivated on 16 December 1965.[28]

Commanders

  • Col Franklin H. Scott, 8 Oct 1957
  • Lt Col Jake L. Wilk, Jr., 15 Jul 1958
  • Col Thomas D. Robertson, 19 Jul 1958
  • Col William L. Curry, 8 Aug 1958
  • Col Gust Askounis, 30 Jul 1960
  • Col William L. Mitchell, Jr., 18 Aug 1960
  • Col Niven K. Cranfill, 6 Jun 1962
  • Col Francis E. Binnell, 21 Aug 1964
  • Col Paul P. Douglas, Jr., 3 Sep 1964
  • Lt Col Benjamin H. Clayton, 14 Jul 1965
  • Col Oscar L. Watson, 28 Aug 1965
  • 1Lt Robert R. De Cocco, 15 Sep 1965 (additional duty)

Basing

  • Clovis AFB, NM, 13 Dec 1954-8 Jun 1957
  • Cannon AFB, NM 8 Jun 1957-15 Sep 1965[29]

F-111A operations

429th Tactical Fighter Squadron F-111A with 16 CBU-52[note 2]
429th Tactical Fighter Squadron F-111A with 16 CBU-52[note 2]

The 474th (Roadrunners[30]) became the first USAF operational wing equipped with the General Dynamics F-111.[31] On 20 January 1968 the 474th Tactical Fighter Wing was activated at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada from the MAJCOM 4480th TFW (15 Jul 1967 - 20 Jan 1968),[32] giving the base an operational tactical fighter wing assigned to Twelfth Air Force. With the Wing, the 428th Tactical Fighter Squadron (TFS) (Tail Code NA - blue stripe) was activated from the 4481st TFS, the 474th Field Maintenance Squadron (FMS) was activated, and the existing 429th Tactical Fighter Squadron (Tail Code NB - yellow stripe) was absorbed. In January 1968 the 428th TFS "Detachment 1" received the first 6 "Harvest Reaper" aircraft - F-111As with the unique camouflage paint job and upgraded avionics (including the ballistics computer unit and fittings for external noise jammers) in preparation for combat evaluation.[33] With the move to Nellis, the 474th Combat Support Group (CSG) became the base operating host unit, incorporating the 474th Supply Squadron (SS) and 474th Tactical Hospital.[32] The 428th TFS reached an initial operational capability in the spring of 1968.[31] In December 1968, Tactical Air Command activated the 4527th Combat Crew Training Squadron (Tail Code ND - green stripe) as a dedicated F-111 pilot training squadron at Nellis. The provisional squadron performed lead-in training for experienced pilots in the F-111. It was replaced in October 1969, transferring its personnel and equipment to the newly activated 442nd Tactical Fighter Training Squadron (TFTS).[34] On 15 September 1968 the 430th Tactical Fighter Squadron (Tail Code NC - red stripe) became part of the Wing. In February 1970 the 474th CSG, the 474th SS, and the 474th Tactical Hospital were inactivated and the 474th TFW became the tenant/host unit at Nellis AFB.

In early 1968, the Air Force decided to send a small detachment of F-111As to Southeast Asia under the "Combat Lancer" program. Six 428th TFS Harvest Reaper F-111As were allocated to the Combat Lancer under "Detachment 1"[35] under the command of Colonel Ivan H. Dethman, and they departed Nellis for Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base on 15 March 1968. The 6 F-111s, accompanied by KC-135 tankers, departed for Andersen AFB, Guam. The over 13 hour trip was flown using the F-111's inertial navigation system and with topoff refueling from the tankers, arriving at Andersen AFB on the 16th.[36] The Detachment departed Andersen and arrived at Takhli on 17 March. The Detachment was attached to the F-105 Thunderchief-flying 355th Tactical Fighter Wing in what was officially seen as the first stage in replacement of the Wing's F-105s with the F-111A.[37] F-111 combat operations began on 25 March using the aircraft's unique terrain following radar (TFR) capability to conduct surprise night deep interdiction strikes.[38] By the end of the deployment, 55 night low-level missions had been flown against targets in North Vietnam, but three aircraft had been lost. Aircraft 66022, call sign Omaha 77, had been lost on 28 March with the loss of the crew, Colonel Hank McCann and Captain Dennis Graham. On 30 March, the crew of Major Sandy Marquardt and Captain Joe Hodges in aircraft 66017, Hotrod 73, successfully ejected and was recovered uninjured in Thailand.[39] Replacement aircraft had left Nellis, but a third loss halted F-111A combat operations. On 22 April, Tailbone 78, aircraft 66024, crewed by Lieutenant Commander Spade Cooley and by Lieutenant Colonel Ed Palmgren, was lost.[40] After the 3rd loss, the Detachment remained poised for combat, but they saw no combat action before their return to the U.S. on 22 November.[31]

The causes of two of the losses continues to be unknown as the wreckages have never been recovered, but there was very little evidence the losses were due to enemy action. The loss on 30 March was not due to enemy action, but was traced to a failure of a hydraulic control-valve rod for the horizontal stabilizer which caused the aircraft to pitch up uncontrollably. Further inspection of the remaining fleet of F-111As revealed 42 aircraft with the same potential failures.[41] It is speculated that this failure could also have contributed to the two earlier losses had the failure caused a pitch down while at low altitude. These losses caused a storm of controversy in the United States, with Wisconsin Senator William Proxmire denouncing the F-111A as an unsafe and defective plane. However, the Air Force and General Dynamics continued to work hard trying to fix the problems with the F-111A. Modifications to the F-111 took longer than expected, and the Wing was not fully operational until July 1971.[31] In September 1971 the Wing started receiving "new" Pilot Weapon Systems Operators (PWSOs) directly from graduating USAF pilot training classes, providing a basis for F-111 experienced future aircraft commanders throughout the F-111 fleets worldwide. The Combat Lancer deployment had included right seat pilot weapon system operators, but these were previously fully-qualified F-4 pilots who were "unhappily conscripted" for the position.[42] After July 1971, the 474th gradually assumed additional operational responsibilities and the various squadrons "certified" crews on a variety of world-wide targets in support of potential wartime scenarios, including targets in Cuba and the Eastern Bloc. During this period, training became "safety oriented" and the Wing restricted TFR night flight to visual flight rules (VFR) conditions at a minimum altitude of 1000 feet above ground level (AGL), typically flown at 480 knots true airspeed (TAS). Multiple low-level routes had been established throughout the western U.S., and these became the primary routes for training and practice bombing on the Nellis Range, Holbrook AZ Radar Bomb Site (RBS), and other bombing and electronic warfare ranges in the west. These training practices would later prove to be inadequate in the high-threat environment, varied and sometimes extreme terrain, and intense rain conditions of North Vietnam and Laos.

On 14 August 1972 the Air Force issued a deployment "frag" order for the 474th. At the time of the issuance of the Frag, the 429 TFS was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Mat Mathiasen and the 430th TFS was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Gene Martin. The 430th TFS, however, had just experienced a series of changes in its Squadron Commander. On 18 June 1972, the Squadron Commander Lieutenant Colonel Jim Black, who had assumed command on 13 April 1972 from Lieutenant Colonel Bill Powers, was killed in an F-111A (67082) accident at Eglin AFB, FL. The interim commander was Lieutenant Colonel J.O. Hanford who was replaced on 30 June 1972 by Lieutenant Colonel Gene Martin.[43]

The 474th returned to Takhli in September 1972 with the Constant Guard V deployment of the 429th TFS and 430th TFS and 48 F-111As under the command of Wing Commander Colonel William R. Nelson.[44] The deployment included 1,487 support personnel and 40 transport aircraft loads of cargo.[45] The enhanced strike capabilities of the two F-111 squadrons (48 aircraft) allowed them to replace the four F-4D squadrons (72 aircraft) of the 49 TFW, which returned to the U.S. This move also resulted in a reduction of total U.S. forces stationed in Thailand.[45] The two F-111A squadrons arrived to support the last month of Operation Linebacker and all of the Operation Linebacker II bombing offensive against North Vietnam, conducted combat operations in Laos including support of Operation Phou Phiang II and Operation Phou Phiang III using the F-111A's beacon bombing capability in the defense of Long Tieng, and conducted combat operations in Cambodia, again using the F-111's beacon bombing capability.

An integral part of the concept of operations for the Constant Guard V deployment was to demonstrate a minimal time (less than 24 hours) from the deployment of the F-111 until the first F-111 combat operations. Twelve 429th TFS F-111s departed Nellis on 27 September (28 September in Thailand), arriving at Andersen Air Force Base, Guam on 28 September. After a 3-hour fueling stop, they departed Andersen on 28 September, using prepositioned fresh crews, and arrived at Takhli that day. Lieutenant Colonel Mat Mathiasen, commander of the 429th TFS flew the first F-111A (67086) into Takhli.[46] Flight crews had been prepositioned by C-141 Starlifter at Takhli. The crews included 429th TFS and 430th TFS personnel who had crew rested and had already mission planned to fly the first strikes against North Vietnam. An additional 12 429th TFS F-111s departed Nellis on 27 September arriving at Hickam AFB Hawaii the same day. They departed on 28 September arriving at Clark AFB Philippines on 29 September. They departed Clark on 30 September arriving at Takhli on the same Day. On 29 September, 24 F-111s of the 430th TFS, led by the Squadron Commander Gene Martin, left Nellis for Hickam. They departed Hickam on 30 September, arriving at Clark on 1 October. Because of complications for movement of units and supplies due to tropical storm Kathy, the 430th was unable to depart Clark for Takhli until 4 October.[47]

The initial sorties against North Vietnam were launched the same day (within 3–4 hours) of the arrival on 28 September (Thailand time) of the first aircraft from Nellis. The mission for the F-111 was unique in that the crew was given a weapons load, intended target, and time on target (TOT). Everything else in terms of mission planning was left to the flight crew, including ingress, target area, and egress tactics, route, and deconfliction with other F-111s which may fly similar routes or hit nearby targets. The missions were planned without RB-66E electronic countermeasures escort aircraft, air defense suppression aircraft, MiG Cap, or Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers. Tactics were all night low-level using TFR and intended for deep strikes to support Operation Linebacker. Airspeed was generally no less than 480 KTAS, with many crews using 510 or 540 KTAS in the high-threat environment prior to weapons delivery. The development of high-drag weapons had not kept up with the development of the F-111 as a platform to deliver those weapons. As a result, the F-111 was forced to decrease its speed to 500 KTAS for the release of high-drag bombs to preclude ripping the fins off the bombs. TFR altitude was generally tied to the threat level, starting at 1000 feet AGL and descending to as low as 200 feet in the high-threat environment. Altitude was typically inversely related to the Radar Homing and Warning System (RHAWS) indications from SAM sites - the more threatening the signal the lower the TFR altitude. Egress speeds were generally limited at TFR altitudes to avoid the use of afterburner which could light up the aircraft and provide a visual target for ground gunners. Restricting the F-111 to military power, however, did not prevent low altitude egress speeds from occasionally exceeding 660 KTAS. On climb out, once clear of the high-threat area, crews often accelerated to 1.3 mach - the limiting speed on the external ALQ-87 jammer pods. Initially, bomb loads for low-altitude deliveries included 12 Mk-82 High Drag (HD) 500 pound bombs or 4 Mk-84 2000 pound "slick" bombs (using a stabilized climb). After the first 2 aircraft losses, low-altitude bomb deliveries were generally restricted to 12 Mk-82 HDs. The first loss occurred on the first night, Ranger 23, aircraft 67078, Major Bill Coltman (a Combat Lancer veteran) and 1st Lieutenant Lefty Brett of the 430th TFS. The wreckage was discovered in Laos and remains were identified on 12/19/2001.[48] Following the loss, F-111 combat operations were paused to allow for a maintenance shakedown of all of the aircraft and to allow for a local area orientation and review of tactics for the crews. Immediately following the loss, a Search and Rescue (SAR) effort was initated covering approximately 8400 square miles of Laos and North Vietnam, to no avail. It was terminated on 10 October. F-111 combat operations were reinitiated on 5 October against Linebacker targets (lines of communication, rail yards, marshalling and supply areas, and other targets) using the modified low-level tactics.[49] The second aircraft loss occurred on 16 October - Coach 33, crewed by Captain Jim Hockridge and 1st Lieutenant Al Graham of the 429th TFS, in aircraft 67060. The North Vietnamese claimed the shootdown and presented the aircrews ID cards. The weapons load was 4 Mk-84 2000 pound bombs. A thorough SAR effort was conducted following the loss, again to no avail. The aircraft wreckage and remains were identified on 25 October 1977.[48] Following the loss, another reevaluation of tactics occurred and the use of "slick" bombs in low-altitude deliveries was terminated except for in extraordinary situations. F-111 night low-level strikes continued against North Vietnam until President Nixon ordered the cessation of strikes north of the 20th parallel on 23 October. These F-111 strikes to date demonstrated that the North Vietnamese surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and MiGs were ineffective in countering the low-level F-111A, and the North Vietnamese focused more on the use of anti-aircraft artillery (AAA) against the F-111.[50]

Following the 23 October bombing halt and until the initiation of Linebacker II operations on 18 December, F-111 operations focused on the southern portions of North Vietnam in Route Pac 1 (RP1) again using low-level night tactics, and on Laos. The operations in RP1 were against lines of communications, storage areas, air defenses, and other targets. There were 402 sorties flow in RP1 in November.[51] The third loss occurred on 7 November. Major Bob Brown and Major Bob Morrisey of the 430th TFS, Whaler 57, flying 67063, were lost on a night low-level mission.[52] The wreckage was later found on 3 July 1992.[53] On 8 November 1972, the F-111s flew 20 strikes over North Vietnam in weather that grounded other aircraft. The fourth loss occurred on 20 November. Aircraft 67092 was crewed by Captain Bob Stafford and Captain Chuck Caffarelli of the 430th TFS, Burger 54, again flying a night low-level mission and using a "feet wet" egress over the South China Sea. Wreckage of this aircraft washed onshore in South Vietnam, indicating aircraft impact with the sea with wings swept to 72 degrees and no indication of crew ejection.[54]

On 21 October 1972 Col. Bill Nelson, Commander of the 474th TFW, received a request from the Ambassador of Laos to send an F-111A crew to Vientiane Laos to meet with his Air Attache. The crew, Colonel Bob Anderson and Major Harry Richard, was briefed on the upcoming North Vietnam Army (NVA) offensive against Skyline Ridge which overlooks Long Tieng and inquired if the F-111 had the capability to support the ongoing Operation Phou Phiang II to counter the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). The answer to the question added a new dimension to F-111 operations with the use of the AN/PPN-18 Radar Beacon for offset bombing in support of friendly forces. This represented a major departure from the initial concept of employment for the aircraft. Radar beacons were deployed under Sentinel Lock at key mountain top locations and used as offset aiming points for medium altitude delivery of 24 MK-82 500 pound bombs or 16 CBU-52 or CBU-58. This technique enabled the F-111 to strike targets developed by Raven FACs, Forward Air Guides, or ground Commanders, regardless of day/night or weather conditions, occasionally within 200 meters of friendly forces. Beacons allowed a flexibility to strike preplanned fixed targets or, unique to the F-111, be diverted to real-time high-priority targets in support of troops in contact. Additionally, when weather hindered other aircraft from striking their targets, the F-111 would be used as a pathfinder to guide accompanying F-4 and A-7 aircraft to area targets and provide the bomb release signal. The first successful F-111 beacon bombing mission was flown on 11 November 1972. In an excerpt from a letter by General Vang Pao, Commanding General of Military Region II to the Commander, 474th TFW, “Prior to your arrival in MR II, the enemy had plans and high hopes for offensives against Long Tieng. The F-111, WHISPERING DEATH as it is called, has changed all of that…..your bombs, falling in inclement weather and at all hours of the night have had telling effect on the moral of the North Vietnamese 316th Division. Where once he was making plans to attack, he is now feverishly trying to avoid destruction from the sky.” In December alone, the F-111 flew 522 sorties in Laos, the most of any U.S. aircraft type. The successful beacon bombing program was greatly expanded to include beacons compatible with B-52s being placed alongside those being used by the F-111. The F-111s continued beacon bombing strikes supporting Operation Phou Phiang III, 18 January - March 1973. By the end of the Laos conflict on April 17, 1973, 2392 F-111 sorties had been flown using 7 beacon locations with 91% effectiveness. The last sorties against Laos were flown on 15–17 April, 40 by B-52s and 24 by the F-111s.[55]

During Linebacker II, 18 December 1972 - 29 December 1972, the F-111 flew 154 low-level night missions against critical targets in the high-threat air defense environment of Route Pac 6 with two aircraft losses. The Linebacker II operations were flown while the F-111 continued to conduct beacon bombing operations in Laos. The Linebacker II targets included SAM sites, airfields, rail yards, storage areas, lines of communications, and other targets. The next loss occurred on the first night of Linebacker II, on 18 December. Snub 40, aircraft 67099, was crewed by Lieutenant Colonel Ron Ward and Lieutenant Colonel Jim McElvain of the 430th TFS. The crew had called off target and had planned to go "feet wet" over the Tonkin Gulf.[56] The aircraft disappeared soon after going feet wet and wreckage and remains have never been recovered. The 6th and final F-111A combat loss occurred on 22 December. Jackal 33, aircraft 67068, crewed by Captain Bob Sponeybarger and 1st Lieutenant Bill Wilson of the 429th TFS, ejected successfully after being hit by ground fire near Hanoi. Captain Sponeybarger was captured after 3 days and Lieutenant Wilson spent a week in escape and evasion (E&E) before being captured.[57] Both were repatriated on 29 March 1973 after serving time as POWs. The Paris Peace Talks, on 23 January 1973, resulted in an agreement to terminate all U.S. combat operations against North Vietnam effective 28 January 1973 Saigon time. On 15 January the USAF restricted all air strikes on North Vietnam to south of the 20th parallel. The last U.S. air strikes on North Vietnam occurred on 27 January.[58] The 429th and 430th TFS flew slightly more than 4000 combat missions between late September 1972 and mid-March 1973 with excellent success rates in hitting targets even when visibility was near zero. A total of six aircraft were lost in action.[31] The 474th was awarded the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Combat "V" Device 28 Sep 1972-22 Feb 1973[59] and Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm 28 Sep 1972-22 Feb 1973.[60]

The 429th and 430th and, later, the 428th (which replaced the 430th TFS on 22 March 1973) also flew bombing missions against targets in Laos and Cambodia in the midst of the monsoon season. In March 1973 the USAF started inserting 10 beacons in Cambodia. The F-111s again demonstrated they could bomb through an overcast as close as 200 meters from friendly forces. This capability saved Neak Luong from being overrun by enemy forces. On 20 March 1973, Lieutenant Colonel Gene Martin, 430th TFS Commander, and Major Bill young flew the last combat sortie by the 430th. The 428th and 429th continued to conduct beacon bombing and Pathfinder operations in Cambodia as part of the 474th until 30 July 1973.[61] On 7 June 1973 Captain Chris Russo and 1st Lieutenant Chuck Foster of the 429th TFS were the first F-111 crew to fly 100 combat missions in the F-111.[62]

474th F-111A Plaque at USAF Academy Southeast Asia Memorial Pavilion
474th F-111A Plaque at USAF Academy Southeast Asia Memorial Pavilion

[63]

On 23 June 2017 a bronze plaque was dedicated to the 474th TFW organization and the F-111A crews at the Southeast Asia Memorial Pavilion[64] at the United States Air Force Academy. The plaque hangs in honor of the bravery and dedication of all who supported and participated in the 474th TFW F-111A combat operations in Southeast Asia in 1968 and 1972-1973.[65]

The 430th TFS returned to the 474th TFW Nellis on 22 March 1973 assuming a replacement training unit mission, while the 428th and 429th were assigned to the newly transferred 347th Tactical Fighter Wing at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho on 30 July 1973 (deployed to Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base). The 347th TFW F-111s continued to support combat operations in Cambodia until all U.S. air strikes terminated on 15 August 1973. With the end of hostilities in Southeast Asia and the 474th's return to Nellis, its mission was again to train combat-ready forces of aircrews and maintain a rapid-reaction capability to execute fighter attacks against enemy forces and facilities in time of crisis.[31]

On 19 July 1975 the Constant Guard V deployment was completed and the 428th and 429th were reassigned to the 474th TFW, Nellis AFB. The last operational F-111As left Nellis for Mountain Home AFB on 2 August 1977 and Colonel Mo Seaver relinquished control of the 474th to Colonel Reginald Davis on 5 August as the F-111 aircraft and crews were transferred to the 366th Tactical Fighter Wing, Mountain Home AFB, Idaho, as part of "Operation Ready Switch".[32] The F-111A wing left behind at Nellis 3 "hanger queens" that needed maintenance and Functional Check Flights (FCFs), tail numbers 67056, 67038, and 67102. These were accomplished and the last 474th TFW F-111A to leave Nellis AFB was 67102, flown on 9 August 1977 to McClellan AFB for overhaul by F-111A FCF Pilot Captain Roger (Pete) Peterson and an Australian Air Force exchange Weapon System Operator.

Commanders

  • Col Ivan H. Dethman, 1 Oct 1966 - 9 Aug 1967
  • LtC Maurice A. Spenney, 9 Aug 1967 - Unk
  • Col Chester L. Van Etten, 20 Jan 1968 - 11 Jun 1969
  • Col Carmen M. Shook, 20 Jun 1968 - 5 Jun 1969
  • Col Frederick C. Blesse, 5 Jun 1969 - 26 Jun 1970
  • Col Herbert L. Gavin, 26 Jun 1970 - 22 Jun 1971
  • Col Kenneth P. Miles, 22 Jun 1971 - 1 Aug 1972
  • Col William R. Nelson, 1 Aug 1972 - 25 Jul 1973
  • Col James N. McClelland, 25 Jul 1973 - 28 Feb 1975
  • Col Thomas E. Wolters, 28 Feb 1975 - 24 May 1976
  • Col Maurice E. Seaver Jr., 24 May 1976 - 5 Aug 1977

F-4D and F-16A/B operations

429th TFS F-4D Phantom about 1979
429th TFS F-4D Phantom about 1979

The 474th Wing absorbed the McDonnell F-4 Phantom II aircraft, crews, and resources of the inactivating provisional 4474th Tactical Fighter Wing (1 Mar 1977 - 6 Aug 1977) at Nellis on 5 August 1977, as part of "Operation Ready Switch".[32] The 48th Tactical Fighter Wing F-4D Phantoms had been rotated from Lakenheath Air Base in Europe in order for the F-111Fs, previously stationed at Mt. Home AFB, to be stationed at Lakenheath Air Base to give USAF assets in Europe a greater range, weapons carriage, and all-weather capable strike capability. With the transfer of the F-4D from Lakenheath to Nellis, Chesley Burnett Sullenberger III (Sully) was then assigned to the 428th TFS where he attained the rank of captain and served as a flight lead, training officer, and Operation Red Flag Blue Force Mission Commander. The F-4D had a relatively short life, being replaced with new General Dynamics F-16A Fighting Falcons. The 474th was the third USAF wing to receive Fighting Falcons. It received its first Block 1/5 F-16A/Bs in November 1980, later operated Block 10 F-16A/Bs.[31][66]

430 TFS F-16A Block 10C 80-0492 flying over the Grand Canyon in 1986
430 TFS F-16A Block 10C 80-0492 flying over the Grand Canyon in 1986

The wing conducted routine Tactical Air Command training and deployments from Nellis with the F-16s, retaining the Block 10/15 models until September 1989, when the wing was inactivated, the F-16As no longer being considered as front-line aircraft. Instead of re-equipping the wing, the F-16As were transferred to Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve squadrons, and the three squadrons resurfacing as General Dynamics-Grumman EF-111A Raven Electronic Warfare Squadrons with the 27th Operations Group (27th Tactical Fighter Wing) at Cannon Air Force Base, New Mexico.[32]

Commanders

  • Col Reginald Davis, 5 August 1977 - Unk
  • Col James B. Davis, May 1979 - May 1980
  • Col Charles A. Horner, May 1980 - August 1981

Post Cold War

The 474th Air Expeditionary Group (474 AEG) is a provisional United States Air Force unit assigned to Air Combat Command. It may be activated or inactivated at any time. Currently, the 474 AEG is stationed at Davis–Monthan AFB, Arizona, and is deployed to Guantanamo Bay Naval Base Cuba. Its current mission and operational components are undetermined, however it appears to be primarily a Civil Engineering organization.

Lineage

  • Established as the 474th Fighter Group on 26 May 1943
Activated on 1 August 1943
Inactivated on 8 December 1945
  • Established as the 474th Fighter Bomber Wing on 25 June 1952
Activated as the 474th Fighter Bomber Wing on 10 July 1952
474th FBW Inactivated 1 April 1953. 474th FBG remained activated as a component of the 58th FBW as a "reinforced wing"
  • 474th FBW Activated on 8 October 1957
Redesignated 474th Tactical Fighter Wing on 1 July 1958[67]
Inactivated on 30 September 1989

Assignments

Components

Aircraft

Notes

  1. ^ Aircraft is General Dynamics F-16A Block 10A serial 79–380
  2. ^ Aircraft is General Dynamics F-111A serial 67065 over Southeast Asia

Citations

  1. ^ a b c Ravenstein, pp. 261–264
  2. ^ "474th Fighter Group". American Air Museum in Britain. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  3. ^ "P-38 Museum". P-38 National Association and Museum. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
  4. ^ Rickard, J. "474th Fighter Group". History of War. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  5. ^ "474th Fighter Group". Army Air Corps Library and Museum. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  6. ^ "474th Fighter Group". Army Air Corps Library and Museum. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  7. ^ Rickard, J. "474th Fighter Group". History of War. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  8. ^ "474th Fighter Group". Army Air Corps Library and Museum. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
  9. ^ "474th Fighter Group". American Air Museum in Britain. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  10. ^ Rickard, J. "474th Fighter Group". History of War. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  11. ^ "474th Fighter Group". American Air Museum in Britain. Retrieved 5 July 2020.
  12. ^ Rickard, J. "474th Fighter Group". History of War. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  13. ^ "474th Fighter Group". U.S. War Memorials. Retrieved 25 July 2020.
  14. ^ Rickard, J. "474th Fighter Group". History of War. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  15. ^ Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
  16. ^ Endicott, July G., ed. (2001). The USAF In Korea Campaigns, Units, and Stations 1950–1953 (PDF). Washington D.C.: Air Force Historical Research Agency.
  17. ^ "474th Fighter Bomber Group" (PDF). USAF In History. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  18. ^ a b "474th Fighter Bomber Group". Korean War Project. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  19. ^ a b "474th Fighter Bomber Wing". KoreanWar.org. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  20. ^ "474th Fighter Bomber Group" (PDF). USAF In History. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  21. ^ Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
  22. ^ "474th Fighter Bomber Group" (PDF). USAF In History. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  23. ^ Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
  24. ^ Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
  25. ^ Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
  26. ^ Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
  27. ^ "474th Fighter Bomber Group" (PDF). USAF In History. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  28. ^ "AF Veteran Flew Missions in F-100 Super Sabre in Vietnam". News Tribune. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
  29. ^ Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
  30. ^ Thornborough, Anthony M. (1989). F-111 Success in Action. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd. p. 29. ISBN 0-85368-988-1.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g Thornborough,[page needed]
  32. ^ a b c d e Mueller,[page needed]
  33. ^ Thornborough, Anthony M. and Davies, Peter E. (1989). F-111 Success in Action. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd. pp. 23, 24. ISBN 0-85368-988-1.
  34. ^ "National Cold War Museum: General Dynamics F-111F-CF". Royal Air Force Museum. 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  35. ^ Davies, Peter E; Thornborough, Anthony M. (1997). F-111 Aardvark. Ramsbury, Marlborough Wiltshire. UK: The Crowood Press Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 1-86126-079-2.
  36. ^ Thornborough, Anthony M. and Davies, Peter E. (1989). F-111 Success in Action. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd. p. 28. ISBN 0-85368-988-1.
  37. ^ Davies, Peter E.; Thornborough, Anthony M. (1997). F-111 Aardvark. Ramsbury, Marlborough Wiltshire. UK: The Crowood Press Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 1-86126-079-2.
  38. ^ Thornborough, Anthony M. and Davies, Peter E. (1989). F-111 Success in Action. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd. p. 29. ISBN 0-85368-988-1.
  39. ^ Davies, Peter E.; Thornborough, Anthony M. (1997). F-111 Aardvark. Ramsbury, Marlborough Wiltshire. UK: The Crowood Press Ltd. p. 40. ISBN 1-86126-079-2.
  40. ^ "COL EDWIN DAVID PALMGREN". Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  41. ^ Davies, Peter E.; Thornborough, Anthony M. (1997). F-111 Aardvark. Ramsbury, Marlborough Wiltshire. UK: The Crowood Press Ltd. pp. 40, 43. ISBN 1-86126-079-2.
  42. ^ Thornborough, Anthony M. and Davies, Peter E. (1989). F-111 Success in Action. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd. p. 23. ISBN 0-85368-988-1.
  43. ^ "430 Expeditionary Electronic Combat Squadron (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. USAF. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  44. ^ Thornborough, Anthony M. and Davies, Peter E. (1989). F-111 Success in Action. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd. p. 35. ISBN 0-85368-988-1.
  45. ^ a b "F111s Going To Thailand". Las Vegas Review Journal. 26 September 1972.
  46. ^ Thornborough, Tony (1993). F-111 Aardvark: USAF's Ultimate Strike Aircraft. Osprey Military Aircraft. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. p. 46. ISBN 1-85532-259-5.
  47. ^ Picinich, A.A., Colonel (21 February 1974). Radzykewycz, D.T., Captain (ed.). "The F-111 In Southeast Asia September 1972 - January 1973". CHECO/CORONA HARVEST Division, DCS/Plans and Operations, HQ PACAF. Hq USAF: Department of the Air Force. Project CHECO Report (Special Project): 20. UNCLASSIFIED.
  48. ^ a b Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency, (PMSEA) (24 April 2020). "Report for Air Force". Accounted For - Identified Since 1973.
  49. ^ Picinich, A.A., Colonel (21 February 1974). Radzykewycz, D.T., Captain (ed.). "The F-111 In Southeast Asia September 1972 - January 1973". CHECO/CORONA HARVEST Division, DCS/Plans and Operations, HQ PACAF. Hq USAF: Department of the Air Force. Project CHECO Report (Special Project): 24. UNCLASSIFIED.
  50. ^ Picinich, A.A., Colonel (21 February 1974). Radzykewycz, D.T., Captain (ed.). "The F-111 In Southeast Asia September 1972 - January 1973". CHECO/CORONA HARVEST Division, DCS/Plans and Operations, HQ PACAF. Hq USAF: Department of the Air Force. Project CHECO Report (Special Project): 30. UNCLASSIFIED.
  51. ^ Picinich, A.A., Colonel (21 February 1974). Radzykewycz, D.T., Captain (ed.). "The F-111 In Southeast Asia September 1972 - January 1973". CHECO/CORONA HARVEST Division, DCS/Plans and Operations, HQ PACAF. Hq USAF: Department of the Air Force. Project CHECO Report (Special Project): 31. UNCLASSIFIED.
  52. ^ Picinich, A.A., Colonel (21 February 1974). Radzykewycz, D.T., Captain (ed.). "The F-111 In Southeast Asia September 1972 - January 1973". CHECO/CORONA HARVEST Division, DCS/Plans and Operations, HQ PACAF. Hq USAF: Department of the Air Force. Project CHECO Report (Special Project). UNCLASSIFIED.
  53. ^ Holland, Thomas D. PhD (12 December 2011). "Identification of CIL 1995-030-I-01". Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command. Memorandum For The Record.
  54. ^ Picinich, A.A., Colonel (21 February 1974). Radzykewycz, D.T., Captain (ed.). "The F-111 In Southeast Asia September 1972 - January 1973". CHECO/CORONA HARVEST Division, DCS/Plans and Operations, HQ PACAF. Hq USAF: Department of the Air Force. Project CHECO Report (Special Project). UNCLASSIFIED.
  55. ^ Anthony, Victor B.; Sexton, Richard R. (1993). "The War In Northern Laos 1958-1973". The United States Air Force In Southeast Asia. Washington D.C.: Center for Air Force History: 359–362. UNCLASSIFIED.
  56. ^ Thornborough, Anthony M. and Davies, Peter E. (1989). F-111 Success in Action. London: Arms & Armour Press Ltd. p. 40. ISBN 0-85368-988-1.
  57. ^ Drendel, Lou (1978). F-111 in Action. Warren, MI, USA: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc. pp. 27–29, 32. ISBN 0-89747-083-4.
  58. ^ Ballard, Jack S. (1984). "1961-1973: An Illustrated Account". The United States Air Force In Southeast Asia. DTIC ADA160932. Washington D.C.: Center for Air Force History: 167. UNCLASSIFIED.
  59. ^ Jones (30 June 1976). "Air Force Outstanding Unit Award (with Combat V Device)". Special Order GB-489: 1.
  60. ^ Jones (1977). "Award of the Republic of Vietnam Galantry Cross with Palm". Special Order GB-322: 1.
  61. ^ Elder, Major (15 April 1974). "Air Operations In The Khmer Republic 1 Dec 1971 - 15 Aug 1973". CHECO/CORONA HARVEST Division, DCS/Plans and Operations, HQ PACAF. DTIC ADB355566. Hq USAF: Department of the Air Force. Project CHECO Report (Special Project): 45–46. UNCLASSIFIED.
  62. ^ "F111Crew Cited For 100 Missions In Southeast Asia Conflict". Stars and Stripes. 23 June 1973.
  63. ^ "F-111 Plaque Dedication". Facebook. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  64. ^ "Preserving the Legacy". Southeast Asia Memorial. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  65. ^ Association of Graduates, USAF Academy. "F-111A Plaque". Facebook.
  66. ^ Martin,[page needed]
  67. ^ a b c Lineage, including assignments,aircraft and stations through 1977 in Ravenstein, pp. 261–264

Bibliography

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

This page was last edited on 25 September 2020, at 09:01
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.