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2020 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Games of the XXXII Olympiad
An O-like shape, decorated with a complex checkered design and featuring a 12-pointed star in the center negative space, sits atop the words "Tokyo 2020". The Olympic rings are placed underneath.
Host city Tokyo, Japan
Motto Discover Tomorrow
(未来あしたをつかもう,
ashita o tsukamō
)
[1]
Nations participating 206 (expected)
Athletes participating 11,091 (expected)
Events 339 in 33 sports (50 disciplines)
Opening ceremony 24 July (24 months from now)
Closing ceremony 9 August
Officially opened by Emperor of Japan (expected) or Prime Minister Shinzō Abe
Stadium New National Stadium
Summer
Rio 2016 Paris 2024  >
Winter
Pyeongchang 2018 Beijing 2022  >

The 2020 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXII Olympiad (Japanese: 第三十二回オリンピック競技大会, Hepburn: Dai Sanjūni-kai Orinpikku Kyōgi Taikai)[2] and commonly known as Tokyo 2020, is a forthcoming international multi-sport event that is scheduled to take place from 24 July to 9 August 2020.

Tokyo was selected as the host city during the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires on 7 September 2013.[3] These Games will mark the return of the Summer Olympics to Tokyo for the first time since 1964, and the fourth Olympics overall to be held in Japan, following the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo and the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano. They will be the second of three consecutive Olympic Games to be held in East Asia, following the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang, South Korea, and preceding the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, China.

These Games will see the introduction of additional disciplines within several of the Summer Olympics sports, including 3x3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, as well as further mixed events. Under new IOC policies that allow sports to be added to the Games' programme to augment the permanent "core" Olympic events, these Games will see karate, sport climbing, surfing and skateboarding make their Olympic debuts, and the return of baseball and softball (which were removed from the summer programme after 2008).

Bidding process

Tokyo, Istanbul, and Madrid were the three candidate cities. The applicant cities of Baku (Azerbaijan) and Doha (Qatar) were not promoted to candidate status. A bid from Rome was withdrawn.

Host city election

The IOC voted to select the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics on 7 September 2013 at the 125th IOC Session at the Buenos Aires Hilton in Buenos Aires, Argentina. An exhaustive ballot system was used. No city won over 50% of the votes in the first round, and Madrid and Istanbul were tied for second place. A run-off vote between these two cities was held to determine which would be eliminated. In the final vote, a head-to-head contest between Tokyo and Istanbul, Tokyo was selected by 60 votes to 36, as it got at least 49 votes needed for a majority.

2020 Summer Olympics host city election[4][dead link]
City NOC name Round 1 Runoff Round 2
Tokyo  Japan 42 60
Istanbul  Turkey 26 49 36
Madrid  Spain 26 45

Development and preparation

The Tokyo metropolitan government set aside a fund of 400 billion Japanese yen (over 3.67 billion USD) to cover the cost of hosting the Games. The Japanese government is considering increasing slot capacity at both Haneda Airport and Narita International Airport by easing airspace restrictions. A new railway line is planned to link both airports through an expansion of Tokyo Station, cutting travel time from Tokyo Station to Haneda from 30 minutes to 18 minutes, and from Tokyo Station to Narita from 55 minutes to 36 minutes; the line would cost 400 billion yen and would be funded primarily by private investors. But East Japan Railway Company (East JR) is planning a new route near Tamachi to Haneda Airport.[5] Funding is also planned to accelerate completion of the Central Circular Route, Tokyo Gaikan Expressway and Ken-Ō Expressway, and to refurbish other major expressways in the area.[6] There are also plans to extend the Yurikamome automated transit line from its existing terminal at Toyosu Station to a new terminal at Kachidoki Station, passing the site of the Olympic Village, although the Yurikamome would still not have adequate capacity to serve major events in the Odaiba area on its own.[7]

The Organizing Committee is headed by former Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori.[8] Olympic and Paralympic Minister Shunichi Suzuki is overseeing the preparations on behalf of the Japanese government.[9]

Japan has traditionally used Olympic events to showcase new technology. Telecom company NTT DoCoMo signed a deal with Finland's Nokia to provide 5G-ready baseband networks in Japan in time for the Olympics.[10][11]

Venues and infrastructure

The Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower would be used as the International Broadcast Center.
The Tokyo Big Sight Conference Tower would be used as the International Broadcast Center.
View of the Rainbow Bridge from Odaiba Marine Park
View of the Rainbow Bridge from Odaiba Marine Park

It was confirmed in February 2012 that the Olympic Stadium in Tokyo would be demolished and reconstructed, and receive a £1 billion upgrade for the 2019 Rugby World Cup as well as the 2020 Olympics.[12] As a result, a design competition for the new stadium was launched. In November 2012, the Japan Sport Council announced that out of 46 finalists, Zaha Hadid Architects was awarded the design for the new stadium. Plans included dismantling the original stadium, and expanding the capacity from 50,000 to a modern Olympic capacity of about 80,000.[13] However, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe announced in July 2015 that plans to build the New National Stadium would be scrapped and rebid on amid public discontent over the stadium's building costs. In Autumn 2015 a new design by Kengo Kuma was approved as winning project of new stadium design competition which decreased the capacity to between 60,000–80,000 depending by event[14]

Twenty-eight of the thirty-three competition venues in Tokyo are within 8 kilometres (4.97 miles) of the Olympic Village. Eleven new venues are to be constructed.[15]

It was reported in September 2016 that a review panel said that the cost of hosting the Olympics and Paralympics could quadruple from the original estimate, and therefore proposed a major overhaul to the current plan to reduce costs, including moving venues outside Tokyo.[16]

Heritage Zone

Seven venues will be located within the central business area of Tokyo, northwest of the Olympic Village. Several of these venues were also used for the 1964 Summer Olympics.

Yokohama Stadium – Baseball
Yokohama Stadium – Baseball
Venue Events Capacity Status
Olympic Stadium Opening and closing ceremonies 60,102 Under construction
Athletics
Football (finals)
Yoyogi National Gymnasium Handball 13,291 Existing
Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium Table tennis 10,000 Existing
Nippon Budokan Judo 14,471 Existing
Karate
Tokyo International Forum Weightlifting 5,012 Existing
Imperial Palace Garden Road cycling 5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along route Temporary
Athletics (marathon, race walk)

Tokyo Bay Zone

20 venues will be located in the vicinity of Tokyo Bay, southeast of the Olympic Village, predominantly on Ariake, Odaiba and the surrounding artificial islands.

Venue Events Capacity Status
Kasai Rinkai Park Canoeing (slalom) 8,000
Oi Seaside Park Field hockey 10,000
Olympic Aquatics Centre Aquatics (swimming, diving, synchronized swimming) 18,000
Tokyo Tatsumi International Swimming Center Water polo[17] 3,635
Yumenoshima Stadium Archery 5,050
Ariake Arena Volleyball 15,000
Olympic BMX Course BMX cycling 6,000
Skateboarding
Olympic Gymnastic Centre Gymnastics (artistic, rhythmic, trampoline) 12,000
Ariake Coliseum Tennis 20,000 (10,000 centre court; 5,000 court 1, 3,000 court 2, 8x250 match courts)
Odaiba Marine Park Triathlon 5,000 seated, unlimited standing room along route
Aquatics (marathon swimming)
Shiokaze Park Beach volleyball 12,000
Central Breakwater Equestrian (eventing) 20,000
Rowing
Canoeing (sprint)
Aomi Urban Sports Venue 3x3 basketball
Sport climbing

Outlying Venues

Twelve venues will be situated farther than 8 kilometres (5 mi) from the Olympic Village.

Venue Events Capacity Status
Camp Asaka Shooting
Musashino Forest Sports Plaza Modern pentathlon (fencing) 10,000
Badminton[18]
Ajinomoto Stadium Football 49,970[19]
Modern pentathlon (excluding fencing)
Rugby sevens
Saitama Super Arena Basketball 22,000[20]
Enoshima Sailing 10,000[21]
Surfing
Makuhari Messe Fencing 6,000
Taekwondo
Wrestling 8,000[22]
Baji Koen Equestrian (dressage, jumping)[23]
Kasumigaseki Country Club Golf 30,000[24][25]
Izu Velodrome Track cycling 5,000[26]
Japan Cycle Sports Center Mountain biking[27]
Yokohama Stadium Baseball 30,000[28]
Softball
Fukushima Azuma Baseball Stadium Baseball 30,000
Softball[29]

Football venues

[30]

Non-competition venues

Venue Events
Imperial Hotel, Tokyo IOC
Harumi Futo Olympic Village
Tokyo Big Sight Media Press Center
International Broadcast Center

Tickets

The opening ceremony category tickets will range from 25,000 to 150,000 yen, with a maximum price of 30,000 yen for the finals of popular sports, such as athletics and swimming. The average price of all the Olympic tickets is 7,700 yen. 60% of the tickets will be sold for 4,400 yen or less. Tickets will be sold by PIA through 40,000 shops in Japan and by mail order to Japanese addresses through the Internet.[31] International guests will need to visit Japan during the sales period or arrange for tickets through a third party, such as a travel agent.[32]

The Games

Sports

The official programme for the 2020 Summer Olympics was approved by the IOC executive board on 9 June 2017. The president of the IOC, Thomas Bach, stated that the goal for the Tokyo Games was to make them "more youthful, more urban" and to "include more women".[33][34]

The games will feature 339 events in 33 different sports, encompassing 50 disciplines. Alongside the five new sports that will be introduced in Tokyo, there will be fifteen new events within existing sports, including 3-on-3 basketball, freestyle BMX and Madison cycling, and new mixed events in several sports.

In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses.

New sports

As part of a goal to control costs and ensure that the Olympics remain "relevant to sports fans of all generations", the IOC assessed the 26 sports contested at the 2012 Olympics, with the remit of dropping one sport and thus retaining 25 "core" sports to join new entrants golf and rugby sevens at the 2020 Games. This move would bring the total number of sports to 27, one less than the requirement of 28 for the 2020 Olympics programme, thus leaving a single vacancy which the IOC would seek to fill from a shortlist containing seven unrepresented sports as well as the sport that had been dropped from the 2012 Olympics programme.

On 12 February 2013, IOC leaders voted to drop wrestling from the "core" programme for the 2020 Games; this was a surprising decision considering that wrestling is one of the oldest Olympic sports, having been included since the ancient Olympic Games and included in the original programme for the modern Games. The New York Times felt that the decision was based on the shortage of well-known talent and the absence of women's events in the sport.[35][36][37] Wrestling was duly added to the shortlist of applicants for inclusion in the 2020 Games, alongside the seven new sports that were put forward for consideration.

On 29 May 2013, it was announced that three sports had made the final shortlist: baseball/softball, squash and wrestling.[38] The other five sports were excluded from consideration at this point: karate, roller sports, sport climbing, wakeboarding, and wushu.[39] On 8 September 2013, at the 125th IOC Session, the IOC selected wrestling to be included in the Olympic programme for 2020 and 2024. Wrestling secured 49 votes, while baseball/softball and squash received 24 votes and 22 votes respectively.[40]

Under new IOC policies that shift the Games to an "event-based" programme rather than sport-based, the host organizing committee can now also propose the addition of sports to the programme. This rule is designed so that sports popular in the host country can be added to the programme to improve local interest.[41] As a result of these changes, a new shortlist of eight sports was unveiled on 22 June 2015, consisting of baseball/softball, bowling, karate, roller sports, sport climbing, squash, surfing, and wushu.[42] On 28 September 2015, organisers submitted their shortlist of five proposed sports to the IOC: baseball/softball, karate, sport climbing, surfing, and skateboarding.[43] The five proposed sports were approved on 3 August 2016 by the IOC during the 129th IOC Session in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and will be included in the sports programme for 2020 only, bringing the total number of sports at the 2020 Olympics to 33.[44][45]

Calendar

This calendar is adapted from the 2016 Summer Olympics calendar, and does not necessarily reflect the final 2020 schedule.

All times and dates use Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events EG Exhibition gala CC Closing ceremony
July/August 22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
27
Mon
28
Tue
29
Wed
30
Thu
31
Fri
1
Sat
2
Sun
3
Mon
4
Tue
5
Wed
6
Thu
7
Fri
8
Sat
9
Sun
Events
Olympic Rings Icon.svg
Ceremonies
OC CC N/A
Archery 1 1 1 1 5
Athletics pictogram.svg
Athletics
3 5 4 5 5 4 6 7 7 1 48
Badminton pictogram.svg
Badminton
1 1 2 1 5
Baseball pictogram.svg
Baseball
1
Basketball
Basketball pictogram.svg
Basketball
1 1 4
3x3 basketball pictogram.svg
3x3 Basketball
Boxing pictogram.svg
Boxing
1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 13
Canoeing
Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg
Slalom
1 1 2 16
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg
Sprint
4 4 4
Cycling
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg
Road cycling
1 1 2 22
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg
Track cycling
1 2 2 1 1 3
Cycling (BMX) pictogram.svg
BMX
2
Cycling (mountain biking) pictogram.svg
Mountain biking
1 1
Diving pictogram.svg
Diving
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Equestrian pictogram.svg
Equestrian
2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing pictogram.svg
Fencing
1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 12
Field hockey pictogram.svg
Field hockey
1 1 2
Football pictogram.svg
Football
1 1 2
Golf pictogram.svg
Golf
1 1 2
Gymnastics
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg
Artistic
1 1 1 1 4 3 3 EG 18
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg
Rhythmic
1 1
Gymnastics (trampoline) pictogram.svg
Trampolining
1 1
Handball pictogram.svg
Handball
1 1 2
Judo pictogram.svg
Judo
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 15
Karate pictogram.svg
Karate
Kata 8
Kumite
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg
Modern pentathlon
1 1 2
Rowing pictogram.svg
Rowing
2 4 4 4 14
Rugby Sevens pictogram.svg
Rugby sevens
1 1 2
Sailing pictogram.svg
Sailing
2 2 2 2 2 10
Shooting pictogram.svg
Shooting
2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 15
Skateboarding pictogram.svg
Skateboarding
4
Softball pictogram.svg
Softball
1
Climbing pictogram.svg
Sport climbing
2
Surfing pictogram.svg
Surfing
2
Swimming pictogram.svg
Swimming
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 37
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg
Synchronized swimming
1 1 2
Table tennis pictogram.svg
Table tennis
1 1 1 1 5
Taekwondo pictogram.svg
Taekwondo
2 2 2 2 8
Tennis pictogram.svg
Tennis
1 1 3 5
Triathlon pictogram.svg
Triathlon
1 1 3
Volleyball
Volleyball (beach) pictogram.svg
Beach volleyball
1 1 4
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg
Volleyball
1 1
Water polo pictogram.svg
Water polo
1 1 2
Weightlifting pictogram.svg
Weightlifting
1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 14
Wrestling pictogram.svg
Wrestling
2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 18
Daily medal events 339
Cumulative total 339
July/August 22
Wed
23
Thu
24
Fri
25
Sat
26
Sun
27
Mon
28
Tue
29
Wed
30
Thu
31
Fri
1
Sat
2
Sun
3
Mon
4
Tue
5
Wed
6
Thu
7
Fri
8
Sat
9
Sun
Total events


Marketing

Emblem

The official emblems for the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 25 April 2016; designed by Asao Tokolo, who won a nationwide design contest,[46] it takes the form of a ring in an indigo-coloured checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies Japan".[47] The designs replaced a previous emblem which had been scrapped due to allegations that it plagiarized the logo of a Belgian theatre.[48]

Mascot

The official mascots of the 2020 Summer Olympics (left) and the 2020 Summer Paralympics (right). As of June 2018, they have yet to be named.
The official mascots of the 2020 Summer Olympics (left) and the 2020 Summer Paralympics (right). As of June 2018, they have yet to be named.

The Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee began accepting submissions for the official mascots of the Games from 1 to 14 August 2017. A total of 2,042 entries were received.[49] Three shortlisted entries were unveiled at the Kakezuka Elementary School on 7 December 2017. A poll was then conducted between 11 December 2017 and 22 February 2018 to choose the winning entry, with each participating elementary school class allocated one vote.[50][51] The results were announced on 28 February 2018. The winning entry was candidate pair A, created by Ryo Taniguchi, which received 109,041 votes, followed by Kana Yano's pair B with 61,423 votes and Sanae Akimoto's pair C with 35,291 votes. The Olympic mascot in Pair A is a figure with blue checkered patterns inspired by the Games' official logo, which has old-fashioned charm and new innovation combined with a special power of instant teleportation. Both Olympic and Paralympic mascots will be named by the Organising Committee by 22 July 2018, when the mascots will make their official debut.[52]

Video games

Although Ubisoft acquired the video game rights to the 2018 Winter Olympics, Japanese video game publisher Sega secured the rights for the 2020 Summer Olympics as early as October 2016.[53] Sega has developed officially licensed Olympic video games for various platforms since the 2008 Summer Olympics, most notably the Mario & Sonic series.[53]

Sponsors

As of 2015 total sponsorship for the 2020 Games reached approximately $1.3 billion, setting an Olympics record (the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing attracted $1.2 billion).[54]

Concerns and controversies

IAAF bribery claims

In January 2016, the second part of a World Anti-Doping Agency commission report into corruption included a footnote detailing a conversation between Khalil Diack, son of former International Athletic Association Federation (IAAF) president Lamine Diack, and Turkish officials heading up the Istanbul bid team.[55] A transcript of the conversation cited in the report suggested that a "sponsorship" payment of between US$4 million and 5 million had been made by the Japanese bid team "either to the Diamond League or IAAF".[55] The footnote claimed that because Istanbul did not make such a payment, the bid lost the support of Lamine Diack. The WADA declined to investigate the claims because it was, according to its independent commission, outside the agency's remit.[55]

In July and October 2013 (prior to and after being awarded the Games), Tokyo made two bank payments totalling SG$2.8 million to a Singapore-based company known as Black Tidings. The company is tied to Papa Massata Diack, a son of Lamine Diack who worked as a marketing consultant for the IAAF, and is being pursued by French authorities under allegations of bribery, corruption, and money laundering.[56] Black Tidings is held by Ian Tan Tong Han, a consultant to Athletics Management and Services—which manages the IAAF's commercial rights, and has business relationships with Japanese firm Dentsu. Black Tidings has also been connected to a doping scandal involving the Russian athletics team.[56][57][58]

Japanese Olympic Committee and Tokyo 2020 board member Tsunekazu Takeda stated that the payments were for consulting services, but refused to discuss the matter further because it was confidential. Toshiaki Endo called on Takeda to publicly discuss the matter. Massata denied that he had received any money from Tokyo's organizing committee.[56][58] The IOC established a team to investigate these matters, and will closely follow the French investigation.[59]

Logo plagiarism

The initial design for the official emblems of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled on 24 July 2015. The logo resembled a stylized "T"; a red circle in the top-right corner represented a beating heart, the flag of Japan, and an "inclusive world in which everyone accepts each other", and a black column in the centre represented diversity.[60]

Shortly after the unveiling, Belgian graphics designer Olivier Debie accused the organizing committee of plagiarizing a logo he had designed for the Théâtre de Liège, which aside from the circle, consisted of nearly identical shapes. Tokyo's organizing committee denied that the emblem design was plagiarized, arguing that the design had gone through "long, extensive and international" intellectual property examinations before it was cleared for use.[61][62] Debie filed a lawsuit against the IOC to prevent use of the infringing logo.[48]

The emblem's designer, Kenjirō Sano, defended the design, stating that he had never seen the Liège logo, while TOCOG released an early sketch of the design that emphasized a stylized "T" and did not resemble the Liège logo.[48] However, Sano was found to have had a history of plagiarism, with others alleging his early design plagiarized work of Jan Tschichold, that he used a photo without permission in promotional materials for the emblem, along with other past cases. On 1 September 2015, following an emergency meeting of TOCOG, Governor of Tokyo Yōichi Masuzoe announced that they had decided to scrap Sano's two logos. The committee met on 2 September 2015 to decide how to approach another new logo design.[48]

On 24 November 2015, an Emblems Selection Committee was established to organize an open call for design proposals, open to Japanese residents over the age of 18, with a deadline set for 7 December 2015. The winner would receive ¥1 million and tickets to the opening ceremonies of both the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics.[46][63][64] On 8 April 2016, a new shortlist of four pairs of designs for the Olympics and Paralympics were unveiled by the Emblems Selection Committee; the Committee's selection—with influence from a public poll, was presented to TOCOG on 25 April 2016 for final approval.[63]

Broadcasting

Sony and Panasonic are partnering with NHK to develop broadcasting standards for 8K resolution television, with a goal to release 8K television sets in time for the 2020 Olympics.[65][66]

In the United States, the 2020 Summer Olympics will be broadcast by NBCUniversal properties, as part of a US$4.38 billion agreement that began at the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi.[67]

In Europe, this will be the first Summer Olympics under the IOC's exclusive pan-European rights deal with Discovery Communications, which began at the 2018 Winter Olympics and run through 2024. The rights for the 2020 Games cover almost all of Europe, excluding France due to an existing rights deal that will expire following these Games, and Russia due to a pre-existing deal with a marketer through 2024.[68] Discovery will sub-license coverage to free-to-air networks in each territory. In the United Kingdom, these will be the last Games whose rights are fully owned by the BBC, although as a condition of a sub-licensing agreement that will carry into the 2022 and 2024 Games, Discovery holds exclusive pay television rights to these Games.[69][70][71]

References

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External links

Preceded by
Rio de Janeiro
Summer Olympic Games
Tokyo

XXXII Olympiad (2020)
Succeeded by
Paris

Template:Nations at the 2020 Summer Olympics

This page was last edited on 16 July 2018, at 12:57
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