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2020 Libertarian Party presidential primaries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2020 Libertarian Party presidential primaries

← 2016 January 11 to June 2, 2020 2024 →

Non-binding preferential vote
 
Jacob Hornberger by Gage Skidmore (cropped) (3).jpg
Jo Jorgensen by Gage Skidmore 3 (50448627641) (crop 2).jpg
Vermin Supreme August 2019 (cropped).jpg
Candidate Jacob Hornberger Jo Jorgensen[a] Vermin Supreme
Home state Virginia South Carolina Massachusetts
Contests won 7 2 1
Popular vote 9,177 5,110 4,277
Percentage 20.3% 11.2% 9.4%

 
Ken Armstrong POTUS46 Headshot (cropped).jpg
Kim Ruff (50280804772) (cropped).jpg
Candidate No preference Ken Armstrong Kim Ruff
Home state N/A Oregon Arizona
Contests won 2 0 0
Popular vote 3,760 3,507 3,030
Percentage 8.3% 7.7% 6.7%

 
Kokesh2013 (cropped).jpg
Dan-taxation-is-theft-behrman (cropped) (2).jpg
Candidate Adam Kokesh Dan Behrman
Home state Indiana Nevada
Contests won 0 0
Popular vote 2,865 2,392
Percentage 6.3% 5.3%

Libertarian Party presidential primaries results, 2020.svg
Libertarian Party presidential convention first round, 2020.svg
Libertarian Party presidential convention fourth round, 2020.svg

Previous Libertarian nominee

Gary Johnson

Libertarian nominee

Jo Jorgensen

The 2020 Libertarian Party presidential primaries and caucuses were a series of electoral contests to indicate non-binding preferences for the Libertarian Party's presidential candidate in the 2020 United States presidential election. These differ from the Republican or Democratic presidential primaries and caucuses in that they do not appoint delegates to represent a candidate at the party's convention to select the party's presidential nominee.

The party's nominee was subsequently chosen directly by registered delegates at the 2020 Libertarian National Convention, held through an online convention from May 22 to May 24.[1] Jo Jorgensen was chosen as the party's presidential nominee, becoming the first woman to receive the Libertarian nomination, after four rounds of voting.[2][3] Spike Cohen was nominated for vice president.[4]

Background

The 2020 United States presidential election will be the thirteenth contested presidential election in which the Libertarian Party will participate. The 2016 election saw the highest vote total and percentage of votes for a Libertarian presidential ticket ever, with former New Mexico governor Gary Johnson and his running mate, former Massachusetts governor Bill Weld, receiving over four million votes and 3.28% of the total vote.[5] During his presidential campaign in 2016, Johnson often stated that it would be his last run for the presidency.[6]

Candidates

Major candidates have been invited to participate in at least two Libertarian Party-sponsored debates or have received substantial independent media coverage.

Nominee

Candidate Born Experience Home state Campaign Popular vote Contests won Ref
Jo Jorgensen by Gage Skidmore 3 (50448627641) (crop 2).jpg

Jo Jorgensen
May 1, 1957
(age 63)
Libertyville, Illinois
Psychology senior lecturer at Clemson University
Nominee for Vice President in 1996
Nominee for U.S. representative from SC-04 in 1992
Flag of South Carolina.svg

South Carolina
Jorgensen Cohen 2020 Campaign Logo.svg

Campaign
November 2, 2019
FEC Filing[7]
Nominated:
May 23, 2020
Running mate: Spike Cohen[b]
5,110
(11.23%)
2
(NE, NM)
[2][8]

Eliminated in convention balloting

Candidate Born Experience Home state Campaign announced Campaign suspended Popular vote Contests won Ref
Jacob Hornberger by Gage Skidmore (cropped) (3).jpg

Jacob Hornberger
January 1, 1950
(age 70)
Laredo, Texas
Founder and President of the Future of Freedom Foundation
Independent candidate for U.S. Senate from Virginia in 2002
Candidate for President in 2000
Flag of Virginia.svg

Virginia
Jacob Hornberger 2020 campaign logo.png

October 29, 2019
FEC Filing[9]
Running mate: Spike Cohen[10]
May 23, 2020 (eliminated in balloting; endorsed Jorgensen after her nomination) 9,177
(11.23%)
7
(CA, CT, IA, MN, MO, NY, OH)
[2][11]
Vermin Supreme August 2019 (cropped).jpg

Vermin Supreme
June 3, 1961
(age 58)
Rockport, Massachusetts
Performance artist, activist, and political satirist
Candidate for president in 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, and 2016
Flag of Massachusetts.svg

Massachusetts
Vermin Supreme 2020 - Free Ponies For All - Campaign Logo.jpg

Campaign
June 26, 2019
FEC Filing[12]
Running mate: Spike Cohen[13]
May 23, 2020 (eliminated in balloting; endorsed Jorgensen after her nomination) 4,277
(9.44%)
1
(NH)
[2][14]
Kokesh2013 (cropped).jpg

Adam Kokesh
February 1, 1982
(age 38)
San Francisco, California
Libertarian and anti-war political activist
Nominee for U.S. Senate from Arizona in 2018
Republican candidate for U.S. representative from NM-03 in 2010
Flag of Indiana.svg

Indiana

January 18, 2018
FEC Filing[15]
Running mate: Larry Sharpe[10]

(formerly John McAfee)[16]

May 23, 2020
(eliminated in balloting; endorsed Jorgensen during balloting)
(ran for vice-president)[4]
2,865
(6.32%)
0 [17]
Dan-taxation-is-theft-behrman (cropped) (2).jpg

Dan Behrman
April 24, 1981
(age 39)
Los Angeles, California
Software engineer, internet personality and podcaster
Nominee for Texas State Representative from the 125th district in 2014
Flag of Nevada.svg

Nevada
Dan Behrman 2020 campaign logo.png

January 30, 2019
FEC Filing[18]
May 23, 2020
(Eliminated in nomination round of convention; endorsed Supreme)[19]
(Running as an Independent)[19]
2,392
(5.28%)
0 [20]
Sam Robb Campaign Photo for 2020 Election (cropped).jpg

Sam Robb
January 2, 1969
(age 51)
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Software engineer and author
Former naval officer
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg

Pennsylvania

Sam Robb Campaign Logo for 2020 candidacy.png

April 1, 2019
FEC Filing[21]

May 23, 2020
(Eliminated during nomination round; endorsed Jorgensen)[22]
1,951
(4.31%)
0 [23]

Souraya Faas
Former member of the Miami-Dade County Republican Executive Committee
Independent candidate for president in 2016
Flag of Florida.svg

Florida

May 3, 2019
FEC Filing[24]
May 23, 2020
(eliminated during nomination round; endorsed Supreme)[25]
1,170
(3.04%)
0 [26][27]

Erik Gerhardt
Entrepreneur
Flag of Pennsylvania.svg

Pennsylvania

May 23, 2019
FEC Filing[28]
May 23, 2020
(eliminated during nomination round)
847
(2.20%)
0 [29][30]
Keenan Dunham (cropped).jpg

Keenan Dunham
July 16, 1981
(age 39)
Myrtle Beach, South Carolina
Chair of the Horry County, South Carolina Libertarian Party
Candidate for President in 2016
Flag of South Carolina.svg

South Carolina

August 26, 2018
FEC Filing[31]
May 23, 2020
(eliminated during nomination round)
722
(1.88%)
0 [32]
John McAfee by Gage Skidmore (cropped).jpg

John McAfee
September 18, 1945
(age 75)
Forest of Dean, Gloucestershire,
United Kingdom
Founder and CEO of McAfee, Inc.
(1987–1994)

Candidate for President in 2016
Flag of Tennessee.svg

Tennessee
McAfee 2020 logo.png

Campaign
June 3, 2018
Running mate: Adam Kokesh[16]
March 4, 2020
Resumed: March 5, 2020
May 23, 2020
(eliminated during nomination round)
560
(1.45%)
0 [33][34]
Arvin Vohra on The Tatiana Show (cropped).jpg

Arvin Vohra
May 9, 1979
(age 41)
Silver Spring, Maryland
Vice Chair of the LNC
(2014–2018)

Nominee for U.S. Senate from Maryland in 2016 and 2018
Nominee for U.S. representative from MD-05 in 2012 and MD-04 in 2014
Flag of Maryland.svg

Maryland
Arvin Vohra 2020 logo.png

July 3, 2018
FEC Filing[35]
May 23, 2020
(eliminated during nomination round; endorsed Kokesh)
272
(0.70%)
0 [36]

Kenneth Blevins
Pipe welder
Flag of Oklahoma.svg

Oklahoma
June 6, 2019
FEC Filing[37]
May 23, 2020
(eliminated during nomination round)
122
(0.31%)
0 [38]

John Monds
September 17, 1965
(age 55)
Former President of the Grady County, Georgia NAACP
Nominee for Governor of Georgia in 2010
Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg

Georgia

January 27, 2020
FEC Filing[39]
May 23, 2020 (eliminated during balloting; endorsed Jorgensen during balloting)
(ran for vice-president)[4]
64
(0.17%)
0 [40][41]
Jim Gray (cropped).jpg

Jim Gray
February 14, 1945
(age 75)
Washington, D.C.
Former presiding judge for the Superior Court of Orange County, California
Nominee for Vice President in 2012
Flag of California.svg

California

April 13, 2020
Running mate: Larry Sharpe
May 23, 2020

(eliminated during balloting; endorsed Jorgensen during balloting)

42
(0.11%)
0 [16]

Withdrew during the primaries

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign announced Campaign suspended Popular vote Contests won Campaign Ref
Ken Armstrong POTUS46 Headshot (cropped).jpg

Ken Armstrong
April 25, 1957
(age 63)
Pasadena, California
U.S. Coast Guard commissioned officer
(1977–1994)

Former nonprofit executive
Former member of the Honolulu County, Hawaii Neighborhood Board
Flag of Oregon.svg

Oregon

May 10, 2019
April 29, 2020
(Ran for Vice President)[42]
(Endorsed Amash)[43]
3,507
(7.74%)
0
Ken Armstrong for President logo.jpg

FEC Filing[44]
[42][45]
Mark Whitney-WM (cropped).jpg

Mark Whitney
Podcaster and political satirist
Founder and CEO of TheLaw.net
Nominee for Vermont State Senate in 1996
Flag of California.svg

California

December 20, 2019
April 24, 2020
(Endorsed Gray)[46]
10
(0.02%)
0 Campaign
FEC Filing[47]
[48][49]
Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Chafee - 140526-N-PX557-166 (14290233225) (cropped).jpg

Lincoln Chafee
March 26, 1953
(age 67)
Providence, Rhode Island
Governor of Rhode Island (2011–2015)
U.S. Senator from Rhode Island (1999–2007)
Mayor of Warwick, Rhode Island (1993–1999)
Democratic candidate for President in 2016
Flag of Wyoming.svg

Wyoming
January 5, 2020 April 5, 2020 441
(1.14%)
0 Campaign [50][51]
Max suit small (cropped).jpg

Max Abramson
April 29, 1976
(age 44)
Kent, Washington
New Hampshire State Representative
(2014–2016; 2018–present)

Nominee for Governor of New Hampshire in 2016
Flag of New Hampshire.svg

New Hampshire

June 30, 2019
March 3, 2020[52]
(Ran for Reform nomination, running for Veterans' nomination)[53][54]
2,039
(4.50%)
0
Max Abramson 2020 logo.png

FEC Filing[55]
[56][57]
Kim Ruff (50280804772) (cropped).jpg

Kim Ruff
Peoria, Arizona Vice chair of the LPRadical Caucus
Write-in candidate for Arizona State Mine Inspector in 2018
Flag of Arizona.svg

Arizona
March 25, 2019
January 11, 2020
(Endorsed Supreme)[58]
3,030
(6.69%)
0
RuffPhillips 2020 campaign logo.png

FEC Filing[59]
Running mate: John Phillips Jr.
[60][61]

Withdrew before the primaries

Candidate Born Experience State Campaign
announced
Campaign
suspended
Popular vote Ref.

Christopher Marks
Columbia City, Indiana Lawyer and technician
Flag of Indiana.svg

Indiana
February 7, 2017 August 8, 2019 0[c] [62]
Zoltan Istvan public profile photo (cropped).jpg

Zoltan Istvan
March 30, 1973
(aged 45)
Los Angeles, California
Transhumanist activist and futurist
Candidate for Governor of California in 2018
Transhumanist nominee for President in 2016
Flag of California.svg

California
November 25, 2017 January 11, 2019
(ran for Vice President)
0[c] [63]

Formed exploratory committee but did not run

Candidate Born Experience State Exploratory committee announced Exploratory committee disbanded Popular vote Contests won Ref
Justin Amash official photo (cropped).jpg

Justin Amash
April 18, 1980
(age 40)
Grand Rapids, Michigan
U.S. representative from MI-03
(2011–present)

Michigan State Representative from MI-72
(2009–2011)
Flag of Michigan.svg

Michigan
April 28, 2020 May 16, 2020 3
(0.00%)
0 [64][65][66]

Declined to be candidates

These individuals have been the subject of presidential speculation, but have publicly denied or recanted interest in running for president.

Timeline of the race

2017

2018

  • January 18: Adam Kokesh officially launches his campaign at an event in Texas, having already announced his intention to run for president during a jailhouse interview in 2013.[90] On the day of his announcement, Kokesh was stopped twice by Texas state troopers, and placed under arrest and charged with possession of a controlled substance and tampering with evidence.[91]
  • May 28: Perennial candidate and performance artist Vermin Supreme files to run.[12]
  • June 3: Contrary to an assertion he made at the 2016 convention, John McAfee announces via Twitter that he would run for president again in 2020, either with the Libertarian Party or under the banner of a party of his own creation.[92]
  • July 3: Former Vice Chair of the Libertarian National Committee, Arvin Vohra announces his candidacy, after an unsuccessful bid for re-election to his position as vice chair.[36]
  • August 26: Chair of the Horry County Libertarian party and 2016 presidential candidate Keenan Dunham files to run.[31]
  • October 19: After having been asked during a Q&A session a few days prior if he would be interested in running for president as a Libertarian, Overstock.com CEO Patrick Byrne indicates that he "almost definitely" was not going to run for president in 2020.[67]
  • December 12: Vice chair of the L.P. Radical Caucus Kim Ruff expresses interest in a run.[93][94]

2019

  • January 3: Biomedical researcher and candidate for the party's 2008 presidential nomination Mary Ruwart confirmed on Twitter that she was not planning on seeking the nomination on 2020 in order to focus on writing.[77]
  • January 11: Zoltan Istvan announced via his website that he had left the Libertarian Party some time before this date, and was no longer seeking its nomination for president in 2020.[95]
  • January 20: At-the-time Republican representative Justin Amash warns the Libertarian Party against nominating a "squishy Republican" at LibertyCon, a comment widely seen as directed at 2016 vice-presidential nominee and presumptive frontrunner Bill Weld.[87]
  • January 21: Former Starbucks CEO Howard Schultz, who had been suggested as a Libertarian candidate, makes clear that any presidential run by him would be as an independent.[96][97][98]
  • January 22: McAfee announces via Twitter that he would be continuing his campaign "in exile", following reports that he, his wife, and four of his campaign staff were being indicted for tax-related felonies by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). McAfee indicated that he was in "international waters", and had previously tweeted that he was on his way to Venezuela.[99] The IRS has not commented on the alleged indictments.[100]
  • January 23: McAfee confirmed on Twitter that he had docked in the Bahamas, where he would remain for the foreseeable future.[101]
  • January 30: Podcaster and software engineer Dan Behrman files to run.[18]
  • February 5: Weld, who had served as Gary Johnson's running mate in 2016, is the subject of rumours that he had left the Libertarian Party and rejoined the Republican Party to challenge Donald Trump in the Republican primary.[102]
  • February 15:
    • Weld confirmed the rumors that he had left the Libertarian Party on February 15 by announcing the formation of an exploratory committee for the Republican nomination.[103] Weld officially launched his campaign for the Republican nomination on April 15.[104]
    • Justin Amash declines to rule out running for the Libertarian nomination.[105]
  • April 1: Software engineer and former naval officer Sam Robb files to run.[21]
  • April 22: Larry Sharpe, who had been a candidate for vice president in 2016 and the nominee for Governor of New York in 2018, told The Niagara Gazette that he was unlikely to run for office in 2020, and was instead looking at running for Governor again in 2022.[106]
  • May 3: Souraya Faas files to run.
  • May 10: Former U.S. Coast Guard officer Ken Armstrong announces his candidacy.[107][108]
  • May 18: Congressman Justin Amash broke ranks with the Republican Party and became the first Republican in all of Congress to call for impeachment proceedings against President Donald Trump.[109] In an interview with Salon, Libertarian National Committee chairman Nicholas Sarwark concurred with Amash's conclusions, saying, "of all the members of Congress, his [Amash] positions seem to most closely match those of the Libertarian Party.", fuelling speculations about a possible bid by Amash for the Libertarian nomination[110][111] On May 22, Sharpe reported receiving two calls from "people close to Amash" inquiring about the Libertarian Party.[112]
  • May 23: Entrepreneur Erik Gerhardt files to run.[28]
  • June 30: New Hampshire state representative Max Abramson announces his candidacy for the Libertarian nomination.[113]
  • July 4: Amash announces via an op-ed in The Washington Post that he had left the Republican Party, becoming an independent.[114]
  • August 22: Former Rhode Island governor Lincoln Chafee, who announced he had joined the Libertarian Party in a Boston Globe op-ed published in July, expressed interest in making another bid for the presidency, this time as a Libertarian.[115][116]
  • October 29: Founder and president of the Future of Freedom Foundation Jacob Hornberger filed to seek the Libertarian nomination for president, announcing his candidacy days later.
  • November 2: At the South Carolina Libertarian Party convention, 1996 vice presidential nominee Jo Jorgensen announces her candidacy seeking the nomination for president. Jorgensen participated in the subsequent presidential debate held off the convention site.[11]
  • December 20: Podcaster and satirist Mark Whitney announces his campaign.[48]

2020

  • January 5: Former Governor and Senator Lincoln Chafee files to run.[50]
  • January 11:
    • Vermin Supreme wins the Libertarian Party of New Hampshire's internally-held and funded presidential preference primary.[117]
    • Kim Ruff suspends her campaign.[118]
  • January 27: 2010 Georgia gubernatorial nominee John Monds files to run.[39][40]
  • February 8: Jacob Hornberger wins the Libertarian Party of Iowa's internally-held and funded presidential preference caucus.[119]
  • February 25: Jacob Hornberger wins the Libertarian Party of Minnesota's internally-held presidential preference caucus.[120]
  • March 3;
  • March 4: John McAfee suspends his presidential campaign and announces his candidacy for the Libertarian vice-presidential nomination, endorsing Vermin Supreme for president.[121][123]
  • March 5: McAfee resumes his presidential campaign.[124]
  • March 10: Jacob Hornberger wins the unopposed Missouri primary.[125]
  • April 5: Lincoln Chafee suspends his campaign.[51]
  • April 11: Hornberger wins the Ohio caucus.[126]
  • April 13: Judge Jim Gray announces his candidacy, with Larry Sharpe as his running mate.[127]
  • April 24: Mark Whitney suspends his campaign and endorses Gray.[49]
  • April 26: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the JW Marriott Downtown Austin cancels all reservations for the 2020 Libertarian National Convention.[128]
  • April 28;
    • Hornberger wins the Connecticut primary.[129]
    • Justin Amash opens a presidential exploratory committee for the Libertarian nomination.[64]
  • April 29: Ken Armstrong announces that he will withdraw from the presidential race and instead seek the nomination for vice president, following Amash's declaration for the Presidential nomination.[42]
  • May 9: The Libertarian Party of Kentucky sponsors the 5th in a series of televised debates held by the state party, featuring the top four vote-getting candidates from previous debates, Hornberger, Supreme, Jorgensen, and Jim Gray, plus Justin Amash.[130]
  • May 11: Ken Armstrong endorses Amash.[43]
  • May 12: Jo Jorgensen wins the Nebraska primary with 28% of the vote.[131]
  • May 16: Despite forming an exploratory committee, Justin Amash announces that he will not seek the 2020 presidential nomination.[65]
  • May 22: The 2020 Libertarian National Convention begins online, set to run digitally from May 22–24.
  • May 23;
    • In the nominating round, Blevins, Vohra, McAfee, Dunham, Gerhardt, Faas, Robb, and Behrman are eliminated. Vohra endorses Kokesh, Robb endorses Jorgensen, and Faas and Behrman endorse Supreme. (Behrman nevertheless announces he will continue his presidential run as an independent.)
    • In subsequent rounds, Kokesh, Gray, Monds, Supreme, and Hornberger are eliminated. All of them subsequently endorse Jorgensen.
    • The Libertarian Party officially nominates Jo Jorgensen as its presidential candidate, making her the party's first female presidential nominee.
  • May 24: The Libertarian Party nominates Spike Cohen as its vice presidential nominee.

Overview

Active campaign
Exploratory committee
Withdrawn candidate
Midterm elections
New Hampshire primary
Super Tuesday
COVID-19 pandemic
national emergency
declaration
Libertarian convention
Final primary
General election
Zoltan IstvanMax Abramson#2020 presidential campaignLincoln Chafee 2020 presidential campaignMark Whitney#2020 presidential campaignKen Armstrong (politician)#2020 presidential campaignJustin Amash#2020 presidential campaignJohn McAfee 2020 presidential campaignArvin VohraAdam Kokesh#2020 presidential campaignJames P. Gray#2020 presidential campaignJohn MondsVermin Supreme 2020 presidential campaignJacob Hornberger#2020 presidential campaignJo Jorgensen#2020 presidential campaign

Endorsements

Jim Gray
Federal legislators
Statewide officials
Municipal officials
  • Jeff Hewitt, member of the Riverside County Board of Supervisors[citation needed] (Previously endorsed Whitney)[133]
Individuals
Jacob Hornberger
Party officials
Individuals
Organizations
  • Libertarian Party Mises Caucus[140]
Newspapers and other media
  • The Liberty Herald, news media website[141] (Later endorsed Amash)[142]
Adam Kokesh
Federal legislators
Party officials
Vermin Supreme
State legislators
Municipal officials
Party officials
Individuals
  • Rob Potylo, musician and comedian[153]
  • Lord Buckethead, satirical parliamentary candidate from the United Kingdom[154]
  • Christian Ehmling, political activist and Republican candidate for the Texas House of Representatives District 16 in 2018.[155]
Organisations
  • Libertarian Socialist Caucus of the Libertarian Party[156]
  • Liberty Republicans (later endorsed Amash)[157]
Justin Amash
State legislators
Municipal officials
Party officials
Individuals
Organizations
  • Constitution Party of Virginia[168]
  • Liberty Republicans (previously endorsed Supreme)[169]
Newspapers and other media
  • The Liberty Herald, news media website (previously endorsed Hornberger)[142]
Ken Armstrong
Party officials
  • Adam Reinhardt, Chair of the Monroe County Libertarian Party.[170]
  • Duane Whitmer, Chair of the Erie County Libertarian Party, Candidate for U.S. representative from NY-24.[170]
Individuals
  • Tonya Millis, Candidate for U.S. representative from IN-09.[170]
  • Oscar Herrera, Candidate for Ohio’s 96th State House district.[170] (Later endorsed Amash)[163]
Lincoln Chafee
Individuals
Kim Ruff
State legislators
Party officials
Mark Whitney
Municipal officials

Primaries and caucuses

The Libertarian Party will be eligible to participate in presidential primaries in numerous states.[173]

Other primaries and caucuses

  • Cancellations: Arizona[187]

Ballot access

Primaries and Caucuses
State/
Territory
Date
Behrman
Dunham
Hornberger
Jorgensen
Kokesh
McAfee
Robb
Supreme
Vohra
Armstrong
Whitney
Chafee
Abramson
Ruff
Other
Reference
NH[e] January 11 Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes[A] [188]
IA[e] February 8 No official candidate list [189]
MN[e] February 25 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes[B] [176]
CA March 3 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Withdrawn Yes[C] [190]
MA March 3 Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Withdrawn No [191]
NC March 3 Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Withdrawn Yes[D] [192]
MO March 10 No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No [193]
OH[e] March 16 Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes[E] [194]
CT[e] April 28 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Withdrawn Withdrawn No No Yes[F] [195][196]
NY April 28 No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No [197]
NE May 12 Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No Withdrawn Withdrawn No No [198]
NM June 2 Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Withdrawn Withdrawn Withdrawn Withdrawn No Yes[G] [199]

Candidates listed in italics have suspended their campaigns.

  1. ^ Erik Gerhardt, Arlen Lawson Wright
  2. ^ Sorinne Ardeleanu, Souraya Faas, Steve Richey
  3. ^ Souraya Faas, Erik Gerhardt, Steve Richey
  4. ^ Kenneth Blevins, Souraya Faas, Erik Gerhardt, Jedi Hill, James Ogle, Steve Richey
  5. ^ Steve Richey
  6. ^ Brian Ellison, Erik Gerhardt, James Ogle, Jedediah Hill, John Monds, Kenneth Blevins, Louis Vanacore, Phil Gray, Rhett Smith, Sorinne Ardeleanu, Steve Richey
  7. ^ Sorinne Ardeleanu, John Monds, James Ogle

Results

Date Contest 2020 Libertarian Party presidential primaries[f] Source
Jo
Jorgensen
Jacob Hornberger Vermin Supreme Adam Kokesh Dan Behrman Sam
Robb
Ken Armstrong Kim Ruff Max Abramson No Preference Others Total
January 11 New
Hampshire
4
(7.02%)
13
(22.81%)
1
(1.75%)
7
(12.28%)
5
(8.77%)
3
(5.26%)
7
(12.28%)
3
(5.26%)
14
(24.56%)
57 [200]
February 8 Iowa 18
(6.41%)
133
(47.33%)
9
(3.20%)
17
(6.05%)
14
(4.98%)
7
(2.49%)
2
(0.71%)
6
(2.14%)
8
(2.85%)
67
(23.84%)
281 [201]
February 25 Minnesota 32
(40.51%)
47
(59.49%)
eliminated eliminated eliminated
in round 1/7
eliminated eliminated eliminated eliminated 79 [202]
March 3
(Super Tuesday)
California 3,534
(12.4%)
5,530
(19.4%)
3,469
(12.2%)
2,161
(7.6%)
1,695
(5.9%)
1,722
(6.0%)
3,011
(10.6%)
2,330
(8.2%)
1,605
(5.6%)
3,478
(12.2%)
28,535 [203]
Massachusetts 141
(3.4%)
369
(8.9%)
399
(9.6%)
125
(3.0%)
294
(7.1%)
127
(3.1%)
145
(3.5%)
224
(5.4%)
98
(2.4%)
804
(19.3%)
1,433
(34.5%)
4,159 [204]
North
Carolina
267
(4.37%)
584
(9.56%)
387
(6.33%)
163
(2.67%)
144
(2.36%)
346
(5.66%)
469
(7.68%)
160
(2.67%)
2,022
(33.09%)
1,568
(25.66%)
6,110 [205]
March 10 Missouri 1,695
(74.80%)
571
(25.20%)
2,266 [206]
March 16-April 11 Ohio 55
(31.6%)
97
(55.7%)
eliminated
in round 8/9
eliminated
in round 5/9
eliminated
in round 2/9
eliminated
in round 7/9
22
(12.64%)
174 [207]
April 25-28 Connecticut eliminated
in round 18/19
85
(50.9%)
eliminated
in round 16/19
eliminated
in round 17/19
eliminated
in round 12/19
eliminated
in round 10/19
eliminated
in round 7/19
eliminated
in round 13/19
82
(49.1%)
167 [208]
April 28 New
York
default
winner
[209]
May 12 Nebraska 539
(28.13%)
483
(25.21%)
274
(14.30%)
180
(9.39%)
170
(8.87%)
270
(14.09%)
1,916 [210]
June 2 New Mexico[g] 520
(33.12%)
154
(9.81%)
124
(7.90%)
58
(3.69%)
90
(5.73%)
330
(21.02%)
281
(18.05%)
1,557 [213]
Popular vote
(Percentage)
5,110
(11.23%)
9,177
(20.26%)
4,277
(9.44%)
2,865
(6.32%)
2,392
(5.28%)
1,951
(4.31%)
3,507
(7.74%)
3,030
(6.69%)
2,039
(4.50%)
3,760
(8.30%)
45,306


Debates and forums

Schedule

Map of United States showing sites of all Libertarian presidential debates in 2019–2020.
L1 Issaquah
L1
Issaquah
L2 Bay City
L2
Bay City
L3 Colorado Springs
L3
Colorado Springs
L4 Tampa
L4
Tampa
L5 Toledo
L5
Toledo
L6 Somerville
L6
Somerville
L7 Florence
L7
Florence
L8 Olean
L8
Olean
L9 Concord
L9
Concord
L10 Douglasville
L10
Douglasville
L11 Culver City
L11
Culver City
L12 Orlando
L12
Orlando
L13 Birmingham
L13
Birmingham
L14 Philadelphia

L14
Philadelphia
L15 East Peoria
L15
East Peoria
L18 McAllen
L18
McAllen
L19 Austin
L19
Austin
Sites of the Libertarian Party presidential debates.
No. Date Time
(ET)
Place Sponsor(s) Moderators Ref
1 March 31, 2019 Holiday Inn Seattle–Issaquah,
Issaquah, Washington
Libertarian Party of Washington Randy McGlenn II [214]
2 April 13, 2019 Courtyard by Marriott Bay City,
Bay City, Michigan
Libertarian Party of Michigan Jeff Wood [215]
3 April 27, 2019 Hotel Eleganté Conference & Event Center,
Colorado Springs, Colorado
Libertarian Party of Colorado -- [216]
4 May 5, 2019 1–2 pm Hotel Alba Tampa-Westshore,
Tampa, Florida
Libertarian Party of Florida C. Michael Pickens [217]
5 June 1, 2019 Radisson Hotel at The University of Toledo,
Toledo, Ohio
Libertarian Party of Ohio Larry Sharpe [218]
6 July 13, 2019 VFW Post 529 – George Dilboy Post,
Somerville, Massachusetts
Libertarian Party of Massachusetts Matt Welch [219]
7 November 2, 2019 7–9 pm Francis Marion University,
Florence, South Carolina
Libertarian Party of South Carolina [219]
8 November 9, 2019 7–9 pm Olean High School,
Olean, New York
Cattaraugus County Libertarian Party James Weeks II, Daniel Donnelly, and Luke Wenke [220]
9 January 11, 2020 Holiday Inn,
Concord, New Hampshire
Libertarian Party of New Hampshire Daniel Fishman [221]
10 January 18, 2020 Douglasville Convention Center,
Douglasville, Georgia
Libertarian Party of Georgia Jessica Szilagyi [222]
11 February 16, 2020 10 pm–12 am DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel Los Angeles,
Culver City, California
Libertarian Party of California Matt Welch [223]
12 February 22, 2020 Holiday Inn & Suites,
Orlando, Florida
Libertarian Party of Florida [224]
13 February 28, 2020 6:30–9 pm Birmingham Marriott,
Birmingham, Alabama
Libertarian Party of Alabama TBD [225]
14 March 7, 2020 Renaissance Philadelphia Airport Hotel,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Libertarian Party of Pennsylvania Larry Sharpe [226]
15 March 13, 2020 9:15–11:30 pm Embassy Suites East Peoria,
East Peoria, Illinois
Libertarian Party of Illinois TBD [227]
16 April 17, 2020 McAllen Convention Center,
McAllen, Texas
Libertarian Party of Texas TBD [228]
17 April 23, 2020 Online Libertarian Party of Kentucky Chris Wiest [229]
18 May 2, 2020 Online Libertarian Party of Kentucky Chris Wiest [230]
19 May 9, 2020 Online Libertarian Party of Kentucky Chris Wiest [130]
20 May 16, 2020 Online Libertarian Party of Kentucky
Libertarian Party of Missouri
Matt Welch [231]
21 May 18, 2020 Online Libertarian Party of Texas Timothy Martinez [232]
22 May 21, 2020 Online Libertarian Party National Convention John Stossel [233]

Debates

Libertarian Party-sponsored debates among candidates for the 2020 Libertarian Party U.S. presidential nomination
Date Place Host Participants
 P  Participant.  I  Invitee.  A  Absent.  N  Confirmed non-invitee.  O  Out of race (exploring, suspended, or not yet entered)
Abramson
Amash
Armstrong
Behrman
Chafee
Gray
Hornberger
Jorgensen
Kokesh
Monds
Robb
Ruff
Supreme
Vohra
Whitney
others
March 31, 2019[214] Issaquah, Washington Libertarian Party of Washington O O O A O O O O P O O A A P O none
April 13, 2019[234] Bay City, Michigan Libertarian Party of Michigan O O O A O O O O A O A A P P O Marks
April 27, 2019[235] Colorado Springs, Colorado Libertarian Party of Colorado O O O A O O O O P O A A P P O none
May 5, 2019[236] Tampa, Florida Libertarian Party of Florida O O O P O O O O P O A A A P O Faas
June 1, 2019[218] Toledo, Ohio Libertarian Party of Ohio O O O A O O O O P O A P P P O Marks
July 13, 2019[219] Somerville, Massachusetts Libertarian Party of Massachusetts P O O P O O O O P O A P A P O none
November 2, 2019[237] Florence, South Carolina Libertarian Party of South Carolina N O P P O O N P P O N P P N O none
November 9, 2019[220] Olean, New York Cattaraugus County Libertarian Party P O P P O O A A A O P A P P O Christmann
Hill
January 11, 2020[221] Concord, New Hampshire Libertarian Party of New Hampshire P O A P A[h] O A P A O P A P P P Ashby
Dunham
Gerhardt
January 18, 2020[238] Douglasville, Georgia Libertarian Party of Georgia A O A P P O A P P O P O P A P Blevins
Gerhardt
February 16, 2020[223] Culver City, California Libertarian Party of California N O N N P O P P P N N O P N P none
February 22, 2020[239] Orlando, Florida Libertarian Party of Florida A O A P P O P P P P A O P P P none
February 28, 2020[225] Birmingham, Alabama Libertarian Party of Alabama A O A P P O P P P P A O A P P none
March 7, 2020[240] Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Libertarian Party of Pennsylvania O O P A A O P P P A A O P A A none
March 13, 2020[227] East Peoria, Illinois Libertarian Party of Illinois O O P P A O P P P P P O P A A Blevins
Williams
April 17, 2020[228] McAllen, Texas Libertarian Party of Texas O O N I O N I I I I N O I N I none
April 22, 2020[229] Online Libertarian Party of Kentucky O O A A O P P P P A A O A A P none
May 2, 2020[230] Online Libertarian Party of Kentucky O A O A O P P P N P N O P N O none
May 9, 2020[130] Online Libertarian Party of Kentucky O P O N O P P P N N N O P N O none
May 16, 2020[231] Online Libertarian Party of Kentucky
Libertarian Party of Missouri
O A O N O P P P P P N O N N O none
May 18, 2020[232] Online Libertarian Party of Texas O O O P O P P P P P A O P A O none
May 21, 2020[233] Online Libertarian Party National Convention O O O N O P P P N P N O P N O none

Forums

Forums among candidates for the 2020 Libertarian Party U.S. presidential nomination
Date Place Host Participants
 P  Participant.  A  Absent.  O  Out of race (exploring, suspended, or not yet entered) Armstrong Behrman Chafee Hornberger Jorgensen Kokesh Robb Supreme Whitney others
September 23, 2019[241] Dayton, Ohio Libertarian Party of Ohio P A O O O A A P O Faas
January 25, 2020[242] Tucson, Arizona Libertarian Party of Arizona P P A P P P A P P none
February 29, 2020[243] Des Moines, Iowa Libertarian Party of Iowa P P P P P P P A P none

Primary election polling

National polling

Poll source Sample size Date(s) Abramson Armstrong Behrman Blevins Chafee Faas Hornberger Jorgensen Kokesh McAfee Monds Robb Ruff Seder Supreme Vohra Whitney Others
The Torch of Liberty[244] 511 Mar 1–21, 2020 <1% 9% 1% 5% <1% 39% <1% 5% 2% 4% 12% 15% 3% 3%[i]
The Torch of Liberty[245] 567 Jan 31–Feb 24, 2020 1% 5% 17% 2% 4% 1% 31% 1% 5% 1% 13% 8% 10% 1%[j]
The Torch of Liberty[246] 634 Jan 1–25, 2020 3% 1% 14% 2% 1% 26% 3% 6% 1% 7% 9% 17% 10%[k]
The Torch of Liberty[247] 319 Dec 1–26, 2019 4% 1% 18% 8% 22% 2% 8% 1% 7% 20% 3% 1% 7%[l]
The Torch of Liberty[248] 475 Nov 1–25, 2019 6% 1% 23% 2% 5% 2% 11% 1% 7% 21% 9% 12%[m]
The Torch of Liberty[249] 251 Oct 2019 2% 3% 34% 1% 1% 8% 9% 8% 11% 6% 0.5% 17%[n]
Third Party Watch[250] 730 RV Mar 10–14, 2019 33.97% 20.82% 42.74% 2.05% 0.41% N/A

National polling of delegates to the Convention

Both of these polls were conducted using ranked choice voting, progression down the table indicates later rounds of voting as the candidate with the lowest total is eliminated.

Poll source Sample size Date(s) Amash Gray Hornberger Jorgensen Kokesh Monds Supreme Others
OpaVote Released May 19, 2020 350 (V)[o] [p] 17.4% 22.9% 22% 7.7% 9.1% 12.6% 8.3[q][r]
17.4% 22.9% 22% 7.7% 9.1% 12.6% 8.3[s][r]
17.7% 23.1% 22.3% 7.7% 9.1% 12.6% 7.4%[t][r]
17.7% 23.4% 22.3% 7.7% 9.7% 12.9% 6.3%[u][r]
17.7% 24.0% 22.3% 8.6% 10% 13.7% 3.7%[v][r]
19.2% 24.4% 23% 8.8% 10.5% 14.2% [w]
20.4% 25.7% 26% 11.5% 16.3% [x]
22% 27.6% 31.8% 18.7% [y]
26.5% 32.4% 41.1% [z]
39.5% 60.5% [aa]
36.2% 6.1% 17.1% 12.8% 7% 5.5% 9.9% 5.4%[ab][r]
36.2% 6.1% 17.1% 12.8% 7% 5.5% 9.9% 5.4%[ac][r]
36.2% 6.1% 17.4% 12.8% 7% 5.5% 10.1% 4.9%[ad][r]
36.2% 6.4% 18% 13% 7% 5.5% 10.1% 3.7%[ae][r]
36.8% 6.7% 18.1% 13.2% 7% 5.6% 10.2% 2.3%[af][ag]
37.1% 6.7% 18.7% 13.2% 7.6% 5.8% 10.8% [ag]
37.7% 7% 19.9% 15.2% 7.9% 12.3% [ag]
39.4% 20.6% 19.1% 8.2% 12.6% [ah]
41.1% 21.9% 22.2% 14.7% [x]
44.9% 25.6% 29.4% [z]
52.8% 47.2% [ai]

Online straw polls

The following are early unofficial online polls that have included various speculative and potential candidates, including some that are not members of the Libertarian Party.

Poll source Date(s) Amash Campbell Ince Istvan Johnson Kerbel Kokesh McAfee Miron Paul Perry Petersen Ruwart Sanford Supreme Sarwark Schiff Sharpe Ventura Weld Others
The Libertarian Vindicator[251] Jan 2–4, 2018 2% 3% 6% 0% 9% 1% 4% - 8% - 55% - 6% None of the Above 6%
TheJackNews[252] Aug 13–19, 2017 29.1% 2.9% 0.9% 3.9% 1.1% 2.8% 8.2% - - 28.5% - N/A
TheJackNews[253] July 9–15, 2017 6% 6% 10.2% 10.2% - - - 16% - 43% Undecided 8%
A Libertarian Future[254] Mar 2017 8% 4% 2% 3% 26% 1% 18% - 1% - - 25% 3% 8% None of the Above 1%
A Libertarian Future[255] Nov 2016 5% 10% 1% 3% 33% 1% 27% 6% 4% 9% - - None of the Above 1%

Campaign finance

This is an overview of the money used by each campaign as it is reported to the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and released on October 15, 2019. Totals raised include loans from the candidate and transfers from other campaign committees. Some of the Libertarian candidates have not filed with the FEC, and financial data for those candidates are therefore not available.

  Withdrawn candidate
Candidate Total raised Individual contributions Debt Spent COH
Total Unitemized Pct
Jorgensen[256] $32,148 $22,365 $7,615 34.05% $9,874 $30,257 $1,891
Abramson[257] filed statement of candidacy
Armstrong[258][aj] $20,360 $16,608 $4,909 29.56% $1,867 $17,054 $734
Behrman[259] $42,064 $7,767 $1,500 17.23% $18,660 $42,064 $0
Chafee[260] $62,546 $2,496 $1,996 79.97% $0 $50,119 $12,427
Dunham[261] filed statement of candidacy
Gerhardt[262] filed statement of candidacy
Hornberger[263] $65,420 $42,079 $23,140 54.99% $44,770 $3,797 $20,650
Kokesh[264] $218,770 $112,070 $14,929 13.32% $13,742 $218,694 $76
Marks[265] filed statement of candidacy
McAfee did not file
Robb[266] filed statement of candidacy
Ruff[267] [ak] $18,958 $9,812 $2,363 37.5% $6,117 $9,264 $9,695
Supreme[268][al] $32,049 $28,794 $18,535 64.37% $700 $29,407 $2,642
Vohra[269] filed statement of candidacy
Whitney[270] $67,001 $5,600 $575 9.31% $60,726 $2,998 $64,028

See also

National Conventions

Presidential primaries

Notes

  1. ^ The primaries were non-binding. Despite not receiving a plurality of the popular vote and carrying only Nebraska (the New Mexico primary took place after the convention), Jorgensen was able to secure a majority of delegate votes at the convention, and thus the nomination.
  2. ^ Cohen was not personally chosen by Jorgensen, but was nominated separately by party delegates
  3. ^ a b Candidate did not appear on any ballots.
  4. ^ a b c d e This individual is not a Libertarian Party member, but has been the subject of speculation and/or expressed interest in running under this party.
  5. ^ a b c d e Primary/caucus is held internally by the state party and not a state sanctioned election.
  6. ^ In the below table, blank cells indicate the candidate was not a ballot option or approved write-in candidate. Shaded cells indicate withdrawn candidates.
  7. ^ The New Mexico primary was delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and was therefore held after Jo Jorgensen received the Libertarian Party nomination on May 23.[211][212]
  8. ^ Chafee addressed the convention before the debate.
  9. ^ NOTA with 3%
  10. ^ NOTA with 1%
  11. ^ NOTA with 10%
  12. ^ NOTA with 6%; Benjamin Leder with 1%
  13. ^ NOTA with 12%
  14. ^ NOTA/write-in with 14.5%; Jedi Hill with 1%; Keenan Dunham with 0.5%; Ben Leder with 0.5%
  15. ^ Ranked Choice Voting
  16. ^ Without Amash
  17. ^ None of the Above with 3.7%; Vohra with 2.3%; Behrman with 1.4%; Robb with 0.9%; Brian Ellison with no votes
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i No votes exhausted
  19. ^ None of the Above with 3.7%; Vohra with 2.3%; Behrman with 1.4%; Robb with 0.9%
  20. ^ None of the Above with 3.7%; Vohra with 2.3%; Behrman with 1.4%
  21. ^ None of the Above with 3.7%; Vohra with 2.6%
  22. ^ None of the Above with 3.7%
  23. ^ 6 votes exhausted
  24. ^ a b 12 votes exhausted
  25. ^ 13 votes exhausted
  26. ^ a b 29 votes exhausted
  27. ^ 46 votes exhausted
  28. ^ Vohra with 2.3%; None of the Above with 1.4%; Behra and Robb with 0.9%; Brian Ellison with no votes
  29. ^ Vohra with 2.3%; None of the Above with 1.4%; Behra and Robb with 0.9%
  30. ^ Vohra with 2.3%; None of the Above with 1.4%; Robb with 1.2%
  31. ^ Vohra with 2.3%; None of the Above with 1.4%
  32. ^ Vohra with 2.3%
  33. ^ a b c 3 votes exhausted
  34. ^ 5 votes exhausted
  35. ^ 40 votes exhausted
  36. ^ Armstrong's most recent financial report was for the period ending December 31, 2019.
  37. ^ Ruff's most recent financial report was for the period ending September 30, 2019.
  38. ^ Supreme's most recent financial report was for the period ending September 30, 2019.

References

  1. ^ Doherty, Brian (May 9, 2020). "Libertarian Party To Choose Its Presidential Ticket in Virtual Vote Over Memorial Day Weekend". Reason. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Winger, Richard (May 23, 2020). "Jo Jorgensen Wins Libertarian Presidential Nomination on Fourth Vote". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  3. ^ Steinhauser, Paul (May 25, 2020). "Libertarians pick first female presidential nominee". Fox News. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  4. ^ a b c Winger, Richard (May 24, 2020). "Libertarian Party Nominates Spike Cohen for Vice-President". Ballot Access News. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  5. ^ Doherty, Brian; Welch, Matt (February 2017). "Did the Libertarian Party Blow It in 2016?". Reason. Retrieved April 15, 2020.
  6. ^ "Gary Johnson on Running in 2020 & Aleppo". YouTube. October 20, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2017.
  7. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  8. ^ Bring, Daniel M. (September 5, 2019). "The race for the Libertarian nomination". Spectator USA. Retrieved September 17, 2019.
  9. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved December 3, 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Libertarian Nominating Process".
  11. ^ a b Welch, Matt (November 7, 2019). "Candidates Vie to Represent the Libertarian Wing of the Libertarian Party". Reason. Retrieved November 17, 2019.
  12. ^ a b "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  13. ^ "Vermin Supreme". Twitter. December 17, 2019. Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  14. ^ "Adam Kokesh vs Vermin Supreme 2020". Adam Kokesh. May 28, 2018. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  15. ^ "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  16. ^ a b c d e Welch, Matt (April 13, 2020). "Judge Jim Gray To Seek Libertarian Presidential Nomination". Reason. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
  17. ^ "Adam Kokesh, jailed gun rights activist, to run for president". RT. July 19, 2013. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved November 5, 2017.
  18. ^ a b "FEC FORM 2 : STATEMENT OF CANDIDACY" (PDF). Docquery.fec.gov. Retrieved August 5, 2019.
  19. ^ a b Behrman, Dan [@DanForTexas] (May 23, 2020). "I did not make the ballot for the LP POTUS Nomination. I am changing my campaign affiliation to independent and will continue this race until the general election. I endorse @VerminSupreme for the Libertarian nomination as worthy opponents in the general election" (Tweet). Retrieved May 23, 2020 – via Twitter.
  20. ^ Behrman, Dan "Taxation Is Theft". "Dan "Taxation Is Theft" Behrman". behrman2020.com.
  21. ^ a b Robb. "FEC Form2" (PDF).
  22. ^ Frankel, Paul (May 23, 2020). "Jorgensen: Steve Dasbach, Elizabeth Brierly, Sam Robb..." Independent Political Report. Retrieved May 24, 2020.
  23. ^ Clark, Bob (November 8, 2019). "Libertarians to host presidential debate in Olean on Saturday". Olean Times Herald. Retrieved December 1, 2019.
  24. ^ "Faas, Souraya". FEC.gov. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  25. ^ "I endorse @VerminSupreme as the @LPNational nominee,b/c his heart is in the right place & although this whole nomination process has been a circus,Vermin is no joke & is serious about wanting to make difference". May 23, 2020. Retrieved May 23, 2020 – via Twitter.com.
  26. ^ Welch, Matt (May 29, 2019). "Libertarian Presidential Candidates, on a Possible Justin Amash Run: 'That Would Be Amazing'". Reason. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  27. ^ "Souraya Faas". Facebook.
  28. ^ a b "Gerhardt, Erik Chase". FEC.gov. Retrieved January 14, 2020.
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External links

Official campaign websites
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