To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

2019 Ambon earthquake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2019 Ambon earthquake
2019-09-25 Kairatu, Indonesia M6.5 earthquake shakemap (USGS).jpg
2019 Ambon earthquake is located in Indonesia
Singapore
Singapore
Makassar
Makassar
Jakarta
Jakarta
2019 Ambon earthquake
UTC time2019-09-25 23:46:44
ISC event616504279
USGS-ANSSComCat
Local date2019-09-26
Local time07:46:44 WIT
MagnitudeMw  6.5
Depth18.2 km (11 mi)
Epicenter3°27′00″S 128°20′49″E / 3.450°S 128.347°E / -3.450; 128.347
FaultKawa Strike-slip fault
TypeStrike-slip fault
Areas affectedMaluku, Indonesia
Max. intensityVII (very strong)
LandslidesYes
Aftershocks±1,105 (as of 6 October)
Casualties41 dead, 1,578 injured

On 26 September 2019, a strong magnitude 6.5 earthquake struck Seram Island in Maluku, Indonesia, near the provincial capital of Ambon. The earthquake struck at 07:46:44 Eastern Indonesia Time (23:46:44 on 25 September UTC) with a shallow depth of 18 km. The tremor could be felt throughout the island, with an intensity of very strong (VII) reportedly felt in the provincial capital of Ambon.

In the aftermath of the quake, severe damages were reported throughout the island. More than 6,000 structures were damaged or destroyed throughout Maluku. A total of 41 people were killed by the quake and another 1,578 people were injured. More than 150,000 people evacuated and set makeshift camps due to aftershocks and fear of building collapse. As of 6 October, more than a week after the earthquake, approximately 1,105 aftershocks had been recorded by local geological stations in Maluku.

Earthquake

According to the Indonesian Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysical Agency (BMKG), the earthquake's epicenter was located inland of Seram Island, some 42 kilometres (26 mi) northeast of the city of Ambon, the capital of Maluku and 10 km from the town of Kairatu.[1] BMKG reported a magnitude of Mw  6.8,[1] while the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported a Mw  6.5 earthquake.[2] It struck at 23:46:44 UTC, with a depth of 18.2 kilometres (11.3 mi) according to the USGS.[2] BMKG later revised the magnitude of the earthquake to Mw  6.5.[3] The agency reported that the earthquake was caused by a strike slip fault mechanism.[1]

Indonesian National Earthquake Centre reported that the fault that was responsible for the quake hadn't been previously mapped by scientists. They stated that the fault had "shifted" due to deformation on the fault. The fault, however, was not considered as a new fault.[4] The Indonesian Institute of Sciences stated that energy released by the earthquake was equivalent to that released in the 1945 nuclear bombing of Hiroshima.[5]

Strong shaking were felt in the provincial capital of Ambon and in several other regencies in Maluku. Following the earthquake, roads were jammed with vehicles as mass panic occurred throughout Ambon. Panicked residents of Ambon had attempted to rush to higher ground due to tsunami fears,[6] though BMKG stated that there was no risk of a tsunami.[7] Several people were injured in the chaos and a woman was reportedly killed after she fell from her motorcycle during the evacuation. Road accidents reportedly occurred due to the mass panic.[8] A man was apprehended by police for yelling "tsunami" out loud in the midst of a crowd of evacuees.[9]

The Indonesian BMKG disclosed the information of the intensity of the earthquake felt by the resident in Maluku, with an intensity of V (moderate) in the provincial capital of Ambon and II (weak) in Banda Islands.[10] The USGS, however, reported that the intensity of the earthquake was VII (very strong) in Ambon and its surrounding area.[2]

Aftershocks

By morning of 27 September, BMKG reported that they have detected 239 aftershocks.[11] On 6 October, the agency reported that more than 1,000 aftershocks had been recorded, of which the strongest was a magnitude 5.6, which struck Ambon at a depth of 10 km, less than an hour after the mainshock.[12]

On 11 October, a 5.2 magnitude earthquake struck Ambon at a depth of 10 km. The quake struck with a strike-slip mechanism, with its epicenter located offshore, approximately 16 km east of the city. The powerful quake managed to damage several buildings in Ambon. Several buildings including a music shop and an ICU suffered significant damages and a high school reportedly collapsed, killing a student. A government-owned office building also reportedly collapsed due to the aftershock. A total of 8 people were injured in the aftershock. Due to the powerful aftershock, shops were closed and dozens of people evacuated.[13][14]

Damage

A damaged hallway in Pattimura University, Ambon
A damaged hallway in Pattimura University, Ambon

In the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, significant damages were reported in the provincial capital Ambon. Ambon's iconic Merah Putih Bridge, then the longest bridge in Eastern Indonesia, suffered cracks on its expansion joint.[15] Buildings in Pattimura University, Ambon's oldest university, suffered cracks on the walls and caved ceilings.[16] State Islamic University of Ambon reported cracks and wall collapse. The university's auditorium and library were also damaged in the quake. A lecturer and a student were injured and taken to the hospital, while another lecturer and another student were reportedly killed due to fallen debris.[17][18][19] A major fire was also reported in a neighborhood in Ambon.[20] Malls and public institutions reported slight damages.[21] Places of worship such as churches and mosques also reportedly suffered slight damages[22]

In Tulehu, a floating market collapsed onto the sea due to the shaking.[23] Patients in Tulehu Hospital were evacuated to Darussalam University due to the damages in the hospital.[24] In Central Maluku Regency, the main hospital, dr. H. Ishak Umarella Regional Hospital, suffered significant damages. Fearing that the hospital might collapse, emergency tents were set up outside of the hospital, with patients treated outside.[25] Hundreds of houses were severely damaged in Central Maluku Regency. At least 4 villages reported moderate to heavy damages to many homes and structures in the villages.[26]

Soil liquefaction was reported in a village in Ambon, with mud and "coral" spewing out from the ground.[27] There were also reports on multiple sand boil in the village.[28] Rockfalls and landslides were also reported in the region. At least one person was killed after a landslide struck an elementary school in Ambon. Another 8 people were killed after a mine collapse onto miners in Ambon.[29][30]

Ambon's local disaster mitigation agency reported 25,000 people in temporary shelters following the earthquake, with 224 houses reported damaged.[31] On 3 October, the figure rose to 6,000 damaged houses, of which nearly 2,000 were severely damaged or destroyed. Further examination revealed that more than 6,700 structures across the region were damaged or destroyed in the quake.[32] Preliminary report showed that a total of 21 schools were damaged in Ambon.[33] As of 9 October, at least 172 schools and campus were damaged, most of which reportedly suffered moderate damage.[34]

Casualties

By the evening of 27 September, local time, 23 fatalities had been confirmed from the earthquake, primarily due to falling rubble from damaged buildings.[1][35] Over a hundred people were reportedly wounded.[36] A majority of the casualties occurred in the Central Maluku Regency, where 14 deaths were reported.[37]

On 29 September 2019, seven other people were found dead or had succumbed to their injuries, bringing the death toll to 30.[38] Four more deaths were announced on September 30.[39] The death toll rose to 36 on October 2 and 38 on October 4.[40] On October 8, at least 39 people were declared dead, with 1,578 reported injuries.[41] 41 deaths were finally reported on October 18.[42]

Response

President of Indonesia Joko Widodo expressed his condolences for the earthquake, and stated that affected victims would have their medical fees covered by the government.[43] At least 2,000 emergency packages were sent to Maluku.[44] The Indonesian National Board for Disaster Management released Rp 1 billion (c. USD 70,000) in immediate funding and Rp 515 million in logistical support.[45] The Ministry of Social Affairs released a further Rp 1.1 billion in funds,[46] later announced that those who had relatives killed by the quake would be compensated with a total of Rp15 million rupiah.[47] The Indonesian Ministry of Public Works and Public Housing provided sanitation and gallons of drinkable water to Maluku.[48] The Ministry announced that "habitable houses" will be built in Maluku to those who had lost their homes in the quake. Approximately 3,000 houses will be built across 11 cities and regencies in Maluku.[49]

Immediately after the disaster, the provincial government of Maluku declared a state of emergency for 14 days. It later made a plea to Jakarta to help with the rehabilitation process.[50] Four days after the earthquake, Ambon local government declared a disaster declaration for 2 weeks.[51] On 9 October, due to the increasing number of evacuee, the provincial government of Maluku extended the state of emergency to an unspecified time amount.[52][53] The local government of Ambon, however, stated that they would not extend the state of emergency , effectively ending the state of emergency period in Ambon on 9 October.[54]

Due to the "unusual" number and "aggressiveness" of earthquakes and aftershocks in the region, the Indonesian National Disaster Mitigation Agency announced that it would conduct a joint study with experts from Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB) on the seismic zone and the fault mechanism in the area.[55] Consequently, a total of 11 seismographs were installed in the region.[56] The study later proposed an earthquake-proof structural design for educational institutions in Indonesia.[57] The agency also announced that a total of Rp 2 billion rupiah of emergency funds would be provided to ease the relief efforts in Maluku.[58] It also provided economic relief programs to the evacuees.[59][60]

The Indonesian National Police sent logistics and essential supplies to the evacuees.[61] The Regional Police of Maluku provided trauma healing and counseling to treat PTSD, with check-ups routinely held every day.[62]

Multiple political parties, community organisations and universities also sent aids to Maluku.[63] Perempuan Bangsa (Nation's Women), which is under the affiliation of Indonesian National Awakening Party, assisted with emotional counseling for the affected.[64] National Democrat Party (Nasdem) sent a team of medical health professionals to Maluku.[65] Government-owned health insurance company BPJS and major aid organisation Rumah Zakat sent hundreds of logistics to Maluku.[66] Meanwhile, University of Indonesia sent the local government of Ambon an Earthquake Warning Alert System (EWAS). Fundraisers were also set up by youth organisations in the country.[67][68]

Moluccan community in Waalwijk, Netherlands made a plea to the local government to send aid to Ambon. The majority of the council members overwhelmingly accepted the motion. Ex-senator from Netherlands' GroenLinks Party Samuel Richard Pormes stated that he hoped for the willingness of the Indonesian National Disaster Mitigation Agency to cooperate for the aids distribution.[69][70]

There were many complaints from evacuees that they had not received aids, donations and logistics from the government. Maluku's government admitted that relief effort and aids delivery were hampered due to the inaccessibility of some villages in the region. They later added that there was a shortage of blankets, tarps and tents in some evacuation centres.[71]

On 29 October, 9 days after his second inauguration, Indonesian President Joko Widodo visited several evacuation centres in Maluku to check with the evacuees.[72] He stated that the government would send more aids and emergency funds and that houses that had been either damaged or destroyed would be rebuilt or repaired. A total compensation of Rp50 million would be handed to those who had their houses heavily damaged by the quake, while a total of Rp25 million and Rp10 million would be handed to those with moderate and slight damages, respectively.[73] He later promised that the aid funds would be available for the evacuees in 6 months.[74]

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Gempa Ambon: Magnitudo 6,8 dengan korban setidaknya 20 orang meninggal meninggal dunia". BBC (in Indonesian). 26 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "M 6.5 - 10km S of Kairatu, Indonesia". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  3. ^ Yuliawati, Lis. "BMKG Perbarui Gempa Ambon, Jadi Magnitudo 6,5". Viva News. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  4. ^ "Ahli: Bidang Patahan Sumber Gempa Ambon Belum Terpetakan". Republika. 30 September 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  5. ^ "Peneliti Sebut Gempa Ambon Setara Bom Hiroshima saat Perang Dunia II". Liputan 6. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  6. ^ "Death toll rises in Indonesia earthquake". Deutsche Welle. 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  7. ^ "Gempa Magnitudo 6,8 di Ambon Tak Berpotensi Tsunami". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). 26 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  8. ^ "Gempa Ambon Timbulkan Korban, Dua Warga Tewas dan Sejumlah Bangunan Rusak". Harian Haluan. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  9. ^ "Polisi Amankan Seorang Pria yang Teriak Tsunami Saat Gempa Ambon". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). 26 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  10. ^ "Gempabumi Tektonik M 6,8 Mengguncang Kota Ambon, Tidak Berpotensi Tsunami". BMKG. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  11. ^ Santoso, Bangun (27 September 2019). "BMKG Mencatat Ada 239 Kali Gempa Susulan di Ambon". Suara (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  12. ^ "Gempa Susulan Magnitudo 5,6 Guncang Ambon". Kompas. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  13. ^ "Gempa Lagi di Ambon, 1 Meninggal Dunia dan 8 Luka-luka" (in Indonesian). Kompas. 11 October 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  14. ^ Primastika, Widia (11 October 2019). "Gempa Ambon Kamis, 10 Oktober: 1 tewas dan 2 luka-luka". Tirto. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  15. ^ Anwar, Muhammad Chairul (26 September 2019). "Viral! Jembatan Merah Putih Retak Efek Gempa, Masih Aman?". CNBC Indonesia. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  16. ^ "Dampak Gempa M 6,8 di Ambon, Jembatan Retak-Kampus Rusak Ringan". Detik. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  17. ^ "Gempa Ambon: 1 Dosen IAIN Ambon Meninggal". Tirto. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  18. ^ "Gempa Ambon Telan Korban Jiwa, Dua Warga Meninggal Dunia Tertimbun Reruntuhan Bangunan di IAIN Ambon". Tribun News. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  19. ^ Karim, Abdul. "Gempa Magnitudo 6,8 Guncang Ambon, Sejumlah Bangunan Rusak". Liputan 6. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  20. ^ "Diduga Bensin Jatuh Akibat Gempa, 3 Rumah di Ambon Terbakar". Liputan 6. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  21. ^ "Gempa M 6,5 Ambon, Jembatan hingga Kantor Pemerintah Rusak". Detik. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  22. ^ Banjarnahor, Donald. "3 Tewas & 3 Luka-Luka Akibat Gempa Ambon Berkekuatan M 6,8". CNBC Indonesia. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  23. ^ "Pasar Apung Desa Tulehu Roboh Imbas Gempa di Ambon". Detik. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  24. ^ "Gempa Ambon: Lebih 100.000 orang masih mengungsi, 'Katong masih trauma, belum bisa pulang'". BBC Indonesia. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  25. ^ Harsono, Fitri Haryanti. "Dinding Rumah Sakit Retak Akibat Gempa Ambon, Pasien Dirawat di Tenda". Liputan 6. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  26. ^ "Gempa Ambon, Puluhan Rumah Warga di Pulau Seram Rusak Berat". Kompas. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  27. ^ "Likuifaksi Akibat Gempa di Pulau Ambon". Kompas. 30 September 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  28. ^ "Lubang Sebesar Sumur Muncul di Perkampungan dan Pantai Usai Gempa, Ini Penjelasan BMKG". Kompas. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  29. ^ "Satu meninggal tertimbun longsor akibat gempa di Ambon". Antara News Agency. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  30. ^ "Evakuasi Korban Tewas Gempa Ambon". Detik. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  31. ^ "Pasca-gempa Ambon, 25.000 Warga Mengungsi di 51 Lokasi, Ratusan Rumah Rusak". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  32. ^ "Enam Ribu Lebih Rumah Rusak Akibat Gempa Maluku". Viva. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  33. ^ "21 Bangunan Sekolah Rusak Akibat Gempa 6,5 M di Ambon". Kumparan. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  34. ^ "172 Bangunan Sekolah dan Kampus di Maluku Rusak akibat Gempa". Kompas. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  35. ^ "Bayi 8 Bulan Korban Gempa Ambon Meninggal Dunia". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  36. ^ Ramadhani, Erha Aprili (27 September 2019). "BNPB Ralat Jumlah Korban Meninggal Akibat Gempa Ambon Jadi 19 Orang". Okezone (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  37. ^ Banjarnahor, Donald (27 September 2019). "Korban Tewas Gempa Maluku M 6,5 Capai 23 Orang". CNBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  38. ^ "Indonesia quake death toll rises to 30 – gov't". Archived from the original on 2019-09-29. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  39. ^ developer, medcom id (2019-09-30). "Korban Tewas Gempa Ambon Capai 34 Orang". medcom.id (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 2019-09-30. Retrieved 2019-09-30.
  40. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Korban Jiwa Gempa Maluku Bertambah Jadi 38 Orang Halaman all". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-10-04.
  41. ^ "Update Gempa Ambon: 39 Orang Tewas dan 1.578 Warga Luka-luka". suara.com (in Indonesian). 2019-10-08. Retrieved 2019-10-08.
  42. ^ Mawardi, Isal. "BNPB: 41 Tewas dan 103 Ribu Orang Masih Mengungsi Akibat Gempa Ambon". detiknews. Retrieved 2019-10-20.
  43. ^ "Jokowi Pastikan Biaya Perawatan Korban Gempa Ambon Gratis!". detiknews (in Indonesian). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  44. ^ "Presiden Jokowi kirim bantuan ke Ambon dan Wamena". Kontan. 2 October 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  45. ^ "BNPB Salurkan Bantuan Rp 1 Miliar untuk Penanganan Pascagempa Ambon". Jawa Pos (in Indonesian). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  46. ^ "Kemensos salurkan bantuan Rp 1,1 miliar untuk korban gempa Ambon". Kontan (in Indonesian). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  47. ^ "Ahli Waris Korban Tewas Gempa Ambon Dapat Santunan Rp 15 Juta". Kompas. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  48. ^ "Kementerian PUPR salurkan bantuan air bersih bagi pengungsi gempa Ambon". Kontan. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  49. ^ "Kementerian PUPR salurkan bantuan rumah layak huni bagi korban gempa Ambon". Kontan. 12 October 2019. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  50. ^ "Pemprov Maluku Minta Dukungan Tahap Rehabilitasi Pasca Gempa". Gatra. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  51. ^ "Wali Kota Ambon Tetapkan Masa Tanggap Darurat Bencana Gempa Selama 14 Hari". Kompas. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  52. ^ Santoso, Bangun. "Pemprov Maluku Perpanjang Masa Tanggap Darurat Gempa". Suara. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  53. ^ "Pemprov Maluku Perpanjang Masa Tanggap Darurat Bencana Gempa". Kompas. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  54. ^ "Tanggap darurat bencana Ambon tidak diperpanjang". Antara. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  55. ^ "BNPB Gandeng Ahli Ungkap Rahasia di Balik Agresifnya Gempa Maluku". Liputan 6. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  56. ^ "Gempa Susulan di Ambon Berlanjut, Pemerintah Pasang 11 Seismograf". Tempo. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  57. ^ "BNPB dan ITB Rancang Kampus Tahan Bencana" (in Indonesian). Tempo. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  58. ^ "BNPB Salurkan Bantuan Rp 2 Miliar untuk Korban Gempa Maluku". Kompas. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  59. ^ "BNPB berikan "Emas Biru" dan "Emas Hijau" ke korban gempa Ambon". Antara. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  60. ^ "Bantu Korban Gempa Ambon, BNPB Bikin Program Emas Biru dan Emas Hijau". Kompas. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  61. ^ "Polri Kunjungi dan Serahkan Bantuan untuk Korban Gempa Ambon, Jokowi Dikabarkan Segera Berkunjung". Tribun News. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  62. ^ "Polda Maluku Rutin Berikan Bantuan dan Trauma Healing untuk Pengungsi Gempa Ambon Setiap Hari". Tribun News. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  63. ^ "Peduli Korban Gempa di Ambon, Puluhan Komunitas di Bangkalan Bergerak Kumpulkan Bantuan". Tribun News. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  64. ^ "Perempuan Bangsa Bantu Korban Gempa Ambon dan Lakukan Trauma Healing". Berita Satu. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  65. ^ "NasDem Kirim Bantuan Gempa Ambon". MedCom. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  66. ^ "Rumah Zakat dan BPJS Salurkan Logistik ke Korban Gempa Ambon". Republika. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  67. ^ "Ambon Terima Alat Deteksi Gempa dari Universitas Indonesia". Teras Maluku. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  68. ^ "KNPI Galang Bantuan untuk Gempa Ambon". Berita Satu. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  69. ^ "Mantan Senator Belanda Harap BNPB Pintu Masuk Bantuan ke Maluku". Gatra. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  70. ^ "Waalwijk steunt acties voor zwaar getroffen Ambon: 'Er is een bijzondere band met de Molukken'" (in Dutch). BD. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  71. ^ "Pemprov Maluku Akui Penyaluran Bantuan untuk Korban Gempa Terkendala". Kompas. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
  72. ^ "Pengungsi Gempa Ambon Keluhkan Tenda Sobek ke Jokowi". CNN Indonesia. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  73. ^ Kautsar, Maulana. "Jokowi Kunjungi Korban Gempa Ambon: Rumah Rusak Berat Dibantu Rp50 Juta" (in Indonesian). Dream. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
  74. ^ Lubabah, Raynaldo Ghiffari. "Jokowi Sebut Dana Bantuan Korban Gempa Ambon Cair dalam 6 Bulan Usai Bencana". Merdeka. Retrieved 7 November 2019.

External links

The International Seismological Centre has a bibliography and/or authoritative data for this event.

This page was last edited on 7 October 2020, at 12:22
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.