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2006 California Proposition 87

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

California Proposition 87 was a proposition on the ballot for California voters for the November 7, 2006 general election, officially titled Alternative Energy. Research, Production, Incentives. Tax on California Oil Producers. It was rejected by the voters, 54.7% opposed to 45.3% in favor. This was highest-funded campaign on any state ballot and surpassing every campaign in the country in spending except the presidential contest.[1]

The proposition would have established a "$4 billion program with goal to reduce petroleum consumption by 25%, with research and production incentives for alternative energy, alternative energy vehicles, energy efficient technologies, and for education and training", funded by a "tax of 1.5% to 6% (depending on oil price per barrel) on producers of oil extracted in California."[2]

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  • ✪ Hip Hop/Hip Hope: The (R)Evolution of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy with Gloria Ladson-Billings
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  • ✪ Ames Moot Court Competition 1976
  • ✪ Ames Moot Court Competition 1991

Transcription

Good evening oh it got dark I'm clay pros I have the privilege of being the president of this college and this is just one of the great evenings of the year this lecture in particular and evenings like it where we hear from distinguished members of the larger community about issues of the day and tonight it's the 20th Brody family lecture and for two decades those of you that are following along can see that I can do the math there because of the great generosity of the Brody family our education department has had the pleasure of having a speaker of great distinction in the field of education come to our campus the Brody family fund was established by the late Ted Brody class of 1952 Ted served as an overseer of the college from 1983 to 1995 and he saw a great value in shedding light on the challenges and practices of teaching and learning and so provided the resources and the vision for this lectureship lectureship series and what we will experience here tonight Ted passed away in September of 2010 and we also honor him tonight for his vision and his grape generosity he was also the first in a long line of Bowden alumni tonight three of his children are here with us I can't see very well at their Glen there we are down in the front row class of 76 Beth class of 84 and Karen's 79 miss Karen there and Karen's daughter Emily class of 2009 there as well Ted's granddaughter and Ted's son Mark who was class of 87 could not be with us tonight although he is with us here in spirit but we are deeply grateful for your long-standing commitment for the travels you all need to be here and for everything that you have done for our College so thank you Brody family at least it was a Brodie that did this year's lecture will be delivered by professor Gloria ladson-billings and in a moment my colleague Dora Santoro will introduce professor Lansing Billings but she'll talk a bit tonight about how we can consider better ensuring that students at every level in our educational system from pre-k through graduate studies can experience more success in schools and it's worth pointing out that this is work that our College in our own way with our mission has been embracing for a very long time and continues to focus focus on in a very intense way we seek to bring the most amazing students to voting from every background and experience out there and to give them the opportunity to learn and to grow and to as president Hyde said and the offer of the college to be leaders in all walks of life we are only one of 18 colleges or universities in this country that is a need-blind admission and no loan in our financial aid program and we work to meet the demonstrated need of every family we have for a long time had programs on this campus like our base advising group which helps our amazing students who come from more challenged high school backgrounds to get up the curve here quickly and experience everything Bowdoin has to offer and this year we organized the thrive program and have our first cohort of Geoffrey Canada Scholars on campus and so the next chapter for Bowdoin in this journey and in this work has begun here and it is very fitting therefore to have with us tonight professor then student Billings and to have her talk to us about this work in this challenge and so with that I invite Doris Santoro associate professor of education and chair of the Department of Education to introduce her Thank You president Rose I'm delighted that so many members of the Brody family were able to join us for this 20 20th annual Brody family lecture and Thank You Dean McCormick for your ongoing support of the education department its students and its programming and thank you to all of the Bowden staff including dining housekeeping facilities and IT who make events like this a success and before we get begin I'd like to take a moment to acknowledge that we gathered this evening on the land of the Wabanaki so I'm thrilled to welcome dr. Gloria ladson-billings to Bowdoin College although she and I first met in person about two and a half hours ago it would not be an exaggeration to say that no other single person has had as much of an influence on my teaching practice as she I was introduced to dr. ladson-billings work while I was an undergraduate pursuing my teaching credential as our Bowdoin teacher scholars do today her scholarship electrified me it showed me that as a white teacher I could learn to better recognize excellence in my black and brown students challenged them academically and enabled them to do all of this without making the devil's bargain of selling out or losing themselves her work also taught me that this feat was empty if it I did not simultaneously help my black and brown students develop to develop the skills to critically examine the socio-political conditions that made this endeavor so difficult so today I share what I've learned from dr. ladson-billings in my career as a researcher and as a teacher educator so thank you for that dr. Gloria ladson-billings is professor emeritus and former Nellore distinguished professor in urban education in the department of curriculum and instruction and was faculty affiliate in the department's of educational policy studies educational leadership and policy analysis and afro-american studies at the University of Wisconsin at Madison she is the president of the National Academy of raishin and she was the 2005 to 2006 president of the American educational research Association dr. ladson-billings is the author of the critically acclaimed books the dream keepers successful teachers of african-american children crossing to Canaan the journey of new teachers and diverse classrooms and beyond the big house african-american educators on teacher education she is editor of six other books and author of more than 100 journal articles and book chapters she's the former editor of the American educational research journal and a member of several editorial boards her work has won numerous scholarly awards including the 2015 social justice and education award given by the American educational research Association tonight dr. ladson-billings talk will reveal her ability to revise her own work in order to reveal its relevance for today twenty three years ago dr. ladson-billings concluded her landmark essay that was titled toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy with a question often posed to her isn't what you described as good teaching her response why does it so little of it seem to occur in classrooms populated by African American students this question unfortunately still is currency today let us listen and learn dr. ladson-billings Thank You Doris for that really lovely introduction I want to thank you president Rosen to the Dean and special thank you to the Brody family for your generosity and your commitment to education and thank you to the Bowden community this is my first visit to Bowden so one other thing to check off my bucket list huh so I want to talk to you about really youth culture and its influence on teaching and learning but before I do that I have to do a little bit of housekeeping I have to brag on these people so that's my oldest granddaughter who was a early round draft for the Atlanta Dream at the deputy guarding forward for she was starting forward for the UCLA Bruins got them to the Elite Eight in her senior year broke their rebound record yet 25 rebounds in a game it's amazing and it's currently spending her second week in da King China because she just signed with a Chinese team for her offseason so now she's actually gonna earn some money okay cuz this WNBA thing doesn't pay anything hearing and this is my new college freshman Marlena who is on scholarship at San Francisco State and volleyball and this is her younger sister mark kayla who just won the 2018 15 16 year old girls hammered throw for the United States track and field so they always ask you gave a talk did you put my picture up right so I actually have two more and I that's their goal is to get on the wall so then they're not there yet so so I've done that if you run into any of these people so yeah you grab my foot you pitch up there right so so I don't get in trouble but for almost 30 years I've been focused on helping teachers learn from the pedagogical expertise of those teachers who have been successful with african-american students I coined the term culturally relevant pedagogy and I coined this term to describe the work of those teachers no more recently I've actually come to see how the culture that invigorates and enlivens today's students hip-hop is a primary driver you're helping maintain culturally relevant pedagogy viability and its usefulness so in tonight's lecture I want to describe how hip-hop provides what I would call a hope for engaging students in a culturally relevant way to ensure their academic their cultural and their social Civic success so you know the vision of Education in the u.s. is a primary vehicle for economic success the time that our kids go to school they receive a message about going to school to get a good job in fact one of the things that I used to do every fall is that I would go to different school bus stops to watch kids begin the school year and I always look for the kindergartners they think you can easy to spot they're the eager ones they're so happy to be going they have a big backpack that's bigger than they are and they have the little power ranger you know Superman Batman lunchbox and I would say don't were you going sweetheart I'm going to school oh really why are you going to school so I could get a good job okay what's the job I don't know so part of it is this is this mantra we keep saying this to kids and well the overall economic indicators do substantiate the notion of high school graduates earn more than high school dropouts college graduates earn more than high school graduates the idea that there is a direct connection between schooling and good jobs it's not guaranteed I'm saying this is someone who had a kid who did all the right things he graduated from high school a good high school he went to college he graduated but he was in that tech sector at the moment that the tech industry tanked he could not get a good job originally it wasn't his fault and it wasn't school's fault so we got it really helped kids understand that the vicissitudes of the economy is changing job landscape offered no guarantee that a diploma or degree will result in a job now I'm your parents would be mortified to hear that statement they're counting on your getting a good job but I want to make this point to underscore that we have to help our students understand that the reason that they should seek an education is larger than it it's linked to your own empowerment and your own liberation so more than 27 years ago I began investigating teachers who were successful with those students who we often think of as miserable failures in our current schools I came to calmness call this work culturally relevant pedagogy so you either know it through that text or if you were so inclined you read the academic piece and that notion of cultural relevant pedagogy serves as a theoretical construct for explaining the kind of education that is more likely to ensure the success of most students particularly those students who traditionally have been underserved in our schools now I want to remind you this is a term I came up with it there are no teachers walking around with t-shirts that say culturally relevant pedagogy okay well actually there are cuz I want to talk conference and they were selling them and I was really I was mortified it's a term I came up with so I could talk to you it's a term I came up with so I could talk to my colleagues but it's not how the teachers think of themselves they call themselves teachers and I often shocked to know that other people don't do what they do so culturally relevant pedagogy involves three propositions and hopefully that is an equilateral triangle if it's not blame it on Microsoft Word okay not me and I wanted to be an equilateral triangle because I want you to really understand that all three of these propositions are equal that if you don't have one you're not doing what I would define is culturally relevant pedagogy and they include supporting student learning or what you might call academic achievement cultural competence and encouraging socio-political consciousness so I want to briefly discuss what I mean by each of these and how they apply not only to k-12 students but also to post-secondary students and to those that we want to cultivate as teachers who can implement culture relevant teaching in the classroom so the first proposition appears so obvious that it might seem unnecessary to talk about it however I want to make the point that much of what happens in classrooms and especially college and university classrooms has little to do with what students learn instead the focus is on what teachers cover many of my university colleagues are proud that a certain number of their students do not pass their courses they associate high failure rate with increased rigor now this is an interesting proposition to me or way of thinking to me because I once agreed to be department chair it was consonant that's called the short straw job you know you don't really make any more money everybody's supposed to take a turn cuz we're just deeply democratic and every year I had a reason for why I couldn't do it you know came to me one y'all know I'm president of a re I can't do this man no no I'm the editor of the Americanize I always had a reason and in 2008 I was on sabbatical and in a weak moment they called to let me know I haven't unanimously elected department chair I have a slinks sneaking suspicion that I've ran unopposed and it was 2008 and I said you know y'all are letting this Obama thing go to your head you know you ain't got vote for a black person you say you know but one of the things that happened to me during my term as department chair was I was asked to do a interview with a local reporter because my department had the highest grade point average at the university well I was really proud okay sure I thought it was a good thing it turned out it was allegedly a bad thing because there was some notion that if you have this high grade point average you must not have a very rigorous program and I said well I don't think I agree with your reasoning here number one you have all the data how many freshmen do I have in my department I already knew the answer of course zero how many sophomores do I have well I thought that number was zero but he turned out it was four so I don't know how they got in but cuz we really didn't take students until their junior year they have successfully completed all their general requirements and we had another admissions process so we're skimming from an institution that sees itself as the premier institution in the state so we already took the best students in the state and then we skim from so yeah my students are really good so his response was well the math department has the lowest grade point average in the university I said but have some people don't want to be there the University requires that they complete a quant a quant be sequence as a part of their general they don't don't never go back to the math department my folks are choosing to come and yes they're doing well but that notion that high failure rate means rigor is kind of prevalent what happens is people who think like that see their course as sibs that allow only a small percentage of the students to get through but a costly relevant approach C's student learning as the goal for every student so rather than creating a sieve costly relevant teachers create a net a net that is designed to catch all the students the goal is not coverage it is mastery so one of the tasks that I included in a course that I offer entitled cultural relevant pedagogy is to have students go observe teaching in someplace other than the School of Education I give my school of Ed colleagues a pass I know they don't want students coming back talk about how bad they are so you can't go to the School of Education but they're encouraged to go to some of the other professional schools they can go to the law school or the business school or the Med Medical School they can go to other parts of the university like the College of Letters and Sciences or the College of Agriculture and life sciences but I even encouraged them to look at teaching in non-traditional settings this is a swim class or tai chi yoga athletic coaching and some years ago one of my students did her observation of teaching in the medical schools cadaver lab and what she described was an excellent example of a teacher who was focused on mastery not coverage the lab was comprised of students in groups of eight and two of the eight students had been in the lab earlier and completed it and it was they she went to observe it was on the renal system so these two students had come to day before and done the lab their task was to teach the renal system to the other six students in their group the medical professor and a mortician were also in the lab observing and walking around from group to group the two student teachers were detailed and meticulous about their teaching they were quizzing the students in their group throughout and checking to make sure every student fully understood the renal system so my students description was oh my gosh you should have seen these students who were teaching they were like do you get it do you understand say it back I'm not sure you understand let's go back through this and she said she finally realized that the reason that the students were so careful with their group members was that the medical professor would eventually choose two of those six students to take the lab exam for the entire group and the grade that those two students received would be averaged and given to everybody the Medical School is looking for maximum competence from its soon-to-be doctors not coverage from its professors you know if I have kidney failure I don't want to see student okay I want somebody that really got it right so what might it mean for us to develop teachers who determined or and demanded this kind of high level performance from all of their students the second component of culturally relevant pedagogy is perhaps the most misunderstood when I use this term I am referring to one's ability to be firmly grounded in his or her own culture of origin and fluent in at least one other culture now for most students of color this generally means that they develop a deep understanding an appreciation of their own heritage history language and customs while also accessing the mainstream culture white middle-class students are not exempt from developing cultural competence now this one is a particularly interesting component to me because I have four kids three boys and one girl there is a huge age band between my youngest son and my daughter that's why my hair is this color you know she's often said to me oh you should dye your hair I'm like sweetheart this is not my hair this is your hair I didn't have this hair before I met you and you know if you have more than one child you know they all have their own personalities I have a musician I have an athlete and I have this youngest son who is the most sociable kid you ever want to meet so all of these report cards from kindergarten through grade 12 say the same thing about him being too social now this is a hard concept for me because I was training anthropology and I don't understand how human beings can be to social to me that I was like saying oh that ant is really social you know he needs to figure out a way to just build that colony by himself I mean it's what they do um so I always got these report cards about my to social kid and so one of these times he's any about the 11th grade and I once again I get this and the counselor wants to speak to me and it just so happened that the counselor asked to speak to me around the time that the high school newspaper had come out and they had created what's called in the high school paper what's called a click map now every high school has something like this might not be called that and I know this cuz I actually when I teach freshmen I make them draw their click maps from the high school that they attended where is the common space in your school and where which groups sit where so it could be a cafeteria it could be some multi-purpose but there's some place where this group is over here and this group is over there and so they've done it with a grid and a legend and also you could see so I took it with me to the meeting with the counselor and so of course I sat there for the 12 year in a row kindergarten through 11th grade listening to my - so okay and he needs to focus and buckle down and I said you know I couldn't help but notice that you guys published the click map we're on the map does Kevin belong so she looked at it and she said oh well I've seen him with the jocks I said well he's on the football team well I've seen him with the tech geeks well he really does love technology I've seen him with the theater crowd he's a very dramatic kid and we go group by group she he my kid doesn't miss a group I mean she says oh you may not want to hear this but I've seen him with the stoners on the moon that would be my kid right so here is a kid who has connected with every single group that's outlined on this map and it's considered a bad thing now let's fast-forward he gets through college the markets the tech markets recover he gets a job that he really likes in Silicon Valley and his job his communication between upper management and the people in those kylix suits in the clean rooms cuz he knows how to talk to everybody he also has a client load that involves that includes Japan Taiwan China Korea Germany and France and I remember saying to him Kevin you know how are you doing this I know that you really didn't know one of those languages you ever study really was German but you know and you know do speak it that well how are you pulling this off he said well mom when I go to Germany Hans and Franz are not playing they are like air Kevin we've got to get this work done today right now you say but when I roll over to France Jacques is like Oh keV are on you work too hard but too hard let us have another glass of wine we do this later he said if I go in with the attitude it has to get done the way I want it done on the timeframe that I want it done I may lose a customer a client I lose a client we lose money if we lose money I lose my job so I said so what but you know what's the skill that you use he said I've learned to listen to people the very thing that school from kindergarten through 12th grade said was his shortcoming is really his strong suit and I think a lot of times we've been so focused on people getting these sort of technical skills but when we talk to employers they say over and over we just need people to get soft skills we can teach them the technical stuff we need people who know how to get along with folks we know we need people who can be in different workplaces so this notion of cultural competence is important and so what I would say is that all those schools typically cater to a white middle-class culture I think it's really important for white students to becoming fluent also in something other than their culture think in an ideal world all of our students would leave school multiculturally confident to be able to deal fasoli with the cosmopolitan global world which they'll find themselves but at minimum each student should leave school at least by culturally competent they should have at least a language other than their first language but how can we develop costly competence students if our teachers are culturally incompetent the third component of culturally relevant pedagogy socio-political consciousness or critical consciousness is the one that I think is the most ignored I think teachers understand the need to ensure student learning and that some are sympathetic to supporting students cultural competence however the idea of helping students engage directly in the social and civic concerns of their schools their communities their localities the nation and the world seem beyond the scope of many classroom teachers now I'm playing English I call this component the so what factor because our students regularly ask us why they have to learn particular things and we regularly respond with because you gonna need this one day by about 4th or 5th grade they realized we're lying I'm always tempted to buy this t-shirt that says yet another day in which I did not use the Pythagorean theorem I'm not hating on a math people I actually think there is value to the Pythagorean theorem and those of our students who are savvy will learn or should I really say memorize what we teach in order to pass our tests and the pass our classes but those who are less plugged into education will resist and they're resistant ways that are detrimental to their own academic well-being a costly relevant approach to teaching helps students understand that their learning can and should be connected to the everyday problems of living in a society that's deeply divided along racial ethnic linguistic economic environmental social political religious and cultural lines and they should be learning that education can and should help alleviate those problems and those divisions it's the whole point that Thomas Jefferson had in mind when he talked about the need for an educated citizenry it's interesting I just came back from the University of Virginia last week and saw I've been deeply steeped in Jefferson I don't know why you have to have 10 and 12 statues of Jeff Jefferson I mean okay we get it okay - ello whole thing is like everywhere you look there's another Thomas Jefferson statue now having a whole bunch of Bucky badges I get you know we had like 55 of them around the city of Madison this summer and it was a wonderful scavenger hunt to go find a Bucky's but so those are the three components and so here I have em here more than 27 years past my first inquiries on ecology relevant pedagogy and I find that this notion of culture relevant pedagogy at least my understanding and practice of it is evolving in some new and exciting ways and it's those new ways in which I want to focus the remainder of my remarks on how culturally relevant pedagogy can meet the needs of new century students and their teachers regardless of level that is from elementary school through graduate school so first I have a question for you how many of you are on Twitter okay that's great but if you're not you're already behind the curve with new century students because we're looking at the most technologically astute plugged-in globally connected generation that the world has ever seen however when I walk into most schools I see signs throughout admonishing against cell phone use I was in a school in in near Indianapolis and I walked into the classroom and the sign said no cell phones no cell phones no cell phones I really want to scream at the top of my lungs it's not a cell phone it's a computer now that old school flip phone you got with the factory ring okay that's a cell phone but even in developing nations very poor communities I was in a rural community in South Africa a couple years ago in the Free State and literally they didn't have electricity reliably throughout a day but everybody at least all the kids have cell phones so this notion that you know they shouldn't have it I think is an interesting one and it reminds me of people who know me know I'm a bit of a sports junkie and so sorry a couple years ago the men's and women's basketball team that the University of South Carolina ended up in a final for the women won it all the men loss but this quote comes from the men's coach Frank Martin cuz one of the things that I think we keep talking about is how different the kids are and Martin said you know what makes me sick to my stomach when I hear grown people say that kids have changed my kids haven't changed but kids don't know anything about anything we've changed as adults we demand less of kids we expect less of kids we make their lives easier instead of preparing them for what life is truly about we're the ones that have changed and I think about that when I think about how differently I as a parent and responded to my kids versus what my parents did there was a certain thing my parents said you know you can't do that I get worn down pretty easy you know I was like no we're not getting no video games you know oh yeah here get the video game you're making me crazy right so there were ways in which we as the adults haven't set parameters and haven't decided this is what I you know we find acceptable but one of the things that I think is different is this totally different understanding of devices so the difference between a cell phone and actually a smartphone and that's but one example of how but I what I call new century students are different from their counterparts of earlier generations so each year Beloit College in Beloit Wisconsin conducts what's called the mindset list for its incoming freshman year class in the in the 2016 the mindset list included the following and I'm just gonna give you like 10 out of the 75 things they come up with that I thought were interesting one that this is a generation that has always lived in cyberspace addicted to it the new generation of electronic narcotics what's the next thing I gotta get the next one for them Michael Jackson's family not the Kennedys constitute American royalty so that bothers me to no end you know because I remember Jackie in a little pillbox hat and you know and Jack Wood is you know Hado I used to say something about the water in Massachusetts these people have the best hair you know MIT had good hair and you know Dukakis had good hair like what is it with these guys out of Massachusetts in his hair right well we thought of them as royalty the notion of Camelot they are a group of folks that if they miss the daily show they can go to the YouTube and get the news they want for them Bill Clinton is a senior statesman of whose presidency they have little knowledge so they were saying to me who was that white haired dude up there with Hillary this one I find pretty interesting is they've never seen an airplane ticket yeah I got my ticket no you got a boarding pass see these little numbers up here there's actually a ticket somewhere out there but you haven't had it it's not in your hand for them women have always piloted war planes and Space Shuttle so they don't understand what the big deal is when we talk about women in space for them Star Wars has always been just a film not a defense strategy those like us in the room who are baby boomers no you know this is what Ronald Reagan was gonna give us Star Wars right they have come to political consciousness during a time of increasing doubts about America's future I find that one interesting because you know as I said as a baby boomer I came through the 60s and all that turbulence but even in the midst of that we always saw America as ascendant it's getting better that's not so certain with the kids we young people we encounter today it may be it's gonna be China maybe it's gonna be India it's not clear right for them the twilight zone involves vampires not Rod Serling or the young people in the room we used to watch a program called The Twilight Zone every Friday night and a man who was the host was Rod Serling and they watch television everywhere but on television now I know because I have this younger daughter who never turns on the TV she's in the TV room but you didn't turn on the TV but I've shared with you is just 10 of 75 items on that list underscore how rapidly new technologies have widened the generation gap aging baby boomers who have always considered themselves hip or cool with it announced struggling to connect with Generation Y students who will teach what I term new century students and while I haven't conducted a scientific study of new century students I've made some what I believe are testable observations about them as learners and I think we have to consider these tendencies as we evaluate our teaching one thing is that they believe multitasking is an efficient way to work now we actually have pretty good science that says it's not you know the cognitive scientists tell us if you're trying to do more than one thing at a time you're not gonna give close enough to attention to any of those things do not tell that to my daughter I walk into that TV room she has her laptop open she's listening on her to her iPod she's texting on her telephone she's scrolling through websites and I said what are you doing and she says I'm writing a paper this notion that I can do all of these things at one time is very evident among the jet this generation they see themselves more as consumers than students and as such they are either purchasing an education or shopping for schools now this is a point where I think Frank Martin's at admonition comes in well because they see themselves as consumers because we made them into that we sell them on a college I don't know whether Bowden has a view book but going through this experience with my daughter who was a very good student with really good grades and good board scores everybody was sending her fancy glossy pupil to get her to come she has so many of them that we had to get a crate and we were putting them in alphabetical order and so that the strategy was it comes she takes a look at it and then I file it what she got a view book from the University of Colorado Boulder and it just sat on the kitchen counter so after a couple weeks I said Jessica you gonna look at this what do you want to do with this she said oh you know you can toss that one and I said really why she said those people not interested in education they just sell in mountains and if you see the cover of it is these beautiful Rocky Mountains and then you can see the sort of red tile roof of the University of Colorado but there's no computers there's no labs there's no test tubes and so I jokingly shared was that good colleagues at Colorado I said yeah my daughter said y'all ain't really serious about education just selling mountains and she said yeah pretty much right yeah we're competing with California we got to tell people you can have Sun and ski right so then students think they're buying an education they see themselves as consumers as I mentioned earlier they can they receive their news and information via push notices from their favorite internet sites and blogs and programs like The Daily Show this is interesting that I've noticed about them that although they're heavily invested in social justice they're less sanguine about social welfare particularly if they have to bear the cost so the debate about health care is that thing that yes they believe everybody should have health care they don't believe they should pay for a bunch of old people right so then I have to break it down so they can understand it I said look honey it's like The Lion King it's the circle of life right somebody paid for you to get out of that hospital when you were born now it's your turn right they have that same attitude towards Social Security right they think that our seniors should have a social safety net they just don't think money should be taken out of their pockets to pay for it this is for my faculty friends in the audience email is in all technologies stop emailing these people they don't read the emails they would prefer to communicate via instant messaging text or tweets if you text them they get it right for them library research can best be done on their desktop which means they rarely leaf through an entire journal those of you who are my era will we went to the library and pulled the journal off the shelf to look for the article know that we often came across another article that wasn't a sign but was even more interesting right they don't do that they read that one PDF you assign cuz that's the one that they can get access to through their desktop or a laptop they believe it's important to stay connected thus their phones are always at hand and classes that prohibit cell phone use interrupt their connections a couple years ago I was at a political forum and one of the things on the larger agenda in Wisconsin was a case about voter ID and in the middle of the forum one of the candidates said oh I just learned that the Supreme Court has struck down the voter ID for that particular election that was coming you will know that it eventually got instated but at that time Italy and so people were clapping and I sitting next to a young person and she said to me yeah I just found that out because she had her device and she'd already got a notice she knew a couple hours ago and that's the world in which our young people live and then finally they have very different conceptions of copyright intellectual property and plagiarism rules when I first began in the Academy I never had to really teach that now I actually do have to go over it because there used to being in an environment where you sample where everything is a mash-up you take a little from here a little from there they don't see it as cheating because they live in an entertainment community that people are always taking a bit from this and that so that's one of the things that I think is really different about how they see the world now what I'm I'm offering these observations not to suggest that we have to adapt to their standards but rather to suggest it's important to know where they are so that we can do a better job of understanding them and assisting them in the classroom and beyond so a decade ago when we referenced the digital divide we were talking solely about the way social status class race ethnicity in some cases gender kept some students from accessing electronic information however with the advent of smartphones and tablet computing and other mobile devices electronic communication has become ubiquitous as I mentioned earlier even in developing nations mobile devices provide access to information and global communications in a classroom so the new digital divide is that which exists between generations that teacher on the flip phone is unable to keep up with his or her smartphone using students to maintain live Twitter feeds or classroom blogs and when our students can access information and knowledge via things like iTunes U and other open access online classrooms we have to create more imaginative and engaging spaces in our courses I work with a scholarship program at the University of Wisconsin and one of the things I would regularly by students who were struggling and one of them of course is they often struggled and was Kim 103 is that sort of introduction if they had Advanced Placement credit in chemistry they struggled in Kim 103 I would have them join a MOOC not for credit but to be able to find another professor and I said you go to the beginning and see how much of it you understand and then just keep following it along it's like your own personal tutor so they have that access something we didn't have on the next point that I make will probably be the most controversial thing I say and that is that hip-hop can be an important cultural vehicle for connecting with new century students now before I lose the entire over 40 audience I want to be clear I am NOT suggesting that you should adopt the hip-hop aesthetic so you don't have to drop your pants you ain't gotta turn your hats on backwards none of that right but rather the anthropologists in me believes it's important to know as much about a culture with which you work is possible for instance when I was teaching Puerto Rican students in North Philadelphia I began a deep and rigorous study of Puerto Rican culture and the specifics of the to Puerto Rican communities that made their way to Philadelphia knowing more about those cultures helped me to plan relevant learning activities and increase my communication with the parents and it boosted student success it did not make me Porto Rican I always always reminded of a young man I had in my eighth grade class name he had a birthday cruise and I had this rule in the class that said if you don't do your homework you have you give up your break so you come back a break time and back to me and work on your homework but if you have a note from your parents you can be excused and I'll never forget that aribert thought came once he hadn't done his homework and I said well you know you got to come back here for your raise no no I have a note says okay give me two no so the note I said who wrote the note my dad why had been to every one of my kids homes I know mr. Cruz mr. Cruz did not write a note that I could read cuz mr. Cruz and I speak English but the note said the following dear teacher please excuse aribert though from doing his homework last night he had a brain tumor I said aribert oh this is a note and you are excused but we are going to revisit there's no policy it was knowing that this kid you know it wasn't a bad kid he didn't get his homework done and he'd been pretty imaginative and trying to figure out what can I let her know that happened to me that was serious enough not to do the homework and I'm sure he watched one of those medical shows and in a medical show the subdural hematoma is over in an hour okay it's really bad and you might die you certainly can't do homework when you got that but you'll be okay the next day at least according to the show but I didn't know these families I didn't know these communities I think the same thing happened when I moved to California I had to do that same kind of research as I worked with Chicano and Mexican national students again knowing more about Mexican and mexican-american culture didn't make me Mexican didn't make me mexican-american but it made me better able to serve the needs of the students who sat before me each day so today our students are in some ways a new breed and I've called them new century students today's dream keepers I think had to be different than those ones that I studied in 1989 these folks had a focus on cultural history and revealing the kinds of things that textbooks omit or distort they had to focus on community issues things like urban renewal or veterans issues or homelessness but they had a limited focus on student culture I had one teacher in my study who used rap lyrics to teach poetry so if you want to be a dream keeper in a 21st century model you have to know include popular culture to your understanding of culture not just for I don't culture you need to recognize hip-hop's longevity and its power there are many of us sitting here tonight who remember people saying oh that hip hop thing that ain't gonna last okay we are 40 years into not lasting I think it's gonna last and in fact I teach a course on hip hop and education and one of the first questions in the course is who introduced you to hip hop and a large portion of the class will say my parents so I'm literally teaching the children of hip-hop Ahead's and we need to catch up what Madison Avenue Madison happened was figured out there's something in this hip hop thing that is attractive to consumers so here's an example to watch me get fruity pebbles yellow orange purple lime enlist but to get the foodie taste so first of all and nobody ain't no fruity pebbles in a minute right that's an old commercial but somehow way back there Madison Avenue said there's something about this that speaks directly to young people and we could deconstruct it and look at the fact that really barney is invoking Run DMC he got the pork pie hat he got the wraparound sunglasses a little golden morning got on a DD show you know the Flintstones don't wear shoes so this this just lifting from this culture because they realize it speaks to the kids in a particular way they kind of get it but today's students are in some ways quite a new breed I've called them new century students and because of their deep connection to hip hop there's something like shapeshifters they don't fit neatly into the rigid categories of race class or national origin that we've relied upon to make distinctions and to create hierarchy there sports heroes or heroines include people like LeBron James and JJ Watt Gabby Douglas I could also include Serena Williams Lolo Jones they they go across race they don't they're not just narrow they listen to Drake Bruno Mars and Nicki Minaj now I got Justin up there cuz Justin need prayer y'all so just feel obligated feel obligated to give Justin some opportunity for prayer but this is a generation that's more likely to endorse same-sex marriage and they can indeed separate out hip-hop traditions where baby boomers and their parents here at all is noise and I will remind you baby boomers that our parents call rock and roll and rhythm and blues noise they point out that there's important differences in in the genres of hip-hop so there are traditions that include East Coast West Coast southern trap world scene gangster battle conscious what you can't see on there is also crunk there's all kinds of hip-hop so to say that oh I are rejected because it's all violent it's sort of like going into an x-rated movie and saying oh I'm never going to the movies again because movies are pornographic or it's like picking up a Harlequin romance reading it and go oh my god I'm never going to read another book because it's just pablum it's a genre and these young people know which john was they like they don't like all of them so they also known that there are huge differences in the artisans there's a difference between long wayne and immortal technique this is a big difference between little Kim and Anna tease you and they know that this culture that they've created is a mash-up and it has permeable boundaries simultaneously sacred and profane you have folks deep religious convictions excuse me convictions and an embrace of all things secular so you have emcees like Lupe Fiasco and Omar efendim who do not hide their Muslim faith they end up working in local national and global contexts with music and film about Trayvon Martin in Arab Spring you have hip hop film makers like Eli Jacobsen Tao Zi who makes global hip hop films like invent those hip hop cubanos and homegrown hip life in Ghana I would also let you know that Eli has made perhaps five trips to Puerto Rico since Hurricane Maria he has delivered over 3,000 pounds of relief supplies not paper towels to people because they were hurting and while they're giving free concerts to just kind of lift people's spirits these young people that we work with are not slackers who don't care about education quite the contrary they desire to be deeply engaged in learning but they don't want to receive a passive education we're a rote memorization and regurgitation passes for learning they want to innovate and create and implement they are as hip-hop science educator Christopher emdin and that's Chris on that end of Teachers College Columbia University say science minded and as science minded individuals they want to do science rather than just read about it you have scholars like Jeff Duncan Andrade at San Francisco State Patrick Communion at the University of San Francisco and Ernest Morrell at Notre Dame who worked in this in this era and these genres you also have folks like Don Alyssa Fisher from San Francisco State dr. e Elaine Richardson of Ohio State who is a performing artist so she is a full professor in English at Ohio State Monday through Friday but on Saturday she's on the stage singing Myesha win who does wonderful work in restorative justice at the University of California Davis you have scholars like Mark Lamont Hill and many of you may recognize mark from TV because he's often a commentator on CNN but he's also a full professor at Temple University both from their school of mass communication and education or Sammy allene who is a global linguist at UCLA or Sam Seidel who works with TC Ellis to document the work of the high school of the Recording Arts where kids who previously were headed for failure gained a second chance to put their knowledge and skill and popular culture and the arts to work for both fun and profit LeBron James has given over a million dollars to this high school for helping kids with their entrepreneurial interests my own campus we've been really fortunate to have MC Lyte invest in a program that we have we have two MC Lyte fellows she's given over two million dollars to us to really encourage young women in hip-hop we have perhaps the most innovative program on our campus known as first wave these are young people that we actually recruit and give full tuition scholarships to because of their hip-hop artists skills so we go to a lot of poetry slams we go to hip-hop art as in graffiti we look at dancing we look at all of the elements of hip-hop and offer these young people scholarships and we are in our eleventh cohort we've been doing it for 12 years we have one year moratorium last year because we had some change in leadership but these young people have appeared on Broadway they were a part of the cultural Olympics in London during the London 2012 Olympics they were in Denver performing at the American Sociological Association we had one first-wave student Jasmine Mann's who was named one of Glamour's top ten collegiates before Jasmine left was constant yet published two books you know it made some of my assistant professors really wait a minute and I think we have a marvelous opportunity to engage with what I see is the most exciting generations of students the world has ever seen I want to share with you one of our students who was now in a well I won't tell you that yet I'll let you see his piece his name is Jonathan Williams and this is an award-winning performance that he gave for the raise up foundation is designed to work against high school dropouts Jonathan Williams absent see I always had the mental capacity and the master key to overcoming the academic tragedy but I had to see and learn for my faults cuz my ride's GPA more my lessons were taught I was a 3.6 high achiever up in middle school no guidance resided my silence and swimming pools didn't appreciate the doggy paddle that I had mastered when Jonathan Williams was absent Alexander Hamilton High Waukee Public Schools finest I learned to order skipping classes that wrote Beulah on my eyelids detention room sidekick with some fly kicks in a tight clique bought up homework in the same 50 students fight with Jonathan Williams absent it was tragic I miss good times and laughing my GPA was dragging against the system not meant for me mentally in misery my freshman years that's 102 days absent of's zero point zero GPA Gilmanton swimming pool doggy paddle drowning I started the movement for improvement but couldn't dry you off with the white towels my teachers through and I tried to show my mind could grow like every other student but people pass on your perspective when your presence also truant more than the reflection of a freshman year screw up with a blueprint of a ladder but no tools for me to move up no electricity mom and pops missing so have them drop out that's just family tradition Jonathan Williams absent I found a flashlight by the name of uncle Jeff moved in the floor and three pillows weren't enough for me to stay focused make sure this hopefully ship stays floating but my senior year I was actually a senior you know just a little clean professional demeanor it seems to be I'm on track like Jackie Joyner with six medals fighting my academic debt and my fists medal but the worst thing you can see when you made it and educated are the people who gave up and the obstacles you evaded cuz I mean we quicker to give up than you do I mean we just like YouTube we just broadcast ourselves and hope that you like it maybe care to comment cuz I didn't need to be hooked on filing such as neither the people around me to be critical in honest cuz we don't know yet that resources and allocated money is the hoods morphine the only scholarships I know it was professional sports teams now I'm here I'm at the University of wisconsin-madison a scholar and resident food tuition scholarship in Kappa Alpha side president soft saying week we can be useless clueless roofless just a nuisance worthless or CLIs just just the worst urban person but we got to reconstruct our approach to avoid these different labels and synonyms help the youth overcome this system that's not meant for them Thank You Jonathan is currently finishing his MFA at the University of Florida one of six students chosen in the nation this kid is amazing he spent a semester abroad in Barcelona he's applied for every opportunity possible but you heard him say what his high school freshman year was like 102 days absent it's only 180 days in the school year he failed everything and in most systems he would be done for there will be no ability to recover and yet this thing he loved doing his spoken word is really what brought him to a place that made him competitive in the classroom and able to go on I want to show you one more student Gunn as Williams is done as Smith excuse me who was one of our first cohort you know including ganas cuz he just won a major literary competition young poet I don't even remember what it was but just announced within a month or so ago everybody please welcome to the stage Jeanette Smith hi y'all do it I hear really awkward ninth grade classes at 7 a.m. on a Monday morning so I'm more excited than that we are educated as we can sound excited for education how are you doing my name is Jeanette Smith I am a poet I am an educator I am a human being and a black man I've come to you today to talk about student voice I'm gonna try to leave this talk today through my own pedagogy I don't have data because I don't have data yet but I have stories for you and that's what I asked of my students at my story I have myself and I have the ability to reflect on the work that I've done start with myself Who am I I am a mama's boy I am a st. Paul native I am very very black in a political sense in a racial sense I am an educator I am a queer man I am hopelessly romantic and very stubborn to go on dates and that is Who I bring into the classroom every day maybe not the date part and all those voices fight to speak and luckily I've lived a life where I've been able to speak to all those voices and all those identities in me and it's my work to hear those voices coming from all my students I want to backtrack talk a little bit about where I come from and what's grounding all my work in third grade I could not read at all spelled my name wrong I could barely tell you what it was I didn't understand letters I didn't know how to put things together and it wasn't necessarily that I wasn't smart I knew I was I was bored school was boring I didn't want to read about princesses imaginable frogs or look at these storybooks that looks nothing like the family or my family or the places that I came from it wasn't what I was interested in either they tried to get me to read things like goosebumps because that was supposed to be cool than the 90s but I didn't like ghosts but they were real I had a really Christian black grandma she won't let me believe in ghosts I didn't connect any of these things and finally a former mr. Minnesota winner miss Dellavedova my third grade teacher god bless her asked me a question that I have never been asked before what is it that you want to read and it wasn't about what was available in her classroom or the three books that some reading specialist had laid out in front of me about locusts and a princess and a castle um but what do you really want to read and I was dumbfounded I didn't know what to tell her I shouted out the first thing that came to my mind I want to read about video games she said okay and I went home and I had all these video game magazines that I could only look at the pictures of and think that they were cool and know that I wanted to buy that game and she gave me access to something that I actually believed in she worked with me throughout that year by the end of that year I went from not being able to read at all it's a reading at a fifth-grade level it's all because of her work and her asking me a question and believing that answer flash forward to ninth grade I am now technically good at school I am the C student in all the advanced classes I hate school once again I find this boring I'm not learning about anything I'm just learning how to give the teachers back what they're giving me I wind up in this weird wacky theater class and I knew it wasn't weird or wacky but I didn't have the language at the time to say how transformative it really was gonna be for me it was a social justice centered education program it was awesome I spent the first day I think the teacher was about five minutes late just rolling around on the ground screaming which is pretty much a good analogy about who I was at 14 rolling around on the ground screaming about anything and the teacher came in and she started her work and eventually she asked all of us what do you want to talk about what do you want to perform about and I was not ready for that question it's funny how really simple questions and knowing that somebody is sincere and asking you that can completely change your mind student that worked that year we created and throughout my four years of college with that teacher we created brilliant work about issues that we found relevant we wrote and performed our own plays and our own poems and that sent me along a whole artistic path but a whole creative path and a whole critical path in my education from that class and learning that my voice was truly valued that I had something to say I started doing better in all of my subject areas I started to become invested in school as long as I have somebody there to work with me that was invested in my ideas and not interested in teaching me what I needed to learn but helping me access what was already within myself when I went to college I was I went to the University of wisconsin-madison to be a part of the only hip-hop scholarship program in the nation I did not at the time associate Madison Wisconsin with hip-hop maybe cheese maybe good beer that I wasn't supposed to be drinking as a freshman but definitely not hip-hop and when we showed up there once again I was presented with a question that I had no idea how to answer what do you want to build and with that program the first way program at Madison Wisconsin we built something that is now seven years strong I was part of the very first year and we helped each other access our creativity not just in terms of art but our science majors who are also artists having them go off and explore brilliant brilliant experiments and questions that they had and we learned how to access each other and how to collaborate and how to talk and how to reflect and oh my god it was brilliant all because somebody asked us a question and didn't we didn't we knew that we didn't have to say the right thing but we had to say what felt right to us and that's why I came back to st. Paul to try to infuse some of that energy into this space I am a cultural specialist for the st. Paul public schools I go into rooms that look like the United Nations that usually have a syllabus that looks like the Senate and I asked students what they want to learn so I want to stop it there because I just wanted you to see his trajectory the fact that he was one of the early cohort members is really important because he's gone off to do amazing things if you're really interested in our program Wisconsin Public Television has produced a documentary on it called hip hop you it was just aired in September but you can find it online that really talks about what we tried to do with that program and how we're trying to bring different voices to our campus we've just graduated our first african-american woman astrophysicists out of that probe out of hip-hop she loves physics but she loves hip-hop and we found a way to help her marry them both her you know she has this incredible crush on Neil deGrasse Tyson so when we brought him to campus we made sure she got to meet him and she was just gaga oh my gosh you have no I just you have no way of knowing professing lots of Billings how I feel said I I kind of get it you know I kind of get kind of how I feel about Julius Irving right you know but they've been amazing young people I put this little slide up here to let you know that if you are indeed the least bit interested in this notion of hip hop education every Tuesday night we have a Twitter conversation scene I'm really trying to get you on Twitter at 9 o'clock Eastern at this address hashtag hip hop ed you don't have to say anything but you can follow the conversation and we take up all kinds of issues sometimes you know we've had it when it's been simultaneous with the State of the Union and so you have these people injecting their thought about what God said or other current issues we've gone through all the curriculum areas hip-hop in English language arts hip-hop and mathematics hip-hop and science hip-hop in second language learning as a way to figure out how do we use this very powerful tool that our students have just gravitated to as a way to get them to think broadly about some other things and expansively finally what I will say is that every we do a program called hip hop in the heartland when we bring teachers for a week to our campus to learn how to use hip hop as a part of their pedagogy we always tell them on when they arrive on Monday morning by the end of the week you're gonna be on the stage and you know everybody's ends up on the stage it's a marvelous experience to see the transformation of these teachers in their understanding of how youth culture really impacts student learning so I think we have this marvelous opportunity to engage with the most exciting generation of young students our world's ever seen I think their passions and desires merge with new and exciting technologies and they want teachers who will demand more from them and just maybe googling some information and cutting and pasting it into a document they want to do they want to create they want to inspire and they want to innovate they want to learn to think critically and analytically they want to be serious about their education and for them hip-hop might be their best hope thank you why hi thank you so much for your lecture um I would just be curious to know I'm personally I guess interested in teaching in foreign language classrooms and I'm curious to know how one could integrate culturally relevant pedagogy with including another language and if hip-hop is an avenue for that or if there's an extra layer of something else to add to the classroom as well so it's interesting because one of the really exciting hip-hop artists is from your area you're from Minnesota right Twin Cities yeah yep there's a Menominee artist by the name of Paul Paul who is using hip-hop to revitalize the Menominee language and if you get a chance look him up and I think that the video I'm thinking of is called prayers to tears for prayers or something like that his name is tall Paul but it's it's amazing how he's gotten people interested in learning Menominee and I have had like three or four students who have tried to do research on revitalization Menominee language revitalization we have large Menominee population in Wisconsin too and mostly been unsuccessful with conventional ways but here is someone using hip-hop I'm giving a talk next week at the reader conference which is all about language acquisition and one of the things I want to point out is that what's not talked about a lot in hip-hop is the Latino or that next contribution to hip-hop is very strong the beginnings of hip-hop all of them the b-boys all of them the break dancers crews were like that next they were not black we've somehow thought of it as a black thing Eli who I featured here jacob ben qazi the filmmaker not only has done work in Cuba but also in Colombia they're everywhere I've gone in the world I've encountered hip hop Brazil Scotland I was coming out of a restaurant Scotland I could hear this beating OH let me Cordia seal was in here and trust me nobody in there look like me but they were engaged in it there is there has been something so powerful about it worldwide and yet we tend to denigrate it here as oh that's from the streets that's this I remind people that Shakespeare was from the streets his early plays were not in big Broadway theatre houses they were for the common folk and so I think it's a wonderful opportunity because one of the things that draws people about his language is the the facility the rhyme schemes the fluency all of that can be used in language learning wonderful thank you okay bro - with Mountie Oh y'all I thank you so much for coming um I had a question about cultural competency mm-hmm I was wondering then it seems like part of developing cultural competency is admitting to your students that there are things that you don't know and asking for their help in understanding that so I was wondering how you can both do that while also maintaining their respect for your knowledge so one of the biggest challenges I have as a teacher educator is helping my students understand that they have a culture see I don't think cultural competency starts with learning about that other culture I think it starts with learning that yes you have one so when I first got to Wisconsin 27 years ago my students would say to me oh you know we don't really have a culture doctor lesson book you know we just normal okay I guess that would make me abnormal oh no no that's not what we mean you know we're just like regular oh yeah that's better you know and I'm at that age where maybe I am sometime but I don't want to be identified as irregular so helping them understand that there's there's a Midwest culture there's a Wisconsin culture there's things that people doing with kind of he'll do nowhere else Midwesterners don't like to talk about money then they like it but they don't talk about it now I remember asking one of my colleagues one time how much he made and you would have thought I'd asked him if he slept with his wife the night before I'm like dude it's a public institution I'm four klicks away from finding it out just save me some time on what you make in now why would I do that cuz I'm from Philadelphia and that's all we talk about is money if I show up in my family's house tomorrow wearing this dress they will say oh that's nice how much you pay for it it's not considered rude so what I found is that my big challenge was what I would call that sort of helping them with that archaeological or that cultural excavation digging to figure out well why do I do what I do why do I think this is the right way to do it it's not about learning another culture because the challenge of learning that other culture is it's not static it's changing so by the time you think you've got it it's changed I've had a student who did a dissertation on three generations of Hmong immigrants first generation born in Laos raised in Laos second generation born in Laos but raised in transition coming to Thailand and the Philippines into the mainland third generation born right in Wisconsin that third generation struggling to talk to the first so if there's that much difference in a family how is it you're gonna just learn a culture and nail it down it just doesn't it's not static what you can learn however is your own culture and why you seem to think and believe and act in a particular way and how that's changed over time and then you begin to understand how culture functions and there's nothing wrong with asking kids to explain things to you one of the things that's an element of culturally relevant pedagogy is that teachers understand that the knowledge is not static is shared it's recycled it's everybody has knowledge our kids do not come to us as empty vessels and one of my presentations I shared the trailer from the documentary babies which is about the first year of life for four families one in Namibia one in Mongolia one in Tokyo and one in San Francisco and it's sort of an amazing to see the similarity these families don't know each other of that first year but it's also some very specific kinds of cultural ways on which kids are interacting with their family members and the environment that they find themselves in and that's the journey we're all on so if these babies learn a number of things without us as teachers I always tell teachers when our kids show up at five years old in kindergarten they already learn to do a lot of stuff without you they learn to walk without you if you've ever watched a toddler trying to learn to walk it is a quest for confidence they don't care how many times they fall they will continue there's nobody standing there with a checklist saying well you didn't pass that standard so you need you need to just go sit down over there you can't walk they want to keep added they come to us having mastered an entire language with no instruction from us so they already come with knowledge and I think sometimes we treat them as if they don't have anything so I think more kids appreciate the fact that you asked the question tell me about this explain this to me and they understand that the classroom is the place we're gonna share information and knowledge we're gonna learn together thank you so much for your talk first of all it was really inspiring so I am a German student studying to be a teacher of English as a foreign language of course and like one of our German Corkery curriculums stated goals is to teach cultural competence not just linguistic skills so at what I am Todd I don't want to criticize my teachers too much but somehow I am still lacking like some concrete examples they always tell us like yeah of course it's great if you like include movies or authentic materials like music or whatever like graffiti is of course as well but and they also tell is like it must be authentic it should relate to the students so hip-hop culture of course comes to my mind as well but could you maybe like give me an example of like three things I could like take from for example a hip-hop song that I can teach to my students mm-hmm like besides just having them analyze the lyrics and learn the language and my teachers always tell me like oh yeah they'll get the culture you know just by learning about the song but that's not how it works like how can I like really get the students in touch with that like a different culture through for example lyrics so let me make sure I understand where you are you you are teaching German students English yes okay yes oh because Germany is of course one of the most diverse nations in Europe right so the fundamental question is who is a German and I know that but I feel like this doesn't really matter to like the teaching of another culture mm-hmm I mean most of the students already be aware or should be aware by the time I'm teaching them of what culture they bring into the classroom but my challenge is to show them another one okay but I but you always start where people are so one of the places where they are is that there's a very vibrant hip-hop scene in Germany so you begin starting with there and then you look at the parallels what are they doing in Germany with hip-hop that lines up with something that we're doing here issues of immigration are big in Germany right now so a lot of the hip-hop artists from Germany speak to that even the whole the rise of the the right you know in Germany is like paranoid about because of his history that there is this sort of rise of Nazism and ultra-right movements well we have a parallel in the u.s. so in a lot of times that the the home culture becomes the bridge to understanding another culture you you have to have a conceptual scheme to put something in if you've never seen something you don't know what to make up so I think that there's some powerful stuff happening in Germany and throughout Europe actually in youth culture that you can begin to pull on most of our kids are what I would call global teenagers I do an activity with students in which I put them in a circle and I asked them to look in the label of the person in front of them and look at where it says that item was made and then we do a whole map of where our clothing is from turns out most of it it's not made in the US so now we have a whole other conversation about why are we getting so many things from Pakistan and Thailand and Vietnam what does that mean and we get to talk about the exploitation of workers and so just by looking at each other's labels so I think there's a lot of wonderful parallels you can make between what is happening in their culture so the they can understand that new culture they're trying to learn and have them come to Wisconsin 55% of there was people from Wisconsin of German ancestry I went to we have a German day on our campus and we bring all the German students high school students studying German there's over a thousand kids I'm like this many people study a German but if you know the history of bilingual ed education this country the Germans were among the first group of people who demanded schooling in German language so there's wonderful parallels because it's hard to make sense of something for which you don't have an analogue for which it's so new it doesn't fit anything so I would start with some of the stuff they're very familiar with and show how it bridges to other things I work with kids who apply who are first generation applying to college and we start with a song by kool Moe Dee mainly because I'm a 90s hip-hop head you know yeah you can't sell me on no panda panda panda no but in that song a kool Moe Dee's call I go to work and I use it his boat's throughout the lyrics as a way to think about writing that essay to college really talking up yourself so you're looking for just analogs and bridges throughout high okay thank you for coming um I'm an education major here at Bowdoin and we shadow in schools every Friday so tomorrow I'll be going to school that has a super strict cellphone policy and for that reason I was really intrigued when you were alarmed by the cell phone no cell phone rule and I'm just curious if there is a way to leverage smart phones in the classroom or in schooling or if you more mean it's like just on social media or the way that students are presented with information and kind of what role that technology can play without being distracting yeah I you know obviously I my feelings about the use of cell phones very different from a lot of people and it's because I am convinced that the kids are actually smarter than we are and all these rules we keep making up they figure out ways to subvert them anyway I did a workshop for some teachers in the Dallas Independent School District and that's why I now embed all of my videos I couldn't go to youtube because the school had it blocked the district blocks it but what was funny is what I'm struggling to get my video up in this low sophomore Sesame you trying to get to you too yeah easy you got cell phone and he took my cell phone hooked up he's are you good you can put it up so a 15 year old understands better than the so-called adults about these technologies and when you make them forbidden fruit that's what makes them distracting I wouldn't dream of telling college students that they had to put all of these cellphones in a bag we don't live in the safest of environments if I was a parent in the Parkland school district at Margery Stoneham and saw on the news that there was an active shooter I don't want my child to text me and say I'm okay so I think it's the forbidden as' and how do you help kids learn how to do something appropriately I mean it's kind of why the the cafeteria is a horrible place cuz we don't teach them how to sit down and have a conversation with conversational they go spend the rest of their life dining in public but yet you know we want a set of rules to say you can't talk or you can't so I just I think we'd go about a lot of these things the wrong way I know that people don't agree with me on this but come I'm I'm convinced that keeping the cellphones away from the man keeping them away from the distractions that they want they they'll find something else to be distracting why not engage the cell phone why not have students you know I run I have a smart board in my classroom and I have a Twitter feed so the whole time that I'm lecturing or we're doing some active there are tweets going up about what we're doing because I have some students particularly international students who raising their hand and speaking aloud is just not a part of what they've learned but they are engaged and they want to participate but they can tweet something so I think we should stop fighting the technologies because every time we fought it we've lost we fought the television we said oh no no no we don't want that they gonna try to make that take the place of the teacher and as a result of our failure to engage I think that's the reason why we have so much crap on television because educators didn't sit down and say hey what if we did this what do we did that I mean we got a couple good shows out of Sesame Street Electric Company and mr. Rogers neighborhood but but it's but the general thing is it is a vast wasteland because we we fought it computers came along we don't want those in the classroom oh no they're gonna try to take the place of the teacher the original educational software that got produced out of Oregon and California is horrible you've ever seen Oregon Trail that's the worst thing that anybody ever came up with it's racist it's but those people are not educators they know how to make something work there's software engineers so every time we fight the technology we lose so my sense is that we should be engaging them we should be using you know we get to sell phones to the point where the kids go oh gosh CBI use our cell phones again right I have my I have my undergraduates give me a tweet on the articles I assign them they can do it 140 characters they knock it out right so they're not constantly trying to do other things so I I just I know I'm in the minority on this but I just disagree with it I think the technologies are always gonna be here they're gonna always be improving they're gonna get smaller you know well we know it when the kids actually had the technology in there in you know the Google we have one iteration of Google glasses but you know there'll be another one and we think the kids are paying attention today watching the playoffs right so we're just not smarter than them we're not and I just think it's it's wrong for us to keep fighting those things that are part of their everyday lives that's awesome thank you okay so we got one coming here well I'd like to thank you very very much for coming this evening because remember the Brody family I really appreciate it but a wonderful lecture um I am a principal in the state of Vermont and I don't think you need to watch that live to know that Vermont has very little racial diversity we are but we do have diversity we have diversity in religious diversity economic diversity we have considerable diversity in education and diversity and family structures and you referenced that when you were talking about being in I think you said LA you had gone into the families you knew those families because you've been in their houses and what we find is that one of the critical aspects of knowing those little kindergartners as they come in is to know their families and maybe actually be in their homes how do how do educators to day prepare students so that educates students of Education to really accept that - no - just to teach with true cultural responsiveness that you need to also know the child's culture not just their race not just their religion but to really know their family culture right so this is a one of those tricky kinds of things because truth of the matter is everybody doesn't want you in their home some people think you're there to judge them they want to know you know I think you're they're counting how many books you have and is your house neat so I've always had this policy as I would love to visit with you would you be what which in which ways would you be most amenable would you like to come to school would you like me to come to your home would you like to meet in a more neutral place like the library or McDonald's and I've had many conferences with parents in McDonald's so that's I think one of the first things that we have to recognize is that everybody doesn't want you in their home I think the other thing that I really learned from studying these teachers was the fact that they found ways to insert themselves into the culture that were what I would call unobtrusive so one of the teachers for example used to go to little league practices she's I won't go to the game cuz it's too much stress you know if you don't get in are you making error then your teachers sitting there and oh my god you know but at and she says edit practice I can see how this youngster works with other adults how they learn to give and take another teacher who said you know I kind of just go to around to different church services I don't announce that I'm coming I just show up at a church service and kids are excited that's my teacher that's my teacher now when moved to Wisconsin I was struck because the librarian at one of the local schools would come to my church once a month she wasn't on the same background in culture but she has set yet established with the pastor that once a month she will come and share a book you know this is a new book that's in our library what I found when I went into the school is that she had virtually no problems interacting with kids because they recognized her as kind of a fixture in the community so I think there's a variety of ways that we get to know people not just in their homes but in their communities and in the things that they they like to do one other example is one of the teachers in the study said you know we have these career days and we bring all these high-power people here and the kids are like this is you know how am I gonna get to be an astronaut you know how I mean they just can't see it so she started doing what she called internships in her classroom and so she would pair her students with a more commonly a job that kids sauce so the first internship was always with the school janitor so she puts two kids with them and if he has to be in at 6 a.m. they have to be in a 6 a.m. he works through the evening they worked in the evening and they just get to talk with him they interview him they do what he does and she says that one of the things that happens is the kids come back with deep respect for the janitor because you know custodians have better union negotiating skills than teachers so their salaries are not bad you know they they're Teamsters they got this thing down as the teachers don't know what they're doing at the negotiating table but the other thing she said they begin to appreciate the work so you have kids saying hey get that up off the floor people had to clean that I mean that they begin to see how much work is involved with this but she also brings their parents and the work their parents do because I think a lot of times kids particularly kids who are poor don't think your parents are doing anything that contributes but bus driver is an important job and so her concern was that that the kids had were being less they didn't value work and what I mean by that is if you suggested to them doing a low-skilled job like working at McDonald's they were like I'm not working at Mickey D's you would say who do you think they made these jobs for they're for kids you know they're for young people and it it contributes something so helping them understand that the school secretary the janitor a bus driver a clerk a postal worker are all doing work that is important and and contributes to the society was something she was trying to build not that you can't decide to be an astronaut or a chemical engineer but literally value to work that is happening in your community and it's one of the things that keeps your community going in cohesive so I think there are a variety of ways to engage with families bringing the families you know one of the teachers would have the mothers come for a Mother's Day breakfast very simple breakfast cereal toast you know juice and the kids are so excited my mom's coming my grandma's coming to have their little you know handmade placemat and make breakfast was a way to connect not just merely always being punitive towards kids and saying what they can't do but showing families what they can do thank you okay but one more I'm sorry for being long-winded yes hi thank you so much for being here okay um I'm a math and education major mm-hmm and I was wondering if you could just give like a few examples of ways that you can integrate hip-hop education and/or other versions of our modes of culturally sustaining pedagogy into like math and stem classes just because I feel like I never saw that growing up so yeah you really need to come to our hip-hop ed conversations because the people started at our stem people Chris emdin is a stem guy Rensselaer Polytechnic and he runs something called science genius were kids battle using science concepts but we went to Marie Curie Middle School and the kids were we put them in a circle which in hip-hop parlance is called a cipher you know the people jumping in and basically we tell them this is what all scientists do all scientists are in a cypher it's often a journal so just want to write something and there's somebody come and clap back at that one and then it's will come back I mean that's really what we do so we're in this class and these kids were doing fractions and they had to come up with some hip-hop lyrics to really explain fractions so this one group had a song and the hook of the song is but a fraction just a part of a whole I said a fraction is just a part of a whole you know a fraction just a part of a whole I said a fraction just a part of a whole well every time somebody said the word fraction that particular cipher would go but a fraction just a part of the whole I said a fraction just a part of a whole you know affects it you so fuck it it's the kind of thing kids love rhyme and patterns and mathematics is all about patterns so it's become one of the more natural places for us to go because inherently it does the kind of things when I say the kids I need you to write me a VARs they know what I mean I was doing a class and had these kids write these eight bars and this you know it's funny because they go they want to write more than eight or one brother I ain't trying to produce you don't need to give me 32 bars okay I say hey but there's a way that you know really good hip-hop has really good good rhyme scheme has good rhythm it flows is lyrical and you can take some examples of hip-hop lyrics and say which one is mathematically more quote elegant if you will but yeah we have a number of math educators who are doing this work with us not just our English teachers and our social studies teachers it's been really the science people science man I did a workshop for stem teachers in Baton Rouge last winter and was right after black panther had come out and I asked them how many of you have seen Black Panther well a nice hand was up and I said okay how many of you use Black Panther in your classroom nobody I said just like you all went trust me your kids went to see Black Panther and so I had them take the you know man I actually you I don't use stem I actually use steam because I think the arts are what hold all of this together so we took the ste AM acronym and asked them to identify all the science technology engineering arts and mathematics they saw in black panther filled the boards then I asked for my chemistry teachers I said okay here's a question for my chemistry teachers if vibranium was an actual element where would it fit on a periodic chart of elements they it just their minds are right because you got it you know the chart the the point of the chart is not to memorize it the point of the chart is to understand that the elements are organized in a particular way based on their neutrons electrons protons the metals are all together so where you want to put vibranium Melos you know it's not a gas how many neutrons how many protons how many electrons and knowing kind of where it would fit on there would help a teacher understand this kid really does understand elements right so it's those kinds of things when you go home google most deaths mathematics here's a song called mathematic now I'm gonna tell you can't use all of that song okay but one of the things it that he does with the songs of the G just cites all these statistics and life chances that the kids are up against in in various communities so no mathematics is definitely in the game with what hip-hop so I think that's a

Contents

Arguments in favor

Rally at UCLA in support of the proposition
Rally at UCLA in support of the proposition

Proponents of 87 included Laura Keegan Bordeau, CEO of the American Lung Association of California, Winston Hickox, former Secretary of the California Environmental Protection Agency and Jamie Court, President of the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights (now Consumer Watchdog (USA). The California Voter Information Guide for the 2006 election contained the following arguments in favor of passage of Proposition 87:

Passage of 87 will make the oil industry pay from their profits for their fair share of research into cleaner energy. It would also make the oil industry pay the same drilling fees as they pay in other states. The proposition would make it illegal for energy companies to pass the added costs on to consumers via increased gas prices. The passage of 87 would also create thousands of jobs and decrease American dependence on oil from Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Consumers would be able to receive rebates for purchasing alternative fuel vehicles and incentives for renewable energy sources resulting in cleaner air and improved health. The tax increase and oversight would be done without creating a new bureaucracy by utilizing an existing state agency.

Another pro 87 argument was that the, "tax will be essentially a tax on extracting oil in California. This tax exists in other states. Alaska drillers pay a 15% tax, Texas drillers pay a 4.6% tax and Louisiana drillers a 12.5% tax. This tax on the California drillers would only be between 1 - 6% depending on the price of a barrel of oil. California is the only large producing state in the US without such a tax.[3]" This tax would have been on exporters of oil in California and the language in the proposition prohibited the cost to be passed on to consumers.

Among those claimed to support Proposition 87 were doctors and nurses (the voter guide states "the Coalition for Clean Air and California doctors and nurses ALL SUPPORT"), Nobel Prize–winning scientists, environmental and consumer groups, educators, and labor and agriculture groups. The proponents of 87 point out that the campaign against 87 was funded by the oil industry.

Most of the "Yes on 87" campaign was funded by Steve Bing, a real estate developer, film producer, and philanthropist, who contributed US$39,058,000 as of October 23, 2006. Google co-founder Larry Page gave $1,000,000.[4]

Endorsements in favor of 87

Bill Clinton speaking at UCLA rally in support of the proposition
Bill Clinton speaking at UCLA rally in support of the proposition

Amongst Prop 87's supporters were former President Bill Clinton, former vice-president Al Gore, then-Senator Barack Obama, Nobel Prize–winning scientist Dr. Mario Molina, former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright, former U.N. Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, Senator Dianne Feinstein, Democratic gubernatorial nominee Phil Angelides, State Superintendent of Public Instruction Jack O'Connell, the American Lung Association of CA, the California League of Conservation Voters, the Coalition for Clean Air, Americans for Energy Independence, the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights, and venture capitalist Vinod Khosla.

Arguments against

Most of the No on 87 campaign was funded by petroleum companies, more than $95,000,000 in contributions was received for the No on 87 Campaign, Chevron Corporation ($30,000,000) and Aera Energy ($27,000,000), more than any other proposition in history. The majority of the remaining contributors opposed to 87 were other oil production companies.[5]

Other opponents included Larry McCarthy, President of the California Taxpayers Association (Cal-Tax), Daniel Cunningham, President of the California Small Business Alliance, Marian Bergeson, Former President of the California School Board Association, Kevin R. Nida, President of the California Firefighters Association, Ray Holdsworth, Former Chair of the California Chamber of Commerce, and Allan Zaremberg, President of Californians Against Higher Taxes. In the California Voter Guide for the 2006 election, they propose the following arguments opposed to passage of Proposition 87.

Passage of 87 is not a tax on profits but is a tax on California oil production. This tax would make California's oil the highest taxes in the nation. This increased tax would reduce production in California resulting in more imported gas with its attendant increase in transportation and refining which could be lawfully passed on to consumers. 87 would result in 50 more political appointees with unlimited staff. No oversight or requirement on how the increased revenue be spent including an exemption from the guaranteed education funding that covers other taxes.

Dr. Philip Romero, former Chief Economist for the California Governor's Office was quoted as saying "Proposition 87 attempts a worthy goal, but does so in a counterproductive and costly manner. It would shrink California's oil supply, increase dependence on foreign oil, and result in higher gasoline prices."

Endorsements opposed to 87

Incumbent Republican governor Arnold Schwarzenegger opposed it as well as Republican state senator Tom McClintock.

References

  1. ^ California Proposition 87, Alternative Energy Oil Tax (2006)
  2. ^ Official title and summary Archived 2007-06-14 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "California Proposition 87". EarlySource.com. 2006. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
  4. ^ "Campaign Finance: Californians for Clean Alternative Energy, A Coalition Of Environmentalists, Entrepreneurs, and Scientists". California Secretary of State. 2006. Archived from the original on September 6, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2006.
  5. ^ "Campaign Finance: Californians Against Higher Taxes - No On 87, A Coalition Of Taxpayers, Educators, Public Safety Officials, Businesses, Energy Producers". California Seacretary of State. 2006. Archived from the original on May 14, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2006.

External links

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