To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

1998 Winter Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

XVIII Olympic Winter Games
1998 Winter Olympics logo.svg
Emblem of the 1998 Winter Olympics[a]
Host cityNagano, Japan
MottoCoexistence with Nature
(Japanese: 自然との共存, Shizen to no Kyōzon)
Nations72
Athletes2,176 (1,389 men, 787 women)
Events68 in 7 sports (14 disciplines)
Opening7 February
Closing22 February
Opened by
Cauldron
StadiumNagano Olympic Stadium
Winter
Lillehammer 1994 Salt Lake 2002
Summer
Atlanta 1996 Sydney 2000
Olympic Rings.svg Map of the 1998 Nagano Olympics locations
Main hall of Zenkō-ji in Nagano City.
Main hall of Zenkō-ji in Nagano City.
Kazuyoshi Funaki, seen here in 2014, won two gold medals for host Japan.
Kazuyoshi Funaki, seen here in 2014, won two gold medals for host Japan.

The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the XVIII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver)[1] (Japanese: 第十八回オリンピック冬季競技大会, Dai Jūhachi-kai Orinpikku Tōkikyōgi Taikai), and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 that were centered in Nagano, Japan. The Games also took place in the nearby mountain communities of Hakuba, Karuizawa, Nozawa Onsen, and  Yamanouuchi. The city of Nagano had previously been a candidate to host the 1940 Winter Olympics (which were later cancelled), as well as the 1972 Winter Olympics, but each time Nagano was eliminated at the national level by Sapporo.

The games hosted 2,176 athletes from 72 nations competing in 7 sports and 68 events.[2] The number of athletes and participating nations were a record at the time. The Games saw the introduction of women's ice hockey, curling and snowboarding. National Hockey League players were allowed to participate in the men's ice hockey for the first time. Five countries, Azerbaijan, Kenya, Macedonia, Uruguay, and Venezuela made their debut at the Winter Olympics.

The athlete who won the most medals at these games was the Russian cross-country skier Larisa Lazutina who won five medals, including three gold. The Norwegian cross-country skier Bjørn Dæhlie won four medals, including three gold, which took his total Olympic medal total to 12, including eight gold, which is a record for Winter Olympics. In ice hockey, professionals from the North American National Hockey League participated for the first time. Despite their participation, the Czech men's ice hockey team won the gold medal. In Ski Jumping, Kazuyoshi Funaki won two gold medals for host Japan. The American Figure skater Tara Lipinski became the youngest champion in Olympic history at the age of 15 years and 255 days. Germany dominated the medal table with 29 medals, including 12 gold. Germany was followed by Norway and Russia, who won 25 and 18 medals respectively. Canada, which finished fourth in the medal table with 15 medals, including six gold, had its most successful Winter Olympics up until that point.

The host was selected on June 15, 1991, over Salt Lake City, Östersund, Jaca and Aosta. They were the third Olympic Games and second Winter Olympics to be held in Japan, after the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo. The games were succeeded by the 1998 Winter Paralympics from 5 to 14 March. These were the final Winter Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch.

The hosting of the games improved transportation networks with the construction of the high-speed Shinkansen, the Nagano Shinkansen, now the Hokuriku Shinkansen, between Takasaki and Nagano. In addition, upgrades and new highways were built, including the Nagano Expressway and the Jōshin-etsu Expressway.[3]

Host city selection

Poster for the 1940 Summer Olympics, when the games were scheduled to be held in Tokyo.
Poster for the 1940 Summer Olympics, when the games were scheduled to be held in Tokyo.
The official poster of the 1972 Winter Olympics.
The official poster of the 1972 Winter Olympics.

In 1932, Japan won the rights to host the 1940 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. At that time, organizers of the Summer Olympics had priority in choosing the venue for the Winter Olympics the same year[a 1]. Several Japanese cities, including Nagano, prepared a bid. Sapporo was chosen; however, the games never took place because of World War II[a 2]. In 1961, Nagano declared its intention to host the 1968 Winter Olympics but lost to Sapporo, the winning Japanese bid, who lost to Grenoble, France, and Sapporo eventually won the right to host the 1972 Winter Olympics[a 3].

Japanese private sector organizations, in 1983, began publicly discussing a possible bid[a 4]. Two years later, in 1985, the Nagano Prefectural Assembly, decided to begin the process to bid, for its third time, for a Winter Olympics[a 5]. The bid committee was established in July 1986, they submitted their bid to the Japanese Olympic Committee (JOC) in November of the same year. Other Japanese cities that were bidding were Asahikawa, Yamagata, and Morioka[a 6]. June 1, 1988, the JOC selected Nagano in the first round of national voting, receiving 34 of 45 votes[a 7]. In 1989, the bid committee was reorganized, with the Japanese Prime Minister as head of the committee. The number of committee members was 511[a 8].

On February 12, 1990, the bid delegation presented its candidature at the IOC in Lausanne before Juan Antonio Samaranch1[a 9]. Other candidate cities for the 1998 Olympics were Aosta, Italy; Jaca, Spain; Östersund, Sweden; and Salt Lake City, United States, and Sochi, Soviet Union (now Russia[a 10]. The host city selection was held in Birmingham, United Kingdom, on 15 June 1991, at the 97th IOC session[a 11]. After the first round of voting, Nagano led, with Aosta and Salt Lake City tied for last. Aosta was eliminated in a run-off against Salt Lake City. After the second round of voting, Nagano led with Salt Lake City in second, and Jaca was eliminated. Following round 3, Nagano continued to lead, with Salt Lake City in second, and Östersund was eliminated. Finally, Nagano prevailed over Salt Lake City by just 4 votes in the fifth round of voting, becoming the third Japanese city to host the games after Tokyo in 1964 Summer Olympics and Sapporo in 1972[a 12]. Nagano, at 36°N, is the southernmost city in the Northern hemisphere to host the Winter Olympics (1960 Winter Olympics host Squaw Valley, California is 39°N)[a 13]. In June 1995, Salt Lake was chosen as the host of the following 2002 Winter Olympics.

Following a  2002 Winter Olympic bribery corruption scandal that erupted in the summer of 2000, Atlanta, host of the 1996 Summer Olympics, Nagano, and Sydney, host of the 2000 Summer Olympics, were suspected of similar improprieties in bidding practices[4] The Nagano Olympic bid committee spent approximately $14 million to entertain the 62 International Olympic Committee members and many of their companions. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano, after the IOC asked that the entertainment expenditures not be made public, destroyed the financial records.[5][6]

1998 Winter Olympics bidding results[7]
City Country Round 1 Run-off Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
Nagano  Japan 21 30 36 46
Salt Lake City  United States 15 59 27 29 42
Östersund  Sweden 18 25 23
Jaca  Spain 19 5
Aosta  Italy 15 29

Organization

Furuhashi Hironoshin, past president of the JOC
Furuhashi Hironoshin, past president of the JOC

Five months after the city was selected, the "Organizing Committee of the 18th Winter Olympics" was created. Eishiro Saito was selected as president of the committee. There were four Vice Presidents, Goro Yoshimura, the Governor of Nagano Prefecture, Hironoshin Furuhashi, president of the Japanese Olympic Committee, president of the Ski Association of Japan Yoshiaki Tsutsumi, Mayor of Nagano City, Tasuku Tsukada; and one director-general, Vice Minister of the Interior, Tadashi Tsuda. Tsuda was replaced by Makoto Kobayashi in 1993[a 14].

The organizing committee recognized three goals fo the games, which they referred to as "Games from the Heart": promote youth participation, coexistence with nature, create a festival with peace and friendship at its centre[a 15]. To realize the first goal, a camp bringing together 217 young people from 51 countries was created, along with the program of "One school, one country" in Nagano Prefecture[a 16]. This program organized cultural exchanges with other countries. In addition, more than 100,000 tickets were reserved for children[a 17]. For the second point, the organizers attempted to minimize the impact on their nature and the local ecosystem[a 18]. Regarding the third point, an international truce organized by the United Nations in 1997 was adopted during the games[a 19].

The Nagano Olympics Games are a link to the 21st century, inspiring our search for wisdom for the new ear, respect for the beauty and bounty of nature, furtherance of peace and goodwill. Friends worldwide are welcome to share, in the spirit of competition and fair play, the joys and glory of the XVIII Olympic Winter Games[a 20].

Economic aspects

The costs of construction and of the land of the Olympic venues totaled 106.6 billion yen,[a 21] approximately 914 million US dollars. Of this, the Japanese national government spent 51.1 billion, the Nagano prefectural government spent 29.6 billion, and the cities and towns of Nagano, 23.4 billion; Hakuba, 1 billion; and Nozawa Onsen, 1.1 billion; shared the remaining 25.5 billion[a 22]. The most expensive venue was M-Wave, which hosted the long-track speed skating events. It cost 34.8 billion[a 23]. The two ice hockey venues, Big Hat and Aqua Wing Arena cost 19.1 and 9.1 billion respectively[a 24]. The White Ring (arena), which hosted figure skating and short-track speed skating cost 14.2 billion, the Spiral, which hosted bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton, cost 10.1 billion[a 25]. Another 8.6 billion was spent on the Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium, 7 billion for Snow Harp - the cross-country skiing venue, and 3 billion for the biathlon venue at Nozawa Onsen Snow Resort[a 26].

The organizing committee financed all costs, totaling 113.9 billion yen[a 27]. It spent 99.4 billion for operational expenses, 21.6 billion for public relations, 20.7 billion for installations, 18.4 billion for telecommunications, 15.9 billion for running the competitions, and 14.4 billion for administration[a 28]. Television rights were worth 35.4 billion, and marketing earned 31.3 billion[a 29]. Ticket sales were worth 10.5 billion[a 30]. The total cost of the Nagano Games is estimated to have been US$15.25 billion (in 2015), of which the largest factor in the cost of the games was the extension of the shinkansen to Nagano. This compares, for example, with US$2.5 billion for the 2002 Winter Olympics, US$4.35 billion for the 2006 Winter Olympics, US$7.56 billion for the 2010 Winter Olympics, and US$51 billion for the 2014 Winter Olympics[8]

Transportation

A Nagano Shinkansen E2 Series "J" set in February 1998
A Nagano Shinkansen E2 Series "J" set in February 1998
Asagawa Loop Line to Iizuna Kogen Ski Area built in preparations for the Games
Asagawa Loop Line to Iizuna Kogen Ski Area built in preparations for the Games

Nagano is situated in a mountainous area of Japan that receive large snowfalls. These combined to make transportation an important challenge for the organizing committee. In addition, the athletes village was a distance of 7 kilometers from the center of the city, and sporting events were spread over five surrounding communities. Complicating matters is that many of the venues had one single road in-out, which limited possibilities and led to traffic jams[a 31].

To improve access to Nagano, the government decided to link Nagano with the high-speed shinkansen train network. The Nagano Shinkansen, now the Hokuriku Shinkansen was inaugurated five months before the start of the Games. The reduced by half the travel time between Tokyo and Nagano, to 79 minutes for 221 kilometers[a 32]. The length of the track between Takasaki Station and Nagano Station is 125.7 km, which includes 63.4 km of tunnels. The high speed train network carried 655,000 passengers during the Games[b 1].

Two highways, the Nagano Expressway and the Jōshin-etsu Expressway, were also built in the Nagano region[b 2]. In May, 1993, the 75.8-kilometer section of the Nagano Expressway was completed, and in October, 1997, the 111.4 kilometer section of the Jōshin-etsu Expressway was completed[b 3]. In addition, another 114.9 kilometers of roads within Nagano Prefecture were improved[3].

Transportation systems for the Games ran for 33 days, from the opening of the Athletes Village until February 25, 3 days after the closing ceremony. Approximately 64% of the athletes arrived between February 1 and February 6, and 74% left Nagano between February 22 and February 25[a 33]. Transportation operations were directed from a transportation centre situated at the center of the organizing committee. Two regional transportation hubs were created in Hakuba and Yamanouchi, as well as a traffic center for vehicles in Karuizawa[a 34]. The media, as well as representatives of different national Olympic committees generally were transported by car, from their arrival airport, usually Tokyo but also Kansai and Nagoya, to their lodging, either in Nagano or Karuizawa[a 35]. The members of the IOC traveled by Shinkansen[a 36].

To improve transportation for spectators, the number and hours of local trains were extended[a 37]. During the heaviest traffic days, more cars were put in service and up to 68 parking areas, for 8,000 vehicles were at available for various Olympic delegations, and another 17 parking areas for 23,000 cars for spectators. Approximately 1,200 vehicles had navigation systems which transmitted their locations in real time[a 38].

As one of the principal aims of the Games was to respect nature, many vehicles were considered ecological or semi-ecological. In addition, there were more than 100 electric vehicles, hybrid mini-buses and other environmentally-friendly vehicles[a 39].

Marketing

The emblem of the 1998 Winter Olympics consisted of a stylized snow flower with each petal representing an athlete participating in a winter sport. The figure could also represent a snowflake, or a mountain flower, which refers to the importance of the natural environment to the city of Nagano. Similarly, Tokyo used cherry blossoms in its logo for its candidature for the 2020 Summer Olympics.

Landor Associates conceived the official mascots that were used by the communication team for the Games. They consisted of four owlets, Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki, also called Snowlets. The names were chosen from more than 47,000 suggestions. Four represents the number of years between each Olympic Games, and also represent the four elements, fire, are, earth, and water.

The official poster for the Games was designed by the graphic designer Masuteru Aoba presented a thrush perched on ski poles with light in the background shining on snow-capped mountain peaks. Here, as with the emblem and the mascots, the importance of the natural environment in these Olympic Games and a desire to create harmony between athletes and the natural surroundings are shown. In addition to the official poster, a separate posted was created for the opening ceremony[a 40]. Marketing for the games cost the organizing committee 5.9 billion yen[a 41].

These Olympic Games were sponsored by 11 worldwide partners, 8 gold partners, and 18 official supports and suppliers. Marketing revenues for sponsoring or for the rights to use the emblems and mascots of the Games totaled 31.3 billion yen[a 42].

Mascots

Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki, also known as the Snowlets are the 1998 Winter Olympic mascots and are four snowy owls. They represent respectively fire (Sukki), air (Nokki), earth (Lekki) and water (Tsukki) and together they represent the four major islands of Japan.

Sponsors of the 1998 Winter Olympics

The development of Rights Packages were based on IOC policy of offering exclusive rights to a limited number of companies, with one company allowed to purchase the rights for any single product or service category, and these were based on previous Games, with adaptations for the local market[a 43]. Sponsors were permitted to use the emblem and mascots as long as consent was obtained from the IOC, JOC, and the NAOC[a 44]. Hospitality packages for sponsors included priority for accommodations, tickets, and transportation services [a 45]. The Sponsor Hospitality Village, next to the Nagano Olympic Stadium, welcomed 32,000 guests[a 46].

To promote awareness of the sponsors, advertising was done in various media from 1995, and on banners and buses immediately before the games[a 47]. Dick Pound noted, during the Games, the excellence of the marketing program, citing the "perfect example of how the private and public sectors can work together"[a 48].

The Games had 11 Worldwide Olympic Partners, eight Gold Sponsors and 18 Official Supporters and Suppliers[a 49].

Worldwide Olympic Partners Gold Sponsors Official Supporters and Suppliers
The Coca-Cola Company Amway Bridgestone
IBM Hachijuni Bank Brother Industries
John Hancock Financial KDDI ja:コロナ (暖房器具) (Corona Corp.)
Kodak Kirin Company Hanamaruki Foods
McDonald's Mizuno Corporation Hitachi Zosen Corporation
Panasonic Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Idemitsu Kosan
Samsung Electronics Seiko Japan Agricultural Cooperatives
Time Inc. Toyota Japan Airlines
United Parcel Service KOKUYO
Visa Inc. MAYEKAWA
Xerox (Fuji Xerox) Marudai Foods
Oji Paper Company
Pia Corporation
Sankosya Corporation
Snow Brand Milk Products
Tokio Marine
Tokyo Gas
Yamazaki Baking

Ticket sales

From February 7, 1997, the organizing committee put up for sale 1,286,000 tickets for the various competitions and ceremonies. The number of tickets sold was 1,149,615, which represented 89.4% of available tickets. Including people connected to the Games, the total number of spectators was 1,275,529. This number was slightly higher than in 1994 but slightly lower than the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary. Tickets sales were a success in Japan with a reservation list of 6 million. For the most popular sports, a lottery was used[a 50]. In total, ticket sales raised 10.5 billion yen for the organizing committee[a 51].

The ice hockey matches represented 295,802 tickets sold, 26% of the total. Tickets sold for alpine skiing totaled 166,092; for ski jumping, 96,000, and speed skating, 93,000. For multiple sports, ski jumping, Nordic combined jumps, freestyle skiing, all three skating disciplines, bobsleigh, and curling, as well as the ceremonies, all tickets were sold. By contrast, on 56.6% of the 146,000 available tickets for cross-country skiing were sold[a 52].

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics at US$2.2 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 56% in real terms.[9] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Nagano 1998 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, and costs of US$51[10] billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%.

Venues

Olympic Rings.svg Map of the 1998 Nagano Olympic venues within Nagano City
M-Wave interior
M-Wave interior
Hakuba Happo'one Resort
Hakuba Happo'one Resort
Nozawa Onsen Ski Resort
Nozawa Onsen Ski Resort
Mount Yakebitai
Mount Yakebitai

Sport sites

For the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan, a total of fourteen sports venues, all within Nagano Prefecture, were used. Construction of these venues, and of the Olympic Stadium which hosted the ceremonies, began in 1990 and lasted until 1997, with construction and land costs totaling 106.6 billion yen[a 53]. The most expensive venue constructed for the games was the long-track speed skating venue, M-Wave built 5 kilometers from Nagano Station. Between March 1996 and November 1997, these sites were tested with 16 different world champion events, world cups, and other international competitions to allow the organizers to prepare for the running of the Games[a 54].

Five sites, all constructed for the Games, are located in the city of Nagano. Minami Nagano Sports Park, built to serve as a baseball park, was constructed in the south section of the city, near Shinonoi Station, and approximately 9 kilometers from Nagano Station. The stadium, which held the opening and closing ceremonies, resembles a cherry blossom, a symbol of Japan[b 4]. The stadium can accommodate 50,000 with temporary stands added, but usually accommodates 35,000 spectators. Big Hat, named for its shape, was the principal site of ice hockey. Big Hat, located approximately 2 kilometers from Nagano Station, has a capacity of 10,104 spectators[b 5]. Aqua Wing Arena was the second ice hockey arena at the Games. Shaped like a wing, it had a capacity of 6000 during the Olympics. After the Games, it was modified into an interior swimming pool[b 6]. Aqua Wing is approximately 5 kilometers from Nagano Station. Its closest stations are Kita-Nagano Station and Asahi Station. M-Wave, used for speed skating, is the first indoor, long-track speed skating venue in Japan. It was built to accommodate 10,000 spectators[b 7]. The venue, which gets its name from its M-shape, representing the surrounding mountains, is approximately 5 kilometers from Nagano Station. Finally, White Ring, with a maximum capacity of 7,351 spectators, was built for figure skating and short track speed skating[b 8]. White Ring, which is used as a public gymnasium, is approximately 6 kilometers from Nagano Station.

Hakuba village is situated 50 kilometers west of the city of Nagano. Hakuba hosted three Olympics sites. Alpine skiing's Downhill, Super G and Combined were situated at Happo'one Resort. Three courses between altitudes of 840 meters and 1,765 meters were used, one for the men's, women's and Combined for both men's and women's. The site has a capacity of 20,000 spectators[b 9]. Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium was the first ski jump built in Japan with parallel 90 and 120 K-point hills. The ski jumping stadium can accommodate 45,000 spectators[b 10]. Snow Harp Kamishiro was built for cross country skiing and Nordic combined. It includes three tracks of 4.8, 4.8, and 7.8 kilometers, 6 meters wide. The stadium is another 1.2 kilometers. In total, Snow Harp has 19 kilometers of tracks. Up to 20,000 spectators can be accommodated[b 11].

Nozawa Onsen Ski Resort, in the town of Nozawaonsen, was site of biathlon. Nozawa is approximately 50 kilometers north of Nagano. At Nozawa Onsen, the stadium was built around six existing tracks. Two tracks, of 4 kilometers and 7 kilometers, were used for the Games. The stadium can accommodate 20,000 spectators[b 12].

Two sites in the town of Yamanouchi, approximately 30 kilometers northeast of Nagano, were used. Giant Slalom was held at Mount Yakebitai at Shiga Kogen Resort, at an altitude between 1,530 and 1,969 meters. The site can accommodate 20,000 spectators. Also in Shiga Kogen, at Mount Higashidate, giant slalom events in Alpine skiing and snowboarding were held[b 13]. Kanbayashi Snowboard Park was the site of the half pipe events. The track is 120 meters long and 15 meters wide, with walls of 3.5 meters. 10,000 spectators can be accommodated at Kanbayashi[b 14].

The town of Iizuna, approximately 12 kilometers northwest of Nagano, was the site of freestyle skiing and bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton at Iizuna Kogen Ski Area. 8,000 spectators can watch the free style skiing on a course that 250 meters long and 12,000 can watch the jumps[b 15]. The Spiral, which held the sledding events, was the first artificially refrigerated track in Asia. It is 1700 meters long, with a difference in height of 114 meters and 15 turns. At the Spiral, approximately 40,000 saplings, mainly beech and oak, were planted two per square meter, as part of the environmental stewardship committed during the Winter Games. The site can accommodate 10,000 spectators[b 16].

Finally, the town of Karuizawa, approximately 80 southwest of Nagano, hosted the curling events at Kazakoshi Park Arena. The venue was built as a multi-purpose venue. Its ice surface is 60 meters by 30. Its maximum capacity is 1,924 spectators[b 17]. The town of Karuizawa also hosted the equestrian events at the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first place in the world to host both the Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics.

Accommodation

Media Village at Asahi, with the M-Wave in the background
Media Village at Asahi, with the M-Wave in the background

To accommodate the athletes and officials during the Games, the Olympic Village was constructed in Imai district, approximately 7 kilometers south of Nagano Station. Along with the construction of the village, Imai Station was opened in 1997. The village was constructed by the city of Nagano as public residential housing, and loaned to the organizing committee during the Games[b 18]. The Village occupies an area that is 19 hectares, composed of 23 buildings with a total of 1,032 apartments[b 19]. Temporary restaurants and shops were also available during the Games. The Village was open from January 24 to February 25, 1998, and accommodated 3,200 people[b 20]. Because the curling arena was in Karuizawa, 90 kilometers away, a satellite village was built in Karuizawa, 7 kilometers from the arena[b 21]. It was open from February 4 to February 16, 1998. In addition, a section of the Shiga Kogen Prince Hotel, 58 kilometers from the Olympic Village, was reserved for 180 snowboarders and officials[b 22].

In addition to athletes and officials, members of the Olympic family and other personnel were housed in 900 hotels in Nagano and surrounding region, which represented 234,207 nights between January 24 to February 25, 1998. The members of the IOC stayed athletes the Kokusai 21 Hotel in downtown Nagano. In total, the Olympic family included 18,350 people. Finally, two media villages were built in the districts of Yanagimachi, near Nagano Station, and Asahi, across the street from the M-Wave[a 55].

The Games

The Olympic Torch Relay

The Nagano Olympic Torch Relay torch at the Olympic Museum in Nagano.
The Nagano Olympic Torch Relay torch at the Olympic Museum in Nagano.

The Olympic Torch was lit by sunlight during a ceremony organized by the Temple of Hera at Olympia, Greece on December 19, 1997. A Greek alpine skier started the relay towards Athens where a ceremony was held at the Panathenaic Stadium. On December 22, the flame was transported to Japan by airplane. On January 4, the 1998 Winter Olympics torch relay flame was divided into three parts in order for it to pass through every Japanese prefecture by three distinct routes: the Sea of Japan Route, the Pacific Route, and the Eastern Route. The start, on January 6, was from Okinawa, Kagoshima, and Hokkaido. By January 23, the relay had travelled through all 120 municipalities of Nagano Prefecture, and finally arrived in Nagano City on February 5. The following day, after traveling through each district of the city, the relay arrived at the central square where three former athletes passed the flames to three members of the organizing committee. These three committee members then lit a torch held by Juan Antonio Samaranch. On February 7, the flame travelled another 10 kilometers, and the figure skater Midori Ito lit the cauldron at Nagano Olympic Stadium during the opening ceremonies.

The Olympic Flame Relay in Japan was sponsored by Coca-Cola, lasted 33 days and travelled 1,162 kilometers. A group of 5.5 million people took part in relay activities. Over the distance of the relay, which was run or skied, the flame was always followed by a group of six people: the runner who carried the flame, some who accompanied the carrier, and four people in supporting roles, for a total of 6,901 people. In addition, each relay was followed by two groups of 11 vehicles and more than 20 people.

The shape of the torch represented a traditional Japanese torch called taimatsu. It was built with aluminum, was 55 centimeters long, and weighed 1.3 kilograms. The exterior of the torch was painted silver, to represent winter. Runners were blue and white uniforms symbolizing the color of the games and of snow. The runners' uniforms included logos for the Nagano Olympics and the Olympic Games, a logo of the relay, and of Coca Cola.

Participating National Olympic Committees

72 nations participated in the 1998 Winter Olympic Games for a total of 2,176 athletes, of which 787 were female and 1,389 were male. With the addition of five countries and another 439 athletes since the 1994 Winter Olympic Games at Lillehammer, Norway, these were the largest Winter Olympics ever at the time. The nations of Azerbaijan, Kenya, Macedonia, Uruguay, and Venezuela participated in their first Winter Olympic Games. Iran returned to the Winter games after a 22-year absence, and North Korea, India, Ireland, and Yugoslavia returned after 8 years. Five countries, Fiji, Mexico, San Marino, American Samoa, and Senegal, which were at the 1994 Games, did not participate in 1998.

The United States had the largest athlete delegation with 186, followed by host Japan with 156, Canada with 144, and Germany with 125.

Participating nations  Countries participating for the first time.  Previously participating countries.
Participating nations
  Countries participating for the first time.
  Previously participating countries.

The number in parentheses represents the number of athletes participating in official events.[11]

Participating National Olympic Committees

Calendar

The men's ice hockey gold medal game: Russia vs Czech Republic.
The men's ice hockey gold medal game: Russia vs Czech Republic.

The 1998 Winter Olympics were held from Saturday, February 7 to Sunday, February 22. This was 16 days and included three weekends. The number of events increased from 61 at the 1994 Winter Olympics to 68 in 1998. Two sports, curling and snowboarding were added to the program, as women's ice hockey. This increased the number of sports to seven, and the number of disciplines to 14. The sporting program started and ended with ice hockey. The first matches starting at 4:00 pm on February 7 featured Kazakstan defeating Italy 5-3, and Slovakia tying Austria 2-2. The final match was played on Sunday February 22 from 1:45 pm, and say Czech Republic defeat Russia 1-0.

Due to averse weather conditions, multiple events were delayed, including six alpine skiing races, snowboarding, and biathlon. Of these, the men's downhills was delayed five days.

All dates are in Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Event finals CC Closing ceremony
February 7th
Sat
8th
Sun
9th
Mon
10th
Tue
11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
16th
Mon
17th
Tue
18th
Wed
19th
Thu
20th
Fri
21st
Sat
22nd
Sun
Events
Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Alpine skiing pictogram.svg
Alpine skiing
1 2 2 1 2 1 1 10
Biathlon pictogram.svg
Biathlon
1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Bobsleigh pictogram.svg
Bobsleigh
1 1 2
Cross country skiing pictogram.svg
Cross country skiing
1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 10
Curling pictogram.svg
Curling
2 2
Figure skating pictogram.svg
Figure skating
1 1 1 1 4
Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg
Freestyle skiing
2 2 4
Ice hockey pictogram.svg
Ice hockey
1 1 2
Luge pictogram.svg
Luge
1 1 1 3
Nordic combined pictogram.svg
Nordic combined
1 1 2
Short track speed skating pictogram.svg
Short track
2 1 3 6
Ski jumping pictogram.svg
Ski jumping
1 1 1 3
Snowboarding pictogram.svg
Snowboarding
1 2 1 4
Speed skating pictogram.svg
Speed skating
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
Daily medal events 3 3 5 7 4 3 4 6 5 6 4 5 5 6 2 68
Cumulative total 3 6 11 18 22 25 29 35 40 46 50 55 60 66 68
February 7th
Sat
8th
Sun
9th
Mon
10th
Tue
11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
16th
Mon
17th
Tue
18th
Wed
19th
Thu
20th
Fri
21st
Sat
22nd
Sun
Total events


Ceremonies

Midori Ito, seen here in 1989, lit the cauldron during the Opening Ceremony
Midori Ito, seen here in 1989, lit the cauldron during the Opening Ceremony

Opening ceremony

The Opening ceremony took place at Nagano Olympic Stadium, Nagano, Japan, on 7 February 1998[12]. Japanese figure skater, Midori Ito, who was the first female skater to land seven triple jumps in a free skating competition, and who won the silver medal at the 1992 Winter Olympics, lit the cauldron during the ceremony.

Seiji Ozawa, a Japanese conductor, directed an orchestra from five continents[13] performing the fourth movement of the Beethoven Symphony No. 9 (Ode to Joy)[14].

In all, 2,302 athletes from 72 countries and regions participated in the competition[15], including 814 female athletes and 1488 male athletes. Both the number of participating delegations and the number of athletes participating in the competition were, at the time, the most ever.

Medals ceremony

The silver, gold and bronze medals.
The silver, gold and bronze medals.

The medal ceremonies for indoor events (skating, ice hockey, and curling) took place immediately after the finals at the venues, with the exception of the bronze medal matches for the ice hockey events which took place immediately after the bronze medal matches. For events that took place outside (skiing, biathlon, bobsleigh and luge), a simple ceremony was arranged where bouquets of flowers were awarded, and their medal ceremonies took place that evening in the Central Square in Nagano City, approximately midway between Nagano Station and Zenkō-ji[b 23]. A short fanfare of music was placed, the athletes arrived, and the medals, in the order of gold, silver, and bronze, were given with flowers[b 24]. Finally, the nationally flags of the athletes were raised, and the national anthem of the winning athlete(s) was played. In all, 167,200 people attended the medal ceremonies, which took place at 7:00 pm each night. Music and dance performances took place before and the awarding of medals[b 25].

The medals awarded to the top three finishers measured 80mm in diameter and 9.7 mm in thickness[b 26]. The gold medals weighed 256g, the silver medals weighed 250g, and the bronze medals weighed 230g[b 27]. These medals were made using a traditional Japanese lacquerware technique known as 漆器 (shikki). To make the medals, a brass core is imprinted with the design by layering gold powder onto the wet lacquer using a technique called maki-e[b 28]. On the front of the medals are borders of olive leaves, and in the center, a maki-e morning sun rises over a cloisonné emblem of the Nagano Olympics[b 29]. On the back side, the snowflower emblem of the Games sits above a maki-e image of the mountains surrounding Nagano glowing in the morning sun rise[b 30]. Artisans from the region of Kiso, Nagano handcrafted the initial lacquering, and the medal was completed at the Mint Bureau of the Japanese Ministry of Finance[b 31].

In addition to the top three athletes in each event, more than 19,000 commemorative medals were given to all athletes, offices, members of the IOC, media personnel, and others. These medals, made by the Mint Bureau in cooperation with NAOC, were made with an alloy of 90% copper and 10% zinca[b 32]. Diplomas, written in  Japanese,  French, and  English, were given to the top eight finishers in each event, and all participants received a commemorative diploma[b 33].

Closing ceremony

The closing ceremonies, like those of the opening, took place in the Nagano Olympic Stadium, with 60,000 spectators, including Akihito, the Emperor of Japan at the time, and his wife Empress Michiko. After the athletes entered with their flags, hundreds of drums were beat and a traditional hose and lion dance was presented. Tasuku Tsukada, the mayor of Nagano presented the Olympic Flag to Deedee Corradini, the mayor of Salt Lake City, the host of the 2002 Winter Olympics. This was followed by a performance from the Japanese singer Anri. The ceremony ended with the words "Sayonara, Arigato" ("Goodbye, Thank you") spoken by the commentator and a major fireworks performance.

Sports

The 1998 Winter Olympics featured 68 medal events over 14 disciplines in seven sports. This was an increase from 61 events in 12 disciplines across six sports from the 1994 Winter Olympics. Curling was the additional sport, snowboarding was an additional discipling in skiing, and women's ice hockey was added to the ice hockey program.

Biathlon

Uschi Disl of Germany, won one gold, one silver, and one bronze in the biathlon.
Uschi Disl of Germany, won one gold, one silver, and one bronze in the biathlon.

The biathlon competitions took place at Nozawa Onsen Snow Resort, north of Nagano City. The six events were the sprint, individual, and relay, for both men and women. In all, 183 athletes took part, including 96 mens and 87 women from 32 different countries. Norway and Germany each won five medals, with Uschi Disl from the latter country winning one gold, one silver,a and one bronze.

The first event was the women's 15km individual race that took place in falling snow on February 9. The surprise gold medalist was Ekaterina Dafovska from Bulgaria, who had been ranked 51st at the previous Biathlon World Cup. Her gold medal was the first-ever Bulgarian gold medal at a Winter Olympics. Her time was 54:52.0, with only one target missed. Olena Petrova from  Ukraine won the silver, 17.8 seconds behind, and Uschi Disl won the bronze, 25.9 seconds behind Dafovska.

The first men's event, the 20km individual race, took place on February 11. The Norwegian Halvard Hanevold missed his second-last target, but finished first in a time of 56:16.4. The Italian Pieralberto Carrara, who missed no targets, target, won the silver, 5.05 seconds behind. The  Belarusian Alexei Aidarov was 30.1 seconds behind the Norwegian, and won the bronze.

Bobsleigh

The bobsleigh competitions took place at the Spiral, in Iizuna, just north of Nagano City. The Spiral course measured 1700 m in length, with fifteen curves, descended 113 m from start to finish, and included two short uphill sections. The two events were the two-man and four-man, for men only. Female competitors would begin competing in the two woman events at the subsequent Winter Olympics, the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City.

In all, 156 athletes took part from 28 different countries. The bobsleigh events resulted in two ties, for the two-man gold and for the four-man bronze. This was the first time in Olympic bobsleigh history that there were ties for the medal positions. Christoph Langen and Markus Zimmermann won bronze in the two-man competition and were part of the winning four-man team. In all, Germany win one gold and one bronze;  Italy and Canada also won one gold each when the two-man team. Six team in all won medals. The first time since the 1968 Winter Olympics did more than four countries win bobsleigh medals. In addition, Germany and Switzerland were the only two countries to place two sleds in the top ten of either event[16].

The 1996 and 1997  Bobsleigh World Champions were teams from Germany and Italy respectively. However, Günther Huber and Antonio Tartaglia from Italy tied with the two-man team from Canada, Pierre Lueders: and Dave MacEachern for the gold medal, each with combined times of 3:37.24. No silver medal was awarded. The German team of Christoph Langen and Markus Zimmermann were 0.65 seconds behind, and were awarded the bronze.

In the four-man event, bad weather restricted the competition to three runs only. The German team of Christoph Langen, Markus Zimmermann, Marco Jakobs and Olaf Hampel completed the three runs in 2:39.41 for the gold medal. The Swiss team of Marcel Rohner, Markus Nüssli, Markus Wasser, and Beat Seitz finished second with a time of 2:40.01. Two teams, were awarded bronze medals after completing the three runs in 2:40.06. These were the team from Great Britain, made up of Sean Olsson, Dean Ward, Courtney Rumbolt, and Paul Attwood; and the team from France, composed of Bruno Mingeon, Emmanuel Hostache, Éric Le Chanony, and Max Robert.

Curling

Sandra Schmirler at the 1998 Winter Olympics
Sandra Schmirler at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Curling was included in the program for the Nagano Olympics in 1993 following discussions that had begun in 1992. At the time, it was considered that curling was making its official Olympic debut following its appearance as a demonstration sport at the 1932, 1988, and 199. At the Games in Nagano, both the men's and the women's curling tournament took place at Kazakoshi Park Arena in Karuizawa, Nagano, 30 minutes by bullet train (shinkansen south of Nagano City. Eight teams played a total of seven games in the round robin in both tournaments, with the four best teams going to the semifinals. Canada won gold in the women's competition and silver in the men's;  Switzerland won the gold in the men's tournament.

In the men's tournament, the Mike Harris team from Canada easily completed the round-robin tournament winning six of its seven games, only losing to the Eigil Ramsfjell team from Norway. In the semi-finals, the Canadian team defeated Tim Somerville's team from the United States by a score of 7-1; and in the other semi-final, the team from Switzerland led by Patrick Hürlimann defeated Norway 8-7. In the gold medal game, Switzerland shocked Canada by winning 9-3. In the bronze medal game, Eigil Ramsfjell's team from Norway defeated Tim Somerville's USA team by a score of 9-4.

In the women's tournament, the Sandra Schmirler team from Canada and the Elisabet Gustafson team from Sweden easily completed the round-robin tournament, with both teams winning six of their seven games. Canada only lost to the Dordi Nordby team from Norway, and Sweden's only loss was to Canada. In the semi-finals, the Canadian team defeated the team led by Kirsty Hay representing team Great Britain by a score of 6-5; and in the other semi-final, the team from Denmark led by Helena Blach Lavrsen defeated Sweden 7-5. In the gold medal game, Canada defeated Denmark by a score of 7-5. In the bronze medal game, Elisabet Gustafso's team from Sweden defeated Kirsty Hay's GB team by a score of 10-6.

Ice hockey

The ice hockey matches took place at two purpose-built arenas in Nagano City, Big Hat and Aqua Wing Arena. The ice hockey events were significant for two reasons: the first Olympic ice hockey tournament for women and the participation of professional players from the NHL, the North American professional ice hockey league. The  Czech Republic defeated  Russia in the gold medal game for the men's final, and Americans defeated Canadians in the gold medal game for the women's final.

The men's competition began on February 7 with eight teams playing in two groups of four, Group A and B, with each team playing n three games. The winners of these two groups,  Kazakhstan and  Belarus, advanced to join Groups C and D, composed of the six highest ranked men's national ice hockey teams in the world.  Russia,  Czech Republic, and  Finland were joined by Kazakhstan in Group C;  Canada,  Sweden, and  USA were joined by Belarus in Group D. On February 22, with 10,010 spectators in attendance at Big Hat, the Czech Republic defeated Russia in the gold medal game for the men's final, 1-0, with the lone goal of the match scored with 12 minutes remaining. Finland defeated Canada for the Bronze medal by a score of 3-2.

The first women's ice hockey world championship, a biennial tournament, took place in 1990. Discussions to include women's ice hockey at the 1998 games began in 1992, and it was decided to include them in the program in 1993. The tournament included six teams playing in a one-group round-robin tournament. The top two team advanced to the gold medal game, and the teams ranked third and fourth played in the bronze medal match. The favorites were the Canadians, who had won the three previous world championships, with the Americans finishing second each time. In the round-robin tournament, the Americans finished first, with the Canadians second. In the last round-robin game, the Americans handily defeated the Canadians, 7-4, with the two teams scoring nine goals in the third period. In the gold medal match, with 8,626 fans in attendance at Big Hat, the Americans defeated the Canadians 3-1. The team from  Finland defeated the team from  China 4-1.

Luge

Georg Hackl, seen here during competition at Oberhof, Germany in 2005, won gold in the men's singles luge competition.
Georg Hackl, seen here during competition at Oberhof, Germany in 2005, won gold in the men's singles luge competition.

The luge competitions took place in Iizuna, Nagano, at the Spiral (Nagano Bobsleigh-Luge Park), the first purpose-built permanent bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton track in Asia. In all, 24 nations took part in the luge events, with four countries,  India,  South Korea,  New Zealand, and  Venezuela making their Olympic debut in luge events. There were three events, men's single, women's single, and men's doubles.  Germany won all three gold medals, one silver, and one bronze. The United States won one silver and one bronze.  Italy and  Austria rounded out the medal table.

Skating

Figure skating

The figure skating events took place at the White Ring (arena), an indoor arena built for the Games in Nagano City. Medals were awarded in four events: men's and women's singles, pair skating, and ice dance.  Russia won five medals, including three gold and two silver. The USA won one gold and one silver.  France won two bronze medals. Canada won one silver, with  China and  Germany each winning one bronze.  Germany won two gold and three silver, and six medals in total.

Short track speed skating

Six short track speed skating events took place at the White Ring (arena). A total of 18 nations were representing among the skaters. Four countries won medals.  South Korea won six medals, including three gold. Canada won four medals, including two gold. Host  Japan won one gold and one silver; and  China won five silver and one bronze medal.

Speeed skating
Marianne Timmer won two gold medals in Speed skating.
Marianne Timmer won two gold medals in Speed skating.

Ten events, with 171 athletes from 25 countries took part in the long-track speed skating events that were held in Nagano City at M-Wave, Japan's first indoor, long-track speed skating venue. In all, eight countries won medals. The  Netherlands won 11 medals, including five gold and four silver. Canada, host  Japan, and the USA also won multiple medals. Twelve Olympic records and five World records were established at the Games on the ice at M-Wave. Gianni Romme and Marianne Timmer, both of the Netherlands, each won two gold medals.

On the men's side, the world record holder in the men's 500m was Hiroyasu Shimizu from Japan. Shimizu was the smallest skater at the Games, 1.62m tall. The 500m was run over two races for the first time at these Games. Shimizu was fastest in both races becoming only the second ever Japanese to win a singles title at the Olympic Games. Finishing in second and third were the Canadian skaters, Jeremy Wotherspoon and Kevin Overland, who are 1.91m and 1.84 m tall, respectively.

On the women's side, the 500 m title was won by the Canadian Catriona Le May Doan, the favorite, who beat or equalled the world record four times before the Games. Her teammate, Susan Auch, finished second. Both were coached by Susan's brother, Derrick Auch. Tomomi Okazaki, of host Japan, won the bronze medal.

Skiing

Alpine skiing

The Alpine skiing events took place at Hakuba Happoone Winter Resort in Hakuba village, 50 kilometers west of Nagano City, and at Mount Higashidate in the Shiga Highlands in Yamanouchi, Nagano, 30 kilometers northeast of Nagano City. In all, 249 athletes, 141 males and 108 females, from 49 countries, took part in the 10 Alpine skiing events, men's and women's downhill, Super-G, Giant Slalom, Slalom, and Combined.  Austria won 11 medals, including three gold.  Germany also won three gold, and six medals in total. Seven other countries also won medals, including Australia, whose Zali Steggall won that countries first ever Winter Olympics medal. The most successful athletes at these Games were Katja Seizinger from Germany, who won two gold medals and one bronze; and Hermann Maier, from Austria, who won two gold medals.

Cross-country skiing
Bjørn Dæhlie, seen here in January 2011
Bjørn Dæhlie, seen here in January 2011

The cross-country skiing events took place at Nozawa Onsen Ski Resort, in the town of Nozawaonsen, approximately 50 kilometers north of Nagano. In all, 228 athletes, including 126 men and 102 women, from 37 countries took part.  Russia won eight medals, including five gold medals, and  Norway won nine medals, including four gold medals. Six other countries also won medals, including  Finland with one gold and two bronze, and  Italy with two silver and two bronze. Larisa Lazutina from Russia won five medals, including three gold; and Bjørn Dæhlie from Norway won four medals, including three gold.

Freestyle skiing

The freestyle skiing competition was held at the Iizuna Kogen Ski Area, 12 kilometers north of Nagano. It was the third consecutive Games that freestyle skiing events took place. The four events, men's and women's moguls and aerials, involved 110 athletes from 25 countries . The  United States won three gold medals. Host Japan won one gold medal. Athletes from  Finland won a silver and a bronze medal. Six other countries took home either one silver or one bronze medal.

Nordic combined skiing

The Nordic combined events were held at the Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium and the Snow Harp, both in Hakuba village, 50 kilometers west of Nagano City. In all, 53 athletes from 14 countries, took part in the two events, individual and team.  Norway won both gold medals.  Finland won both silver medals.  France and  Russia each won one of the bronze medals.

Ski jumping skiing

The ski jumping competitions took place at the Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium in Hakuba village, 50 kilometers west of Nagano City. In all, 68 athletes from 19 countries participated. For the first time, the top 30 jumpers qualified for the second round. Host Japan won the most medals, including two gold in the large hill and large him team.  Finland,  Germany, and  Austria rounded out the medal table. Kazuyoshi Funaki from Yoichi, Hokkaido in Japan won two gold and one silver for the host country.

Snowboarding
Ross Rebagliati, seen here in 2007, won, then was disqualified, and then reinstated with the first-ever gold medal in snowboarding.
Ross Rebagliati, seen here in 2007, won, then was disqualified, and then reinstated with the first-ever gold medal in snowboarding.

This was the first Winter Olympics with snowboarding events. The events took place at Mount Yakebitai and Kanbayashi Snowboard Park in Yamanouchi, Nagano, 30 kilometers northeast of Nagano City. In all, 125 athletes from 22 countries participated in the men's and women's Halfpipe and Giant slalom. Athletes from  Germany won two medals, including one gold. Athletes from  Switzerland,  France, and  Canada also won gold medals. Three days after the men's Giant Slalom, the IOC determined that gold medalist Ross Rebagliati from Canada, was disqualified after testing positive for marijuana. It was the first time in Olympic history that an athlete was disqualified for marijuana. The Canadian Olympic Committee lodged a protest and the case quickly went to the Court of Arbitration for Sport where it was ruled that because marijuana was not a banned substance, the medal should be returned to the Canadian athlete.

Medal table

Countries participating at the 1998 Winter Olympics   Winners of at least one gold medal   Winners of at least one silver medal   Winners of at least one bronze medal    Countries without a medal   Non-participating countries
Countries participating at the 1998 Winter Olympics
  Winners of at least one gold medal
  Winners of at least one silver medal
  Winners of at least one bronze medal
   Countries without a medal
  Non-participating countries

In all, 24 of the 72 participating nations at these Games won at least one medal, as shown in the table below. A total of 15 countries won at least one gold medal and 18 nations won two or more medals. In total, 205 medals were distributed. Germany finished on top of the table with 29 medals, including 12 gold, nine silver, and eight bronze. Germany, which finished in third place in the medal standings at the 1994 Winter Olympics, won most of its medals in Alpine skiing, speed skating, and luge, in which it won all three gold medals. German female athletes won 22 of the country's 29 medals. Norway finished in second, as in 1994, with 25 medals, including nine won in cross-country skiing and five in biathlon. Russia, which finished atop the medals standing in 1994, finished in third in 1998, with 18 medals, including five gold in the women's cross-country skiing. Canada moved from seventh in 1994 to fourth in 1998 with 15 medals, and the United States remained in fifth place. Netherlands finished in 6th place, 12 places higher than in 1994, thanks to 11 medals, all in speed skating. Host Japan beat its previous record of medals at a Winter Games, with 10 medals, including five gold. Australia and Denmark each won their first ever medals in the Winter Olympics with a bronze in women's slalom and a silver in women's curling, respectively. In addition, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic each won their first gold medals at a Winter Olympics in women's biathlon and men's ice hockey respectively. Finally,  Belgium won its first Winter Olympic medal since the 1948 Winter Olympics, Kazakhstan won its first Winter Olympics medal by a female athlete.

  *   Host nation (Japan)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Germany129829
2 Norway1010525
3 Russia96318
4 Canada65415
5 United States63413
6 Netherlands54211
7 Japan*51410
8 Austria35917
9 South Korea3126
10 Italy26210
11 Finland24612
12 Switzerland2237
13 France2158
14 Czech Republic1113
15 Bulgaria1001
16 China0628
17 Sweden0213
18 Denmark0101
 Ukraine0101
20 Belarus0022
 Kazakhstan0022
22 Australia0011
 Belgium0011
 Great Britain0011
Totals (24 nations)696868205

Media

The Nagano Olympics were covered by more than 10,000 members of the media, including 8,329 accredited journalists, of which 2,586 were from newspaper media and 5,743 television and radio journalists. The Organizing Committee established Main Press Center (MPC, over two buildings, and 17 annexes throughout the different sites.

The MPC, which is today the Wakasato Civic Cultural Hall [17], was built beside Big Hat, the main ice hockey venue. The MPC had a surface area of 42,728 m2, with one principal room for 600 journalists of 1430m2 and another of 5100m2 that was rented by various press agencies[a 56].The largest press offices at the Games were Kyodo News, Associated Press, Agence France-Presse, Reuters, and Deutsche Presse-Agentur[a 57]. The MPC also included a press conference room for 600 people[a 58].

The host broadcaster for the Games, the Olympic Radio and Televisions Organization (ORTO'98) was established as a separate organization within NAOC, the organizing committee[a 59]. ORTO'98 was created between NHK, the Japanese national broadcaster, the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB), and NAOC[a 60]. A total of 1647 staff worked 386 cameras at the various venues and events [a 61], with coverage increasing by 55% over the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer[a 62]. The Games were broadcast in 160 countries, 40 more than in Lillehammer[a 63], and it was estimated that 10.7 billion viewers watched the Games over the 16-day period[a 64].

Broadcasting rights totaled 513 million US dollars, which was a record for the Winter Olympics, and all contracts with 16 broadcasting rights' holders were record sums [a 65]. This money was split 60-40 between NAOC and the IOC [a 66]. The American broadcasting network, CBS, paid 375 million US dollars, to distribute the Games in the United States.


Broadcasting rights

CBS Sports[b];  United States: In the United States, this was the last of three cycles for CBS Olympic broadcasts.

EBU (Europe), headquartered in Geneva, is composed of 117 member organizations in 56 countries. Distributers in the European national markets are listed below.

CBC;  Canada

Seven Network, Fox Sports;  Australia

TVNZ;  New Zealand

OTI; (South America)

SABC;  South Africa,

URTNA; Northern Africa

Supersport Intl; Africa (satellite broadcast)

CVM TV;  Jamaica

ABU; Asia

KBS;  Korea (satellite broadcast)

Astro;  Malaysia (satellite broadcast)

ATV; Asia (satellite broadcast)

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ The emblem represents a flower, with each petal representing an athlete practicing a different winter sport. It can also be seen as a snowflake, thus the name "Snowflower" was given to it.
  2. ^ The ordering of broadcasters in this section follows the ordering in the Official Report of the 1998 Winter Olympic Games, Vol. 1: Planning and Support[a 67].

Citations

  1. ^ "French and English are the official languages for the Olympic Games.", [1].(..)
  2. ^ "The Olympic Winter Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  3. ^ a b "Transport infrastructure provides lasting legacy of Nagano 1998". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  4. ^ Longman, Jere. "Olympics; Leaders of Salt Lake Olympic Bid are Indicted in Bribery Scandal". New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  5. ^ Jordan, Mary; Sullivan, Kevin (21 January 1999), "Nagano Burned Documents Tracing '98 Olympics Bid", Washington Post, pp. A1, retrieved 20 August 2016
  6. ^ Macintyre, Donald (1 February 1999). "Japan's Sullied Bid". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  7. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  8. ^ Baade, R. & Matheson, V. "Going for the gold: The economics of the Olympics" (PDF). Retrieved 19 April 2019.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554.
  10. ^ "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  11. ^ "1998 Nagano Winter Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  12. ^ "Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics - results & video highlights". International Olympic Committee. 8 November 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  13. ^ Super Catman (28 January 2017), 1998 Nagano Olympic Opening Ceremony, retrieved 14 April 2019
  14. ^ Strom, Stephanie (7 February 1998). "THE XVIII WINTER GAMES: OPENING CEREMONIES; The Latest Sport? After a Worldwide Effort, Synchronized Singing Gets In". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 April 2019.
  15. ^ "Japan and the Olympics: Asia's First Olympic Host" (PDF). Web Japan. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  16. ^ "Bobsleigh at the 1998 Nagano Winter Games". sports-reference.com. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  17. ^ "About Wakasato Municipal Cultural Hall". Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  1. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 30)
  2. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 30)
  3. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 30)
  4. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 31)
  5. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 31)
  6. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 31)
  7. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 32)
  8. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 32)
  9. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 32)
  10. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 32)
  11. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 34)
  12. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 35)
  13. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 36)
  14. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 43)
  15. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 11)
  16. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 11)
  17. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 11)
  18. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 11)
  19. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 12)
  20. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 30)
  21. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 185)
  22. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 185)
  23. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 185)
  24. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 185)
  25. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 185)
  26. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 185)
  27. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 59)
  28. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 59)
  29. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 59)
  30. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 59)
  31. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 234)
  32. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 240)
  33. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 237)
  34. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 235)
  35. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 238)
  36. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 236)
  37. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 236)
  38. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 248)
  39. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 247)
  40. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 110-111)
  41. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 59)
  42. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 68-77)
  43. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 72)
  44. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 72)
  45. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 73)
  46. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 73)
  47. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 73)
  48. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 73)
  49. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 75)
  50. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 81-82)
  51. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 59)
  52. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 81-82)
  53. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 184)
  54. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 162)
  55. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 258)
  56. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 174)
  57. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 171)
  58. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 174)
  59. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 188)
  60. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 188)
  61. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 190)
  62. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 188)
  63. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 188)
  64. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 188)
  65. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 71)
  66. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 71)
  67. ^ (Hanazawa 1999a, p. 71)
  1. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 309)
  2. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 301)
  3. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 309)
  4. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 128)
  5. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 219)
  6. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 224)
  7. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 213)
  8. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 217)
  9. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 187)
  10. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 204)
  11. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 201)
  12. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 232)
  13. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 192)
  14. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 201)
  15. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 207)
  16. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 228)
  17. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 234)
  18. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 240)
  19. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 240)
  20. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 238)
  21. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 250)
  22. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 251)
  23. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  24. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 138-139)
  25. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  26. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  27. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  28. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  29. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  30. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  31. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  32. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 140)
  33. ^ (Hanazawa 1999b, p. 141)


Hanazawa, Nahomi (1999). The Shinano Mainichi Shimbun (ed.). Official Report of the 1998 Winter Olympic Games, Vol. 1: Planning and Support (PDF). Translated by Norman Kong. Nagano (Japan): NAOC. p. 319. ISBN 4784098259. Hanazawa, Nahomi (1999). The Shinano Mainichi Shimbun (ed.). Official Report of the 1998 Winter Olympic Games, Vol. 2: Sixteen Days of Glory (PDF). Translated by Norman Kong. Nagano (Japan): NAOC. p. 319. ISBN 4784098267.

External links

Preceded by
Lillehammer
Winter Olympics
Nagano

XVIII Olympic Winter Games (1998)
Succeeded by
Salt Lake City
This page was last edited on 2 May 2019, at 18:57
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.