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1994 New York gubernatorial election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

1994 New York gubernatorial election
Flag of New York (1901-2020).svg

← 1990 November 8, 1994 1998 →
 
Former governor george pataki new york state photo by christopher peterson.jpg
Mario Cuomo NY Governor 1987.jpg
Nominee George Pataki Mario Cuomo
Party Republican Democratic
Alliance Liberal
Running mate Betsy McCaughey Stan Lundine
Popular vote 2,488,631 2,364,904
Percentage 48.8% 45.4%

NewYorkGubernatorial1994.svg
County Results

Pataki:      40–50%      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%      80–90%

Cuomo      40–50%      50–60%      60–70%      70–80%

Governor before election

Mario Cuomo
Democratic

Elected Governor

George Pataki
Republican

The New York gubernatorial election of 1994 was an election for the state governorship held on November 8, 1994. Incumbent Democratic Governor Mario Cuomo ran for a fourth term, but was defeated by Republican George Pataki in an upset. Pataki was described by the New York Daily News as "a little-known Republican state senator."[1] The New York Post said that "Voters had grown tired of the 12-year incumbent Cuomo and his liberalism."[2]

Pataki's victory was one of the most notable of the "Republican Revolution" that year.

Democratic primary

Only two candidates announced their intention to challenge incumbent Governor Mario Cuomo in the Democratic primary: Lenora Fulani, who had been the 1990 gubernatorial nominee of the New Alliance Party and its 1988 and 1992 presidential nominee; and Roy Innis, the National Chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality. Ultimately, Innis did not submit petitions. Fulani, however, submitted petitions and made it onto the Democratic primary ballot.[3][4] Fulani's bid was generally considered a losing effort with no hope of keeping the nomination away from Cuomo. Cuomo refused to debate her, Fulani made it plain that she wished to draw African-American voters away from the Democratic Party, and no elected officials endorsed Fulani except Adam Clayton Powell IV. Fulani was also far outstripped when it came to fundraising.[4] On September 13, 1994, Cuomo defeated Fulani handily.[5]

Candidates

Declared

Withdrawn

Results

Democratic Gubernatorial Primary Results[7]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Mario Cuomo (incumbent) 548,762 79.45
Democratic Lenora Fulani 141,918 20.55
Total votes 690,680 100.00

Republican primary

Initially, most expected U.S. Senator Al D'Amato to be the Republican and Conservative party nominee for governor in 1994. D'Amato began what looked like the beginnings of a campaign in September 1993 when he attacked Cuomo's record as governor, claiming that New York had become "the taxasaurus and spendasaurus capital of the nation." However, less than a month later, D'Amato decided not to run; he, correctly, predicted that his party might take control of the U.S. Senate in the 1994 elections, which would make him chairman of the Senate Banking Committee.

After considering other potential candidates, D'Amato--in conjunction with State GOP Chairman William Powers--endorsed the candidacy of State Senator George Pataki. Pataki was perceived as a candidate who could garner the support of the party's moderate and conservative factions.[8][9][10]

Former gubernatorial candidate Herbert London declared his candidacy on October 5, 1993. Running on a platform of tax cuts, reductions in state Medicaid and welfare payments and social conservatism, London was critical of both Cuomo and D'Amato. However, London's social conservatism and poor fundraising caused many party leaders to believe that he had no chance of defeating Cuomo.[11][12]

On January 4, 1994, Evan Galbraith, a businessman from Manhattan and former ambassador to France under the Reagan Administration, decided to explore a potential gubernatorial bid. (Galbraith had also previously been a candidate for governor in 1990, but a court declared him eligible due to residency issues.) He quickly received endorsements from several notable figures, among them Henry Kissinger and William F. Buckley, Jr.. Galbraith was considered by some as an alternative to London, holding similar positions but able to appeal to a larger base of voters. Galbraith formally declared his candidacy on April 29; by this time, however, most conservatives had coalesced around either London or Pataki.[13][14]

Pataki formally declared his candidacy on March 14, but had been actively preparing for a campaign since the previous fall with the support of D'Amato and Powers. Senate Majority Leader Ralph Marino refused to support his nomination, angry over Pataki's association with Change – New York which had worked to prevent Marino's reelection. There was also concern over Pataki's position on the abortion issue, with both pro-life and pro-choice organizations not being satisfied with his "middle-ground" approach.[15]

Former  U.S. Representative Bill Green declared his candidacy on March 18, hoping to become the moderate alternative to Pataki and London. Green claimed that he was conservative on fiscal issues while "sensibly compassionate" on social issues. His bid was badly damaged when Michael Long, Chairman of the Conservative Party, indicated that he did not believe that Green could receive Conservative support.[16]

Former State Party Chairman Richard Rosenbaum declared his candidacy on March 23. His platform was very similar to that of Bill Green but went even further, supporting Medicaid-financed abortions and tighter restrictions on guns. He also managed to create a much larger campaign chest of about $1.2 million. Rosenbaum decided against trying for an automatic ballot spot through the convention process; a Republican of the Rockefeller mold, he did not believe he could attain the required 25% of the vote. Instead, Rosenbaum opted to petition his way onto the ballot.[17][18][19]

J. Patrick Barrett, a businessman from Syracuse who was expected to join the race, dropped out on May 20 when he came to the conclusion that he could not obtain the necessary support at the state convention.[20]

At the Republican convention, Pataki won the overwhelming support of the delegates present. Herbert London, the runner-up, fell short of the 25% showing that he needed to obtain a place on the party's primary ballot.[21]

Republican State Convention Vote[21]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican George Pataki - 72.40
Republican Herbert London 22.10
Republican Evan Galbraith 2.80
Republican Bill Green 2.60
Republican Scattering 0.10
Total votes 100.00

Primary

London, Galbraith and Green were all initially determined to petition to be on the primary ballot on September 13, but efforts were made to dissuade them from doing so. In return for his support for Pataki, London was nominated for the position of Comptroller. This move allowed Pataki to secure much of London's support within both the Republican and Conservative parties. On May 31, Green withdrew from the race and endorsed Rosenbaum.

On September 13, Pataki defeated Rosenbaum in the Republican primary by a margin of 75.6–24.4%. Rosenbaum endorsed Pataki the next day.[18][21][22]

Candidates

Declared

Withdrawn

Declined

Results

Republican Gubernatorial Primary Results[23]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican George Pataki 273,620 75.60
Republican Richard M. Rosenbaum 88,302 24.40
Total votes 361,922 100.00

Conservative primary

Conservative Gubernatorial Primary Results[24]
Party Candidate Votes %
Conservative George Pataki 17,649 78.40
Conservative Robert G. Relph, Sr. 4,862 21.60
Total votes 22,511 100.00

Independence Party

Independence candidate:

  • Richard M. Rosenbaum, former Chairman of the Republican Party of New York (Initial Nominee – Withdrew September 14 – Endorsed George Pataki)[25]
  • Tom Golisano, businessman (Nominated – Added to Ballot September 28)[26]

Libertarian Party

The original Libertarian candidate was New York City radio personality Howard Stern, who announced his candidacy for governor on his nationally syndicated radio show on March 22, 1994. Stern ran on a platform of reinstating the death penalty, letting road crews work only at night, staggering highway tolls to prevent traffic jams, and vowing to resign from office as soon as these goals were accomplished. Stern won the party's nomination by a two-thirds majority on the first ballot at their state convention on April 23, 1994.[27]

Libertarian State Convention Vote[28]
Party Candidate Votes %
Libertarian Howard Stern 287 75.33
Libertarian James Ostrowski 34 8.92
Libertarian Norma Segal 24 6.30
Libertarian Dottie Lou Brokaw 22 5.77
Libertarian Joseph Brennan 10 2.63
Independent Scattering 4 1.05
Total votes 381 100.00

Stern refused to file the financial disclosures required by law of any party seeking to hold public office. He filed suit against the state of New York, arguing that the applicable law violated his right to privacy and freedom of association. When the court denied his petition for an injunction, Stern called a press conference on August 4, 1994 and withdrew from the race.[29] Robert L. Schulz, a political activist from Queensbury, New York, replaced Stern on the statewide ballot. Stern's running mate, Stan Dworkin of Westchester County, remained on the slate as candidate for lieutenant governor.[citation needed]

General campaign

Though early on in the election Cuomo led by as much as ten points, Pataki was eventually able to tie him due to his difficulty in defending his record. Pataki promised to cut income taxes by 25 percent which appealed to voters in an economic downturn.[citation needed]

One key issue in the election was capital punishment. Cuomo had long been a staunch opponent of the death penalty while Pataki supported it. In the 1980s and early 1990s most New Yorkers supported capital punishment due to high crime rates. Republican ads pointed to the case of Arthur Shawcross, a multiple murderer convicted of manslaughter who was paroled by New York in 1987 and committed additional murders while on release (during the time Cuomo was governor). This revelation caused a significant loss of support for Cuomo.[citation needed]

Polling

Source Date George
Pataki (R)
Mario
Cuomo (D)
Tom
Golisano (IF)
Buffalo News November 6, 1994 38% 42% 5%
Marist Institute November 3, 1994 40% 43% 7%
New York Daily News November 3, 1994 36% 50% 7%
New York Post/FOX-TV November 2, 1994 32% 46% -
Quinnipiac College[30] November 1, 1994 31% 44% 7%
The New York Times October 31, 1994 34% 44% -
New York Daily News/WNBC October 30, 1994 42% 43% -
New York Post/FOX-TV October 30, 1994 40% 36% -
The New York Times/WCBS-TV October 7, 1994 44% 41% -
Quinnipiac College October 2, 1994 38% 42% -
Marist Institute October 2, 1994 44% 38% -
WROC-TV/WIXT-TV September 16, 1994 41% 35% -
New York Post/Buffalo News September 11, 1994 43% 41% -

Results

While the race was very close overall, Pataki won by running up huge margins outside of New York City. Cuomo won only one county outside of the Five Boroughs, Albany County.[citation needed]

New York gubernatorial election, 1994
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican George Pataki 2,156,057 41.43%
Conservative George Pataki 328,605 6.31%
Tax Cut Now George Pataki 54,040 1.04%
Total George Pataki 2,538,702 48.79% +27.44%
Democratic Mario Cuomo 2,272,903 43.68%
Liberal Mario Cuomo 92,001 1.77%
Total Mario Cuomo (incumbent) 2,364,904 45.45% −7.72%
Independence Tom Golisano 217,490 4.18% N/A
Right to Life Robert T. Walsh 67,750 1.30% −2.10%
Libertarian Robert L. Schulz 9,506 0.18% −0.43%
Socialist Workers Lawrence Lane 5,410 0.10% −0.21%
Majority 173,798 3.34% -28.49%
Turnout 5,203,762
Republican gain from Democratic

See also

References

  1. ^ Kenneth Lovett; Larry McShane (January 5, 2015). "Mario Cuomo, former New York governor, dead at 82". New York Daily News.
  2. ^ Carl Campanile; Larry Celona; Leonard Greene (January 1, 2015). "Former New York Gov. Mario Cuomo dead at 82". The New York Post.
  3. ^ "Moynihan Won't Fight The Petitions Of Sharpton". The New York Times. July 15, 1994.
  4. ^ a b "Tilting at the Same Windmill, but on a Faster Steed". The New York Times. 11 September 1994.
  5. ^ "Pataki Easily Wins the Right to Oppose Cuomo". The New York Times. 14 September 1994.
  6. ^ "Revealed: How cult-like band exploits voter deception to wield political power in N.Y.C." The New York Daily News. December 10, 2012.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY Governor - R Primary Race - Sep 13, 1994".
  8. ^ "D'Amato, Raising Funds, Assails Cuomo's Record as Governor". The New York Times. 28 September 1993.
  9. ^ "D'Amato Skips a Race". The New York Times. 20 October 1993.
  10. ^ "Peekskill Legislator to Seek Governor Nomination". The New York Times. 10 November 1993.
  11. ^ "Conservative Is Joining G.O.P. Race for Governor". The New York Times. 5 October 1993.
  12. ^ "Candidate Seeks New Armor For Crusade Against Cuomo". The New York Times. 31 January 1994.
  13. ^ "New Gubernatorial Entry Gets Financial Backing". The New York Times. 5 January 1994.
  14. ^ "Galbraith, a Former Envoy, Enters the Gubernatorial Race". The New York Times. 29 April 1994.
  15. ^ "State Senator Pataki Formally Declares Challenge to Cuomo". The New York Times. 15 March 1994.
  16. ^ a b "Ex-Rep. Green Announces for Governor". The New York Times. 19 March 1994.
  17. ^ a b "G.O.P. Leader Will Run For Governor as 'Moderate'". The New York Times. 23 March 1994.
  18. ^ a b "Republicans and Conservatives Solidify Efforts Against Cuomo". The New York Times. 26 May 1994.
  19. ^ Sack, Kevin (1994-03-20). "POLITICAL NOTES - Seeking a Nomination Without a Party's Help". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  20. ^ Sack, Kevin (1994-05-21). "G.O.P. Race For Governor Is Narrowed". The New York Times. New York. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  21. ^ a b c "G.O.P. Backs a Legislator to Oppose Cuomo". The New York Times. 24 May 1994.
  22. ^ "Green Dropping Out Of Governor Race; Backing Rosenbaum". The New York Times. Associated Press. 1 June 1994.
  23. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY Governor - D Primary Race - Sep 13, 1994".
  24. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY Governor - C Primary Race - Sep 13, 1994".
  25. ^ "SWIPING AT CUOMO, PATAKI GIVES OUT PLAN ON GOVERNING". The New York Times. 15 September 1994.
  26. ^ "Campaign Trail; Cuomo the Ballplayer Helps Cuomo the Candidate". The New York Times. 29 September 1994.
  27. ^ "Gov. Howard Stern? Some Fail to See Humor". The New York Times. 3 April 1994.
  28. ^ "Our Campaigns - NY Governor - LBT Convention Race - Apr 23, 1994".
  29. ^ "For Stern, It's Balk Radio: He Ends Bid for Governor". The New York Times. 5 August 1994.
  30. ^ "New Poll Gives Cuomo 13-point Lead In New York". Orlando Sentinel.
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