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1994 Maryland gubernatorial election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maryland gubernatorial election, 1994

← 1990 November 8, 1994 1998 →
 
Parris Glendening speaking, September 2006 (cropped).jpg
Ellen Sauerbrey, DoS official photo.jpg
Nominee Parris Glendening Ellen Sauerbrey
Party Democratic Republican
Running mate Kathleen Kennedy Townsend Paul Rappaport
Popular vote 708,094 702,101
Percentage 50.2% 49.8%

MDCounties Gov94.svg
County Results
Glendening:      50-60%      60-70%      70-80%
Sauerbrey:      50-60%      60-70%      70-80%

Governor before election

William Donald Schaefer
Democratic

Elected Governor

Parris Glendening
Democratic

The Maryland gubernatorial election of 1994 was held on November 8, 1994. Incumbent Democratic Governor William Donald Schaefer was ineligible for re-election. Prince George's County Executive Parris Glendening emerged victorious from the Democratic primary after defeating several candidates. Former State Delegate Ellen Sauerbrey, who would also be the 1998 Republican nominee for Governor, won her party's nomination. The election between Glendening and Sauerbrey was extremely contentious; the Sauerbrey campaign challenged the results.[1] Ultimately, Glendening prevailed over Sauerbrey.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ When The Supreme Court Said Eugenics Was Fine | Buck v. Bell
  • ✪ American Election Roundup (1950)

Transcription

Mr. Beat presents Supreme Court Briefs Madison Heights, Virginia September 10, 1924 Eugenics doctor Albert Sidney Priddy, the dude in charge of the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded, requests to sterilize 18-year old patient Carrie Buck. According to Dr. Priddy, Buck had the mental age of a 9-year old, and argued that if she was allowed to have children, this would be dangerous for society. So just so we are clear here, he wanted to force her to go through a procedure so that she could never have kids because of her genetics. Wait, hold up. Let’s go back a bit, because this story is even more messed up than this. So Carrie Buck was the daughter of Emma Buck, who previously was taken away by the state from Carrie and her siblings when Carrie was a kid. Virginia confined Emma to-you guessed it-the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded for prostitution, immorality...oh and having syphilis. So Carrie grew up with foster parents, who treated her like a slave. How did Carrie also end up at the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded? Her foster parents sent her there for hopelessly bad behavior, sleeping around, and “feeblemindedness.” I’m not joking. Also, they sent her there apparently as a result of being raped by her foster mother’s nephew. Again, I am not joking. Since Carrie Buck was declared mentally incompetent to raise her child, her now former foster parents ended up adopting the baby. At 7 months old, that baby, whose name was Vivian, would also be declared “feeble-minded.” So anyway, back to Dr. Priddy trying to sterilize Carrie. He first wanted to make sure it was legal. I mean, the state had passed a law called the Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924, which allowed doctors to forcibly sterilize patients who supposedly had genetic traits that would be damaging to society if passed on to the next generation. However, the law had yet to be tested in the courts. So the board of the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded got it to happen. After ordering Buck sterilized, the board appointed her a random dude named Robert Shelton to be her guardian. He was the guardian of several of the institution’s patients and got paid for doing it, by the way. Buck’s lawyer was a dude named Irving Whitehead, who was a eugenics fan who wanted the sterilization law. Oh, and apparently he was also on the board, helping request Buck’s sterilization. In fact, he was good friends with Albert Priddy and Aubrey Strode, who represented Priddy in court. There’s no conflict of interest there! Whitehead made no effort to challenge the accusations that Buck was feeble minded, of course. Shelton appealed the sterilization to the Circuit Court of Amherst County, who agreed the sterilization should take place. Shelton appealed again to the Supreme Court of Virginia, who also agreed it should take place. So one more appeal to the Supreme Court, who heard oral arguments on April 22, 1927. By this time, Priddy had died and his successor, Dr. John Bell, now represented the Virginia State Colony for Epileptics and Feebleminded. Buck’s defense argued that she had the right to have kids because it was her right to due process of the law, and that the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment also protected that right. The Court didn’t take too long for this one. On May 2, 1927, it announced its decision. It sided with Bell, saying the Virginia Sterilization Act was constitutional. It was 8-1. The lone dissenter was Justice Pierce Butler, who did not write an opinion, but him being a devout Catholic may have played a role. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote the opinion, saying yes, Buck, as well as her mother and daughter, were indeed “feeble-minded” and “promiscuous,” and it was in Virginia’s interest to get her sterilized. So, basically, public welfare was more important than the welfare of one person’s body. A classic “greater good” argument comparing sterilization to forced vaccinations. In fact, Holmes referenced the case Jacobson v. Massachusetts, a 1904 Supreme Court decision which upheld a Massachusetts law forcing kids going to school to get the smallpox vaccine. He wrote, “It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind.” Holmes now infamously concluded by writing that “three generations of imbeciles are enough.” Wow, Wendell. Just wow, buddy. Buck v. Bell further legitimized eugenics laws throughout the United States, and several states added sterilization laws afterward. In fact, 30 states had some sort of sterilization law, and ultimately around 65,000 Americans were forced to be sterilized, most of them from poor or working class backgrounds, and many sterilized without even knowing it. At the Nuremberg trials after World War II, Nazi doctors specifically cited Holmes’ opinion in the decision to defend themselves. It certainly remains one of the most hated Supreme Court decisions ever. Buck v. Bell was never overturned. Believe it or not, it still stands, although it was later weakened by the Supreme Court case Skinner v. Oklahoma. Fast forward 75 years, and Virginia Governor Mark Warner apologized for his state’s participation in eugenics, and later some called for reparations to all the sterilization victims. So whatever happened to Carrie Buck? Well on October 19, 1927, a few months after the Supreme Court decision, Dr. John Bell personally performed the operation that prevented her from ever having children again. She was the very first person in Virginia sterilized under the new law. In order to make sure the entire family couldn’t reproduce, Carrie’s sister Doris was also later sterilized after she was hospitalized for appendicitis. Uh, yeah, she was never told about the sterilization. Doris and her husband attempted for years to have children. Only in 1980 did she find out why they were unsuccessful. Carrie’s supposedly feeble-minded daughter, Vivian, later did well in school, even making the honor roll. However, she unfortunately died from an infection when she was 8 years old. As it turns out, there was no evidence whatsoever that Carrie Buck was “feeble-minded.” Most accounts later describe her as having average intelligence. People who knew her recalled how nice she was to everyone and how much she enjoyed reading books. She lived a long life. She died in 1983, and was buried in Charlottesville, near her only child, Vivian. I’ll see you for the next Supreme Court case, jury! So what about you? Have you ever been called “feebleminded?” I...haven't surprisingly. Can you believe how ridiculous this Supreme Court case was? It’s really just so...unbelievable. Yet it's all true. It’s certainly up there with the Dred Scott Decision for worst Supreme Court decisions ever. Say...what do YOU think was the worst Supreme Court decision? Thanks to my top Patreon supporter Matt Standish for suggesting the case and thanks for watching and stuff!

Contents

Democratic primary

Candidates

Democratic primary results[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Parris Glendening 293,314 54.0
Democratic American Joe Miedusiewski 100,296 18.0
Democratic Melvin A. Steinberg 82,308 15.0
Democratic Mary Boergers 46,888 9.00
Democratic Don Allensworth 15,680 3.00
Democratic Walter Gilcrist Finch 5,369 1.00
Democratic Lawrence K. Freeman 3,518 1.00
Total votes 547,373 100.00

Republican primary

Candidates

Republican primary results[2]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Ellen Sauerbrey 123,676 52.18
Republican Helen Delich Bentley 89,821 37.90
Republican William S. Shepard 23,505 9.92
Total votes 237,002 100.00

General election

Results

Maryland gubernatorial election, 1994[3]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Parris Glendening (inc.) 708,094 50.20% -10%
Republican Ellen Sauerbrey 702,101 49.78% +10%
Write-ins 105 0.02%
Majority 5,993 0.42% -19.58%
Turnout 1,410,300
Democratic hold Swing

References

This page was last edited on 24 July 2019, at 19:50
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