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1993 in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Events from the year 1993 in the United States.

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  • ✪ Nixon v. United States Summary | quimbee.com
  • ✪ United States History: From the Arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Age of Globalization (1993)
  • ✪ The Bankruptcy of The United States - James Traficant
  • ✪ Health care in United States vs. Profits - David Himmelstein, Medical Doctor (1993)

Transcription

- [Narrator] The last time federal judge Walter Nixon stood inside a courtroom, it was not to preside over a trial, but to stand trial himself. Nixon was accused of attempting to sway authorities to drop marijuana smuggling charges against the son of Nixon's longtime friend. In exchange for getting the charges dropped, Nixon was allegedly promised oil and gas royalties from his friend's business. Nixon was convicted of perjury for lying to the grand jury. Declaring his innocence from behind bars, Nixon refused to give up his judicial commission. As a result, the House of Representatives was forced to begin impeachment proceedings against him. The impeachment power in the Constitution is divided between the House and the Senate. The House acts as the prosecutor, and the Senate acts as the jury. In Nixon's case, the House presented three articles of impeachment to the Senate. The Senate then heard evidence against Nixon and convicted him. Nixon was unhappy with how his impeachment trial went. In an ordinary trial, the jury hears all of the evidence firsthand. But the senators, pressed for time, instead appointed a committee to hear the evidence. That committee then presented the full Senate with a complete transcript of the hearing, along with a report summarizing the evidence. Based on that report, the full Senate voted to convict. After his impeachment, Nixon sued the United States, arguing that the Senate violated Article I, Section III, Clause VI of the Constitution, also known as the Impeachment Trial Clause. Nixon objected to the Senate's appointment of a committee to conduct the evidentiary hearing, arguing that the Impeachment Trial Clause required the entire Senate to hear the evidence firsthand. The District Court held that Nixon's claim presented a non-justiciable political question, and dismissed the case. The Court of Appeals agreed. The question for the United States Supreme Court was whether reviewing the Senate's impeachment proceedings presented a non-justiciable political question. The Court held that review of impeachment proceedings is a non-justiciable political question. This is because the impeachment power is constitutionally reserved to the political branches of government. Additionally, the Court found no judicially manageable standards for resolving the dispute. Chief Justice Rehnquist, writing for the Court, determined that the word "sole" in the Impeachment Trial Clause gives the Senate complete discretion to conduct impeachment proceedings. This includes the authority to make the rules that govern impeachment procedure. The court also determined that the word try in the impeachment trial clause is not precise enough for judicial application. The word is not defined in the Constitution, and contemporary dictionaries indicate that it could mean anything from a judicial trial to a simple investigation. As a result, the Court concluded that there were no judicially manageable standards for determining how the Senate must conduct an impeachment. The Court affirmed the court of appeals, and ordered Nixon's claim to be dismissed. Justice Stevens wrote a concurring opinion, arguing that the Framers deliberately gave complete impeachment power to the legislative branch. Therefore, any interference from the judiciary would be inappropriate. Justice White concurred in judgment, but disagreed with the majority that the case presented a non-justiciable question. White argued that the word "sole" in the Impeachment Trial Clause doesn't mean that the Senate is the exclusive authority on impeachment. Rather, White resented that the Framers used the term to emphasize the distinct authority of the House to prosecute impeachments, and the distinct authority of the Senate to try impeachments. In addition, White argued that the word "try" isn't ambiguous. Judges, who are experts at trying cases, are well-situated to come up with standards to determine whether Nixon had been properly tried. Although White disagreed with the majority on the political question issue, he agreed with the ultimate outcome, because Nixon's impeachment trial was constitutionally proper. Justice Souter also concurred in judgment. Souter argued that the judiciary should be allowed to review the Senate's impeachment determination in extreme cases. Souter thought judicial oversight would be needed if the Senate grossly abused its discretion. For example, the Senate might try deciding the outcome with a coin toss. In that situation, the judiciary would need to intervene. Nixon versus United States further developed the political question doctrine by emphasizing the importance of textual analysis.

Contents

Incumbents

Federal government

Events

January

January 20: Bill Clinton becomes President
January 20: Bill Clinton becomes President

February

March

April

April 19: The Waco Siege ends with a deadly fire
April 19: The Waco Siege ends with a deadly fire
April – October: The Great Flood of 1993
April – October: The Great Flood of 1993

May

  • May 1 – An outbreak of a respiratory illness later identified as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome begins in the southwestern United States; 32 patients die by the end of the year.[3][4]
  • May 5 – The West Memphis Three are three men who – while teenagers – were tried and convicted, in 1994, of the May 5, 1993 murders of three boys in West Memphis, Arkansas. Damien Echols was sentenced to death, Jessie Misskelley, Jr. was sentenced to life imprisonment plus two 20-year sentences, and Jason Baldwin was sentenced to life imprisonment. During the trial, the prosecution asserted that the children were killed as part of a Satanic ritual.

June

July

August

September

October

  • October 3 – A large scale battle erupts between U.S. forces and local militia in Mogadishu, Somalia; eighteen Americans and over 1,000 Somalis are killed.
  • October 8 – David Miscavige announces the IRS has granted full tax exemption to the Church of Scientology International and affiliated churches and organizations, ending the Church's 40-year battle with the IRS and resulting in religious recognition in the United States.
  • October 16 – U.S. President Bill Clinton sends six American warships to Haiti, to enforce United Nations trade sanctions against the military-led regime in that country.[5]
  • October 25 – Actor Vincent Price dies of lung cancer.
  • October 27 – Wildfires begin[6] in California which eventually destroy over 16,000 acres (65 km2) and 700 homes.
  • October 31 – Actor River Phoenix dies of drug-induced heart failure on the sidewalk outside the West Hollywood nightclub The Viper Room.

November

December

Ongoing

Sport

Births

Deaths

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tributes to Arthur Ashe". The Independent. 8 February 1993.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2002-10-14. Retrieved 2016-02-07.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  3. ^ Altman, Lawrence. Virus that caused deaths among Navajos is isolated, New York Times, November 21, 1993.
  4. ^ Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome – United States, 1993, Centers for Disease Control.
  5. ^ Wire services. 6 Warships From US Go To Haiti, October 16, 1993, Milwaukee Sentinel.
  6. ^ Reinhold, Robert.Thousands Flee As Brush Fires Rake California, October 28, 1993, New York Times.
  7. ^ "Eleanor Sanger Dies; TV Producer Was 63". New York Times. March 8, 1993. Retrieved 5 March 2019.

External links

This page was last edited on 5 March 2019, at 19:32
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