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1992 Summer Olympics

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Games of the XXV Olympiad
1992 Summer Olympics logo.svg
Host cityBarcelona, Catalonia, Spain [1]
MottoFriends For Life
(Spanish: Amigos para siempre, Catalan: Amics per sempre)
Nations169
Athletes9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women)
Events257 in 25 sports (34 disciplines)
Opening25 July
Closing9 August
Opened by
Cauldron
StadiumEstadi Olímpic Lluís Companys
Summer
Winter
1992 Summer Paralympics

The 1992 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992, Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad (Spanish: Juegos de la XXV Olimpiada, Catalan: Jocs de la XXV Olimpíada) and commonly known as Barcelona '92, were an international multi-sport event held from 25 July to 9 August 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. This was the first and to date only Summer Olympics to be held in the country. Beginning in 1994, the International Olympic Committee decided to hold the Summer and Winter Olympics in alternating even-numbered years. 1992 was the last year in which both the Summer and Winter Olympics were staged.[3] The 1992 Summer Games were the first since the end of the Cold War, and the first unaffected by boycotts since the 1972 Summer Games.[4] 1992 was also the first year South Africa was re-invited to the Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee, after a 32-year ban from participating in international sport.[5] The Unified Team (made up by the former Soviet republics without the Baltic states) topped the medal table, winning 45 gold and 112 overall medals.

Host city selection

Barcelona is the second-largest city in Spain and the capital of the autonomous community of Catalonia, and the hometown of then-IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch. The city was also a host for the 1982 FIFA World Cup. On 17 October 1986, Barcelona was selected to host the 1992 Summer Olympics over Amsterdam, Netherlands; Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Birmingham, United Kingdom; Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; and Paris, France, during the 91st IOC Session in Lausanne, Switzerland.[6] With 85 out of 89 members of the IOC voting by secret ballot, Barcelona won a majority of 47 votes. Samaranch abstained from voting. In the same IOC meeting, Albertville, France, won the right to host the 1992 Winter Games. Paris would eventually be selected to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Brisbane would eventually be selected to host the 2032 Summer Olympics.[7]

Barcelona had previously bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics that were ultimately held in Berlin.

1992 Summer Olympics bidding results[8]
City NOC Name Round 1 Round 2 Round 3
Barcelona  Spain 29 37 47
Paris  France 19 20 23
Brisbane  Australia 11 9 10
Belgrade  Yugoslavia 13 11 5
Birmingham  Great Britain 8 8
Amsterdam  Netherlands 5

Highlights

The Olympic cauldron lit during the Games
The Olympic cauldron lit during the Games
David Robinson shoots a free throw to help secure the gold medal for the United States "Dream Team".
David Robinson shoots a free throw to help secure the gold medal for the United States "Dream Team".

Records

Venues

Anella Olímpica from above


Medals awarded

The 1992 Summer Olympic programme featured 257 events in the following 25 sports:

1992 Summer Olympics Sports Programme

Demonstration sports

Participating National Olympic Committees

Participants
Participants
Participating countries by number of competitors
Participating countries by number of competitors

A total of 169 nations sent athletes to compete in the 1992 Summer Games.

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, twelve of the fifteen new states chose to form a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania each entered their own teams for the first time since 1936. For the first time, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina competed as independent nations after their separation from Socialist Yugoslavia, and Namibia and the unified team of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) also made their Olympic debuts.

The 1992 Summer Olympics notably marked Germany competing as a unified team for the first time since 1964. South Africa returned to the Games for the first time in 32 years.

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was banned due to UN sanctions, but individual Yugoslav athletes were allowed to take part as Independent Olympic Participants. Four then-existing National Olympic Committees did not send any athletes to compete: Afghanistan, Brunei, Liberia and Somalia.

Participating National Olympic Committees
  •  Brunei participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its delegation consisted of only one official. This also occurred in the 1988 Games.[17][18]
  •  Afghanistan didn't send their athletes to compete, but the country took part in the Parade of Nations. Apparently its flag was carried by a volunteer from the Barcelona Organising Committee.[18]
  •  Liberia and  Somalia also participated in the Opening Ceremony, but its accredited athletes (five and two, respectively) did not enter to compete.[17][18]

Number of athletes by National Olympic Committee

9,356 athletes from 169 NOCs

IOC Country Athletes
USA  United States 545
ESP  Spain 489
GER  Germany 485

Calendar

All times are in Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Gold medal events CC Closing ceremony
July/August 1992 July August Events
24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
Olympic Rings Icon.svg
Ceremonies
OC CC N/A
Aquatics
Diving pictogram.svg
Diving
1 1 1 1 1 39
Swimming pictogram.svg
Swimming
4 5 5 5 6 6
Synchronized swimming pictogram.svg
Synchronized swimming
1 1
Water polo pictogram.svg
Water polo
1
Archery pictogram.svg
Archery
1 1 2 4
Athletics pictogram.svg
Athletics
2 4 4 6 5 6 6 9 1 43
Badminton pictogram.svg
Badminton
4 4
Baseball pictogram.svg
Baseball
1 1
Basketball pictogram.svg
Basketball
1 1 2
Boxing pictogram.svg
Boxing
6 6 12
Canoeing
Canoeing (slalom) pictogram.svg
Slalom
2 2 16
Canoeing (flatwater) pictogram.svg
Sprint
6 6
Cycling
Cycling (road) pictogram.svg
Road cycling
2 1 10
Cycling (track) pictogram.svg
Track cycling
1 1 5
Equestrian pictogram.svg
Equestrian
2 1 1 1 1 6
Fencing pictogram.svg
Fencing
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Field hockey pictogram.svg
Field hockey
1 1 2
Football pictogram.svg
Football
1 1
Gymnastics
Gymnastics (artistic) pictogram.svg
Artistic
1 1 1 1 4 6 15
Gymnastics (rhythmic) pictogram.svg
Rhythmic
1
Handball pictogram.svg
Handball
2 2
Judo pictogram.svg
Judo
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 14
Modern pentathlon pictogram.svg
Modern pentathlon
2 2
Rowing pictogram.svg
Rowing
7 7 14
Sailing pictogram.svg
Sailing
2 7 1 10
Shooting pictogram.svg
Shooting
2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 13
Table tennis pictogram.svg
Table tennis
1 1 1 1 4
Tennis pictogram.svg
Tennis
2 2 4
Volleyball (indoor) pictogram.svg
Volleyball
1 1 2
Weightlifting pictogram.svg
Weightlifting
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 9
Wrestling pictogram.svg
Wrestling
3 3 4 3 3 4 20
Daily medal events 9 12 14 17 19 19 22 30 18 11 12 12 22 30 10 257
Cumulative total 9 21 35 52 71 90 112 142 160 171 183 195 217 247 257
July/August 1992 24th
Fri
25th
Sat
26th
Sun
27th
Mon
28th
Tue
29th
Wed
30th
Thu
31st
Fri
1st
Sat
2nd
Sun
3rd
Mon
4th
Tue
5th
Wed
6th
Thu
7th
Fri
8th
Sat
9th
Sun
Total events
July August

Medal count

The following table reflects the top ten nations in terms of total medals won at the 1992 Games (the host nation is highlighted).

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Unified Team453829112
2 United States373437108
3 Germany33212882
4 China16221654
5 Cuba1461131
6 Spain*137222
7 South Korea1251229
8 Hungary1112730
9 France851629
10 Australia791127
Totals (10 nations)196159169524

Broadcast rights

The 1992 Summer Olympics were covered by the following television and radio broadcasters:[19]

Terrorism

The Basque nationalist group ETA attempted to disrupt the Barcelona Games with terrorist attacks. It was already feared beforehand that ETA would use the Olympics to gain publicity for their cause in front of a worldwide audience.[20] As the time of the Games approached,[21] ETA committed attacks in Barcelona and the Catalonia region as a whole, including the deadly 1991 Vic bombing.[22][23] On 10 July 1992, the group offered a two-month truce covering the Olympics in exchange for negotiations, which the Spanish government rejected.[24] However, the Games went ahead successfully without an attack.[25]

Effect on the city

Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood
Frank Gehry's Fish sculpture in front of the Hotel Arts (left) and the Torre Mapfre (right) in the Olympic Village neighbourhood

The celebration of the 1992 Olympic Games had an enormous impact on the urban culture and outward projection of Barcelona. The Games provided billions of dollars for infrastructure investments, which are considered to have improved the quality of life in the city, and its attraction for investment and tourism.[26] Barcelona became one of the most visited cities in Europe after Paris, London, and Rome.[27][28]

Barcelona's nomination for the 1992 Summer Olympics sparked the implementation of an ambitious plan for urban transformation that had already been developed previously.[29] Barcelona was opened to the sea with the construction of the Olympic Village and Olympic Port in Poblenou. New centers were created, and modern sports facilities were built in the Olympic zones of Montjuïc, Diagonal, and Vall d'Hebron; hotels were also refurbished and new ones built. The construction of ring roads around the city helped to reduce traffic density, and El Prat airport was modernized and expanded with the opening of two new terminals.[30]

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study[31] estimates the direct costs of the Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics to be US$9.7 billion (expressed in 2015 U.S. dollars) with a cost overrun of 266%. This includes only sports-related costs, that is: (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, direct transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services; and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, and similar structures required to host the Games. Costs excluded from the study are indirect capital and infrastructure costs, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games.[31][32]

The costs for Barcelona 1992 may be compared with those of London 2012, which cost US$15 billion with a cost overrun of 76%, and those of Rio 2016 which cost US$4.6 billion with a cost overrun of 51%. The average cost for the Summer Olympics since 1960 is US$5.2 billion, with an average cost overrun of 176%.[31][32]

Songs and themes

There were two main musical themes for the 1992 Games. The first one was "Barcelona", a classical crossover song composed five years earlier by Freddie Mercury and Mike Moran; Mercury was an admirer of lyric soprano Montserrat Caballé, both recorded the official theme as a duet. Due to Mercury's death eight months earlier, the duo was unable to perform the song together during the opening ceremony. A recording of the song instead played over a travelogue of the city at the start of the opening ceremony, seconds before the official countdown.[33][34] "Amigos Para Siempre" (Friends for Life) was the other musical theme. It was written by Andrew Lloyd Webber and Don Black, and sung by Sarah Brightman and José Carreras during the closing ceremonies.

Ryuichi Sakamoto composed and conducted the opening ceremony musical score.[35] The Opening Olympic fanfare was composed by Angelo Badalamenti and with orchestrations by Joseph Turrin.

Mascot

Cobi
Cobi

The official mascot was Cobi, a Catalan sheepdog in cubist style designed by Javier Mariscal.[36]

Corporate image and identity

A renewal in Barcelona's image and corporate identity could be seen in the publication of posters, commemorative coins, stamps minted by the FNMT in Madrid, and the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Official Commemorative Medals, designed and struck in Barcelona.

See also

References

  1. ^ Catalonia is autonomous since 1979.
  2. ^ a b "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Albertville 1992". www.olympic.org. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  4. ^ "Barcelona 1992 Summer Olympics | Olympic Videos, Photos, News". Olympic.org. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  5. ^ Wren, Christopher S. (7 November 1991). "OLYMPICS; an Era Ends, Another Begins: South Africa to Go to Olympics". The New York Times.
  6. ^ "IOC Vote History". Aldaver.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
  7. ^ Miller, Judith (18 October 1986). "Barcelona gets 1992 Summer Olympics" (Archives). The New York Times.
  8. ^ "Past Olympic Host City Election Results". Archived from the original on 30 June 2011.
  9. ^ "Ciudad Olímpica: La parábola del suspiro" [Olympic City: The parable of the sigh]. La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 27 July 1992. p. 36.
  10. ^ "Ceremonial hall of shame". BBC News. 15 September 2000. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  11. ^ Official Report of the Games of the XXV Olympiad, Barcelona 1992, v.4. LA84 Foundation. 1992. p. 72. ISBN 84-7868-097-7. The arrow described an arc and lit the gas issuing from the cauldron; the flame soared up to a height of three metres.
  12. ^ "Barcelona 1992: Did you know?". IOC. 2002. Archived from the original on 4 April 2002.
  13. ^ "Hall of Famers: 1992 United States Olympic Team". Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  14. ^ "Fermin Cacho Ruiz". Olympic.org. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
  15. ^ Arnold, Chloe (11 February 2012). "Hassiba Boulmerka: Defying death threats to win gold". BBC News. Algiers.
  16. ^ Farber, Michael (30 July 1996). "On the Bright Side". CNN/SI. Archived from the original on 16 September 2000.
  17. ^ a b 1992 Olympics Official Report. Part IV (PDF). Retrieved 24 October 2012. List of participants by NOC's and sport.
  18. ^ a b c Barcelona 1992 Opening Ceremony - Full Length on YouTube
  19. ^ Miquel de Moragas, Nancy Kay Rivenburgh, ed. (1995). Television in the Olympics : international research project (illustrated ed.). James F. Larson. pp. 257–260. ISBN 978-0861965380. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  20. ^ Fussey, Pete; Coaffee, Jon; Hobbs, Dick (April 2011). Securing and Sustaining the Olympic City: Reconfiguring London for 2012 and Beyond. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 9780754679455.
  21. ^ "CTV News - CTV News Channel". www.ctvnews.ca. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  22. ^ "Spain Tackles Terrorist Threat By Basques to Olympics, Expo". Christian Science Monitor. 1 April 1992. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  23. ^ Finkelstein, Beth; Koch, Noel (11 August 1991). "The Threat to the Games in Spain". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 30 July 2018.
  24. ^ "Eta rebuffed". The Independent. 13 July 1992. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  25. ^ Thompson, Wayne C (31 August 2017). Western Europe 2017-2018. ISBN 9781475835090.
  26. ^ Brunet, Ferran (2005). "The economic impact of the Barcelona Olympic Games, 1986–2004" (PDF). Autonomous University of Barcelona. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2009.
  27. ^ Payne, Bob (6 August 2008). "The Olympics Effect". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 2 September 2008.
  28. ^ Bremner, Caroline (11 October 2007). "Top 150 City Destinations: London Leads the Way". Euromonitor International. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009.
  29. ^ Brunet, Ferran (1995). "An economic analysis of the Barcelona '92 Olympic Games: resources, financing, and impact" (PDF). Autonomous University of Barcelona. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 September 2017.
  30. ^ Beard, Matthew (22 March 2011). "Lessons of Barcelona: 1992 Games provided model for London... and few warnings". London Evening Standard. Archived from the original on 5 April 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  31. ^ a b c Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 18–20. SSRN 2804554.
  32. ^ a b Joe Myers (29 July 2016). "The cost of hosting every Olympics since 1964" (Based on working paper from The University of Oxford and Said Business School). World Economic Forum.
  33. ^ "Barcelona 92: 11 momentos inolvidables de aquellos Juegos Olímpicos (VÍDEOS, FOTOS)". The Huffington Post (in Spanish). 25 July 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2016.
  34. ^ "Barcelona 92: inicio de la ceremonia". YouTube. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  35. ^ Illness, Critical (3 September 2010). "Doreen D'Agostino Media " Ryuichi Sakamoto and Decca". Doreendagostinomedia.com. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
  36. ^ "Barcelona 1992 - Summer Games Mascots". Olympic.org. IOC. Retrieved 15 October 2015.

External links

Preceded by
Seoul
Summer Olympic Games
Barcelona

XXV Olympiad (1992)
Succeeded by
Atlanta

This page was last edited on 15 September 2021, at 18:14
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